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					          Self belief
  The role of self belief/ the
importance of the relationship
         with the self
   Liz Lowenstein, UFA National Team
       Fellows Conference 2006
Today we will aim to…
• develop our understanding of the concept
  of self belief
• develop an awareness of our own self
  belief
• explore the factors that influence the
  development of self belief
• explore strategies and approaches which
  help to foster self belief in our learners
Remember…                               SS




                   CT
                                 PR OCE




                     E
                  FL
                  RE
                         TR
                           AN
  Ground Rules                  SF
                                  ER


  Make mistakes
  Ask questions
  Share ideas
  Have fun!
So..

What is self – belief… ?

• A story…
• 20 statements test:
1) A learner with high self belief…..
2) A learner with low self belief …..
Find Someone Who…

and poster walk …
In the context of developing self
regulated learners…

• Poster walk…and thinking time

4 mins: What is self belief? Use posters to
  get inspiration..
2 mins: What are self regulated learners..?

So…How are the two related?
• “We must encourage our dreamers,
 but we must also give them
 resources, the hard facts and the
 solid materials to build their dreams
 upon.”

 Charles Clarke, Secretary of State for
 Education in Arts Professional 14th
 July 2003.
“I    am the decisive element in my classroom.
     It is my personal approach that creates the
     climate. It is my daily mood that makes the
     weather. As a teacher I possess tremendous
     power to make a child’s life miserable or
     joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an
     instrument of inspiration. I can humble or
     humour, hurt or heal. In all situations it is
     my response that decides whether a crisis
     will be exacerbated or de-escalated – a child
     de-humanised or humanised.”
Ginotti 1972
This is what we DO NOT want to happen to our

learners- lack of self belief, feeling of failure
This is what we want our learners to feel: high
self esteem and self belief!
Diamond Card sort..

• Which of these characteristics most
  represents a learner with high self
  esteem?
• Prioritise the cards…
• What have we learnt?
        Self concept

Self                   Ideal
Image                  Self



         Self esteem
Close your eyes …

• Picture a time when you had:
• a high level of energy
• focus
• openness to learning …

How did you feel??
 Sketch of your self image map..

   Your
  peaks
   and
 troughs          Try to jot down
in terms      explanations why you
 of your      felt higher or lower in
feelings            self esteem
  of self
  belief
            Your life span from 0 yrs to present
Peter Senge, 2003
• “The central practice of personal
 mastery involves learning to keep
 both a personal vision and a clear
 picture of current reality before us.
 Doing this will generate a force
 within ourselves called ‘creative
 tension’. Tension, by its nature, seeks
 resolution.”

The Fifth Discipline page 195
• "Perhaps the most important vision of
 all is to develop a sense of self, a sense
 of your own destiny, a sense of your
 unique mission and role in life, a sense
 of purpose and meaning."
Dr. Stephen R. Covey, The 8th Habit:
From Effectiveness to Greatness
In order to
understand the
development of
self belief, we need
to understand a bit
about the brain..
What are the
implications for
teaching and
learning?
• “Learned optimism works not
 through an unjustifiable positivity
 about the world but through the
 power of ‘non-negative’ thinking.”

 Martin Seligman (1988, p22.)
Becoming a self regulated learner
• Conceptions of self regulatory learning in the
    19th century
•   Dawn of 20th century- psychology emerged as a
    science- individual differences became more
    important
•   John Dewey,. E.L. Thorndike, Maria Montessori,
    all suggested ways of altering the curriculum to
    accommodate students’ individual differences
•   Late 70’s and early 80,s- new perspective-
    metacognition and social cognition (see research
    p2)
Research..
• Social cognitive researchers interested in social
    influences on self regulation..
•   Those who set specific and proximal goals
    displayed superior achievement and perceptions
    of personal self efficacy..
•   Spontaneous improvements through recording
•   Thus… “self awareness can produce a readiness
    that is essential for personal change”
Contemporary research reveals that the self
 motivated quality of self regulated
 learners depends on several underlying
 beliefs, including perceived efficacy and
 intrinsic interest. (see p 3 Zimmerman,
  The structure of self- regulatory
             processes
According to social learning psychologists
3 phases:

1) Forethought phase
2) Performance phase
3) Self reflection phase
(see p 4 Zimmerman)
                   Forethought
                      Phase
                    Task analysis
                   Self -motivation




