ROME

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					                    EARLY ROME
   Founded 753 B. C.
      By Romulus & Remus, twin sons of the god

       Mars and Latin princess.
      Abandoned along the Tiber River and raised

       by a wolf.
    Rome was built near the spot where the boys were
     left
    Or maybe - It was fertile land, protected by hills, near
     the Tiber river.
             ROME
The Roman Republic

                     The Roman Empire

The Rise of Christianity in Rome

                   The Decline of Rome

Roman Influence on Western Civilization
               EARLY ROME
 From1000 – 500 B.C. three groups
 inhabited and eventually fought for
 control of Rome.
    The Latins – shepherds and farmers, built
     the original settlement of Rome

    The Greeks – founded colonies along the
     Italian coast

    The Etruscans – native to northern Italy,
     skilled metal workers & engineers
           ROMAN REPUBLIC
 From Last Etruscan King (Tarquin the Proud)
         To The Roman Republic
 Tarquin driven from power


 Romans  pledged never to
 be ruled by a king again
 Roman  aristocrats establish a republic
 in which the power rests in the hands of
 citizens who vote on their leadership.
                    The Republic
   Patricians held most of the
    power
       land owning aristocrats
       inherited their power
       believed their ancestry gave them
        right to rule
   Plebeians
       farmers, artisans, merchants
        (majority)
       citizens of Rome with the right to
        vote
       barred by law from holding certain
        positions
       formed their own assembly
                     The Republic
   Tribunes – elected representatives of the
    plebeians
       elected to protect the rights of the plebeians from
        unfair acts of the patricians
       eventually plebeians gained additional rights


    Twelve Tables – Roman written code of
     law
        _ laws carved on twelve tablets
        _ displayed in the Forum (public/gov’t center)
        _ idea that all free citizens had the right to
        protection under the law
         The Republic
Government Under The Republic
*Executive – 2 consuls elected by the
 assembly for a one year term, one
 for government, one for the military.
 (A dictator could be named during a
 time of crisis for a 6 month term.)
            The Republic
*Legislative – Senate – 300 member
 aristocratic members chosen for life to
 advise consuls, control foreign and
 financial policies.
 Centuriate Assembly – Citizen soldiers,
 members for life, select consuls, and
 make laws.
 Tribal Assembly – grouped by where they
 live, serve for life, elect Tribunes and
 make laws.
             The Republic
*Judicial – 8 judges chosen for one year
 by Centuriate Assembly. Two to oversee
 criminal and civil courts and 6 to oversee
 the provinces
               The Republic
*Roman Army – all land owning
  citizens required to serve
  - organized into legions (5,000 armed
  soldiers)
  - divided into groups of 80 (called a
  century)
Each century in the legion could act
  independently with specialized skills
  then return to the fighting legion.
The power of the Roman army was
  key to Rome’s rise to greatness.
      ROME SPREADS ITS POWER
 Romans eventually conquered all of Italy,
 except the Po Valley
    different laws for the various conquered
     peoples
    Latins became full citizens of Rome
    Provinces – people were given Roman rights
     except the right to vote
    Allies – all others were considered allies of
     Rome. Rome did not interfere with the allies
     as long as they
           • Pay taxes
           • Sent troops to the Roman Army
           • Did not make treaties with any other state
      Commercial Trade
 Established  extensive trade network
  throughout the Mediterranean.
 Traded with conquered groups as
  well as those outside Roman control.
 Powerful cities around the
  Mediterranean challenged Rome for
  trade.
 Rome challenged by Carthage for
  control of Sicily.
                   The Punic Wars
FIRST PUNIC WAR
      For control of Sicily, lasted 23 years
     ended with the defeat of Carthage
     first overseas province, rich grain
SECOND PUNIC WAR
  -   avenge the loss of Sicily
  -   led by Hannibal who assembled an army of 59
      thousand men and 60 war elephants
  -   to surprise Rome he entered from the Alps
  -   fought in Italy for 10 years
  -   Scipio (Roman General) decided to attack Carthage
      in order to force Hannibal back to Carthage
               The Punic Wars
Third Punic War
    Roman Senate determined that Carthage
     “must be destroyed”
    149 B. C. Rome laid siege to Carthage
    Carthage burned
    50,000 citizens sold into slavery
    Land plowed up and salted to insure to total
     destruction of Carthage
ROME WON CONTROL OF THE
 MEDITERRANEAN.
 {Could the destruction of Carthage be a show
   or power? A message to others that would
   challenge Rome?}
            THE ROMAN EMPIRE
   PROBLEMS
    1.Widening gap between rich & poor
     large agricultural estates – *latifundia

