MONITORING AND EVALUATION OUR APPROACH 1. What is monitoring and evaluation? Conceptual differences and terminologies. 2. Approaches to Monitoring and Evaluation. 3. Establishing M&E System. 4. How to do Monitoring and Evaluation. WHAT IS MONITORING? Day-to-day follow up of activities during implementation to measure progress and identify deviations Routine follow up to ensure activities are proceeding as planned and are on schedule Routine assessment of activities and results Answers the question, “what are we doing?” WHY TO MONITOR ACTIVITIES? Tracks inputs and outputs and compares them to plan Identifies and addresses problems Ensures effective use of resources Ensures quality and learning to improve activities and services Strengthens accountability Program management tool WHAT IS EVALUATION? It is a time-bound exercise that attempts to assess systematically and objectively the relevance, performance and success of ongoing and completed programmes and projects. Designed specifically with intention to attribute changes to intervention itself Answers the question, “what have we achieved and what impact have we made” Evaluation commonly aims to determine the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability of a programme or project. Relevance: The degree to which the outputs, outcomes or goals of a programme remain valid and pertinent as originally planned or as subsequently modified owing to changing circumstances within the immediate context and external environment of that programme. Efficiency: A measure of how economically or optimally inputs (financial, human, technical and material resources) are used to produce outputs. Effectiveness: A measure of the extent to which a programme achieves its planned results (outputs, outcomes and goals). Impact: Positive and negative long term effects on identifiable population groups produced by a development intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended. These effects can be economic, socio-cultural, institutional, environmental, technological or of other types. Sustainability: Durability of programme results after the termination of the technical cooperation channelled through the programme. Static sustainability – the continuous flow of the same benefits, set in motion by the completed programme, to the same target groups; Dynamic sustainability – the use or adaptation of programme results to a different context or changing environment by the original target groups and/or other groups. WHY EVALUATE ACTIVITIES Determines program effectiveness Shows impact Strengthens financial responsibility and accountability Promotes a learning culture focused on service improvement Promotes replication of successful interventions. TYPES OF EVALUATION Ex-ante Evaluation: An evaluation that is performed before implementation of a development. intervention. Related term: appraisal. Ex-post Evaluation: A type of summative evaluation of an intervention usually conducted after it has been completed. External Evaluation: An evaluation conducted by individuals or entities free of control by those responsible for the design and implementation of the development intervention to be evaluated (synonym: independent evaluation). Internal Evaluation: Evaluation of a development intervention conducted by a unit and /or individual/s reporting to the donor, partner, or implementing organization for the intervention. Formative Evaluation: A type of process evaluation undertaken during programme implementation to furnish information that will guide programme improvement. Impact Evaluation: A type of outcome evaluation that focuses on the broad, longer-term impact or results of a programme. Joint Evaluation: An evaluation conducted with other partners, bilateral donors or international development banks. Meta-evaluation: A type of evaluation that aggregates findings from a series of evaluations. Process Evaluation: A type of evaluation that examines the extent to which a programme is operating as intended by assessing ongoing programme operations. A process evaluation helps programme managers identify what changes are needed in design, strategies and operations to improve performance. Qualitative Evaluation: A type of evaluation that is primarily descriptive and interpretative, and may or may not lend itself to quantification. Quantitative Evaluation: A type of evaluation involving the use of numerical measurement and data analysis based on statistical methods. Summative Evaluation: A type of outcome and impact evaluation that assesses the overall effectiveness of a programme. Thematic Evaluation: Evaluation of selected aspects or cross-cutting issues in different types of interventions. CONFUSING TERMS Audit Appraisal Inspection Approach Major Focus Typical Question Likely Methodology Goal Based Assessing Were the goals Comparing baseline and progress (Strategic achievement of achieved? Efficiently? data; finding ways to measure Approach) goals Were they the right indicators. and objectives. goals? Decision Making Provide Is the project effective? Assessing range of options related to (System Information Should it continue? the project context, inputs, process, and Approach) How might it be product. Establishing some kind modified? of decision-making consensus. Goal Free Assessing full What are all the Independent determination of needs (Inductive range of project outcomes? What value and standards to judge project worth. Approach) impacts, intended do they have? Qualitative and quantitative and not intended techniques to uncover any possible results. Expert Use Expertise How does an outside Critical review based on experience, professional rate this informal surveying, and subjective project? insights. Participatory Stakeholder How do the Participatory Workshops. Approach Satisfaction stakeholders rate the project. M&E TOOLS Evaluating programme strategy and direction: Log- frames, Stakeholder Analysis Evaluating programme management: Horizontal Evaluation; Appreciative Inquiry Evaluating programme outputs: Evaluating academic articles and research reports; Evaluating websites; After Action Reviews Evaluating outcomes and impacts: Outcome Mapping, Most Significant Change; Episode Studies. M&E TOOLS Following is a non – exhaustive list of M&E Tools: 1. Performance indicators 2. Formal surveys 3. Rapid appraisal methods 4. Participatory methods 5. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis 6. Impact evaluation 1. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Performance indicators are measures of inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts for development projects, programs, or strategies. Uses: Setting performance targets and assessing progress toward achieving them. Identifying problems via an early warning system to allow corrective action to be taken. Problems: Poorly defined indicators are not good measures of success. Tendency to define too many indicators, or those without accessible data sources, Often a trade-off between picking the optimal or desired indicators and having to accept the indicators which can be measured using HOW TO MAKE INDICATORS 1. Identify the problem situation you are trying to address. 2. Develop a vision for how you would like the problem areas to be/look. This will give you impact indicators. 3. Develop a process vision for how you want things to be achieved. This will give you process indicators. 4. Develop indicators for effectiveness. 5. Develop indicators for efficiency . 2- FORMAL SURVEYS Formal surveys can be used to collect standardized information from a carefully selected sample of people or households. Uses: Providing baseline data against which the performance of the strategy, program, or project can be compared. Comparing different groups at a given point in time. Comparing changes over time in the same group. Comparing actual conditions with the targets established in a program or project design. 2- FORMAL SURVEYS Problems: With the exception of CWIQ, results are often not available for a long period of time. The processing and analysis of data can be a major bottleneck for the larger surveys even where computers are available. LSMS & household surveys are expensive & time-consuming. Many kinds of information are difficult to obtain through formal interviews. DIFFERENT TYPES OF SURVEY 1. Multi-Topic Household Survey (also known as Living Standards Measurement Survey—LSMS). 2. Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ). 3. Client Satisfaction (or Service Delivery) Survey. 4. Citizen Report Card. 3- RAPID APPRAISAL METHODS Rapid appraisal methods are quick, low-cost ways to gather the views and feedback of beneficiaries and other stakeholders, in order to respond to decision-makers’ needs for information. Uses: Providing rapid information for management decision-making, especially at the project or program level. Providing qualitative understanding of complex socioeconomic changes, highly interactive social situations, or people’s values, motivations, and reactions. Providing context and interpretation for quantitative data collected by more formal methods. 3- RAPID APPRAISAL METHODS Problems: Findings usually relate to specific communities or localities— thus difficult to generalize from findings. Less valid, reliable, and credible than formal surveys. 4- RAPID APPRAISAL METHODS 1. Key informant interview 2. Community group interview 3. Focus group discussion 4. Direct Observation 5. Mini surveys 4- PARTICIPATORY METHODS Participatory methods provide active involvement in decision-making for those with a stake in a project, program, or strategy and generate a sense of ownership in the M&E results and recommendations. Uses: Learning about local conditions and local people’s perspectives and priorities to design more responsive and sustainable interventions. Evaluating a project, program, or policy. Providing knowledge and skills to empower poor people. 4- PARTICIPATORY METHODS Problems: Sometimes regarded as less objective. Time-consuming if key stakeholders are involved in a meaningful way. Potential for domination and misuse by some stakeholders to further their own interests. 4- PARTICIPATORY METHODS 1. Participatory rural appraisal 2. Participatory monitoring and evaluation 5- COST-BENEFIT & COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis are tools for assessing whether or not the costs of an activity can be justified by the outcomes and impacts. Cost-benefit analysis measures both inputs and outputs in monetary terms. Cost-effectiveness analysis estimates inputs in monetary terms and outcomes in non-monetary quantitative terms. Uses: Informing decisions about the most efficient allocation of resources. Identifying projects that offer the highest rate of return on investment. 5- COST-BENEFIT & COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS Problems: Fairly technical, requiring adequate financial and human resources available. Requisite data for cost-benefit calculations may not be available, and projected results may be highly dependent on assumptions made. Results must be interpreted with care, particularly in projects where benefits are difficult to quantify. 6 – IMPACT EVALUATION Impact evaluation is the systematic identification of the effects – positive or negative, intended or not – on individual households, institutions, and the environment caused by a given development activity such as a program or project. Uses: Measuring outcomes and impacts of an activity and distinguishing these from the influence of other, external factors. Helping to clarify whether costs for an activity are justified. Informing decisions on whether to expand, modify or eliminate projects, programs or policies. Problems: 1. Some approaches are very expensive and time-consuming 2. Reduced utility when decision-makers need information quickly. 3. Difficulties in identifying an appropriate counter-factual.
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