Self reflection                       Performance
phase                                 phase
  Self judgment                         Self-control
   Self reaction                      Self observation
    Tapping students motivation to
    learn- Traits of self directed
    learners
• Student motivation.. Complex and broad concept
• Goal orientation- a narrower concept
• Self efficacy- “people’s judgements of their capabilities to
    organize and execute course of action required to attain
    designated types of performances” (Bandura, 1996)
•   Locus of control- “the tendency students have to ascribe
    achievements and failures to either internal factors that they
    control (effort, ability, motivation) or external factors that are
    beyond control (chance, luck, others’ actions)
•   Meta cognition
•   Self regulation
An experiential activity to get us
thinking and talking and acting…
Dealing with Feelings…

    Be careful what you say!
                   What I hear
                                            Reinforces


Triggers



    How I behave                  What I think
                                  about myself

                                 Controls


             Whether you think you can, or think you
                   can’t- you’re right!
                       Henry Ford
     How feedback can influence actions
Feedback and experiences


                                                Which
                           Which generate
    Generate               responses such as:   strongly
    emotions                                    influences
                           •Anticipation        whether an
                           • Cynicism           individual
   Which Generate:                              will be
                           • Optimism           motivated
      •Thoughts
                           • Confidence         to take
      •Opinions                                 action or
                           • Frustration        not
     • Decisions
                           • Confusion
Dealing with Feelings…

               What is the voice
               inside you saying?

                               I want to
     I love                     do this!
   learning!

                 I can’t do                       I hate
                    this!                       learning!


                              I don’t want to
                                  do this!
      What do I say when they say….
Activity:
Using post it notes, think of as                       Everyone will
many positive responses to
some of the negative things                            laugh at me!
you might hear from learners.

                                   I’m no good at
                                        this!

                                                    I can’t be
                                                    bothered!
                    It’s too hard!
Effective Feedback
Feedback can be divided into two main
types:


         Motivational feedback

         Corrective feedback
   Rosenthal and Jacobsen’s Pygmalion in
                  the classroom
    The power of Teachers’ expectations
•Teachers’ internalised views of students’
capabilities have a direct impact on students’
actual performance

•Students were grouped randomly, but teachers
were told they were different in ability

•The results of the ‘low achievers’ went down
   Rosenthal identified six ways in which the
  teachers communicated high expectations:

•The teacher expressed confidence in her ability to help
the student.
•The teacher expressed confidence in the students’
ability.
•Her non verbal signals were consistent with what she
said: tone of voice; eye contact; level of energy
•Feedback from teacher was specific and ample and
mentioned both good and bad
•The teacher gave detailed input to individual students
•The teacher encouraged individual improvement
through challenge
           MMotivational feedback
s

       • Make reference to the behaviour you are pleased about
       • Consider the components of a full praise statement
       • Make your feedback interesting
• Vary the frequency
• As a general rule, give feedback as quickly as possible ‘after
the event’
• Make sure the message is received
• Pitch your feedback at the right emotional level
• Give some thought to non- verbals
 Corrective feedback

•Remember you need to think about WHAT is
said and HOW it is said
•It is very easy to make corrective
feedback unhelpful. The key aim is to
make the corrective feedback HELPFUL
Corrective feedback
•Remember that your team members are valuable-
make them feel good- focus on their strengths!
•Refer to past successes in dealing with a problem
•Use ‘when/then’ rather than ‘no/because’
•Recognise feelings and emotions
•Use humour
•Refer to the behaviour that is required
•Refer to the positive rather than the negative
 The wider context:
The BASI(C)S model
               B elonging
              A spirations
                 S afety
                 I dentity
              (Challenge)
                S uccess
   From Alistair Smith: Accelerated Learning in the Classroom
   Our Deepest Fear - Nelson Mandela
Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate.
Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure
It is our Light, not our Darkness, that most frightens us.
We ask ourselves, who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented,
    fabulous?
Actually, who are you NOT to be? …
Your playing small does not serve the World.
There is nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people
    won’t feel insecure around you.
We were born to make manifest the glory of God that is within us.
It is not just in some of us; it is in everyone.
As we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people
    permission to do the same.
 As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically
    liberates others.
     Nelson Mandela Inaugral Speech, 1994

				
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