     huge slave population working on the *latifundia

     slaves = 1/3 of Roman population

    2.Small farmers could not compete and sold to the
      larger estate owners
     many of the small farmers became homeless/jobless

     some moved to cities but found little or no work




    Corruption among the rich,
    Discontent among the poor
THE ROMAN EMPIRE
    COLLAPSE OF THE REPUBLIC
        Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus tried to
         help the poor of Rome only to die
         violent deaths.
        Civil War followed.
        War led to the development of
         strong military leaders such as Julius
         Caesar.
                *soldiers gave loyalty to
         leaders rather
                 than to Rome
     •   Gaius Marius & Lucius Sulla – two
         leaders who fought the civil war.
          THE ROMAN EMPIRE
CAESAR TAKES CONTROL
*Caesar joined with Crassus
 (wealthy aristocrat) and
 Pompey (military leader) to
  take control of Rome.
Together they served as the *
First Triumvirate of Rome.
*Caesar served one year as
  consul and then appointed
  himself governor of Gaul.
  (FRANCE)
 He led the campaign to conquer
  Gaul. His success in Gaul
  made him popular in Rome.
        THE ROMAN EMPIRE

*Fear of Caesar’s increasing power –
  Senate - order to disband his army
       - return to Rome
 Caesar - defied the Senate
         -led a civil war against Pompey’s
          troops
        - defeated them in Europe & Asia
*He returned to Rome and was named dictator.
         THE ROMAN EMPIRE
Caesar’s Reforms
   granted citizenship to many in the provinces
   expanded the Senate (friends & supporters)
   created jobs for the poor
   started colonies for the landless poor
   increased soldier’s pay
Caesar’s Assassination
-   killed in the Senate by Marcus Brutus, Gaius
    Cassius and other senators who feared him
    and considered him a tyrant.
-   CIVIL WAR FOLLOWED CAESAR’S DEATH
       (marking the official end of the Roman Republic)
        THE ROMAN EMPIRE
 Octavian became ruler of Rome &   changed
 his name to Augustus
 - grandnephew/adopted son of Caesar
 - name meaning Exalted One

 - First Emperor of Rome
         THE ROMAN EMPIRE
   Octavian, Mark Antony, & Lepidus became
    the 2nd Triumvirate
          +   ended in jealousy & violence
          +   Lepidus forced to retire
          +   Octavian & Mark Antony – rivals
          +   Mark Antony had married Cleopatra
          +   Octavian defeated Antony to Egypt
          +   Antony & Cleopatra killed themselves


     Octavian claimed he would restore the Roman Republic,
     but was not able to.
           THE ROMAN EMPIRE


PAX ROMANA

    207 year period of peace & prosperity
    Rome included 3 million square miles
    Population of 60 – 80 million
    Economy based on agriculture & trade
    Use of a common currency
    Trade networks linked by roads, built mostly
     by Roman soldiers, even as far a China (Silk
     Roads)
            THE ROMAN EMPIRE
                      Life in Rome
Values – discipline, strength, and beauty
Family – Paterfamilias, father of the family, power to rule
     the family, control property, etc.
Women – ran household, were given respect, could own
     property and testify in court, but not vote.
Roman Citizens – were entertained by the government
     in places like the Colosseum. They were also
     supplements of food and necessities.
             THE ROMAN EMPIRE
MANAGEMENT OF THE EMPIRE
    From Spain to Mesopotamia, from North Africa to
     Britain
    Provinces included many peoples, languages,
     cultures, religions, & customs
    Augustus
      • stabilized the frontier
      • glorified Rome with buildings
      • created systems of government
      • established a civil service system


      Augustus was considered a good ruler.
       after his death, his adopted son, Tiberius,
       became ruler.
            THE ROMAN EMPIRE
Emperors & Succession
     Peace and prosperity depended on transfer
      of power, which was not established in
      written law.
     Civil War was a possibility at the death of an
      emperor to establish a new ruler
     Often emperors were assassinated and
      quickly replaced by a choice of the military
      leadership.
     During the age of the empire, there were
      some rulers who reigned only few months
      and others where were mentally disturbed
            THE ROMAN EMPIRE
          Rise of Christianity in Rome
   Rome controlled Judea – Home of the Jews

   Jews allied with Rome to “Romanize” Jerusalem

   Ruled by Herod, a harsh Romanized Jew

   Upon Herod’s death, Jewish revolt for 10 years

   Rome took strict control of the Jewish kingdom
        THE ROMAN EMPIRE
          Rise of Christianity in Rome
         To restore order the Sanhedrin was
         given control in local and religious
         matters.

               JEWS DIVIDED
Zealots – to rid Jerusalem of Romans

Others – waiting for the promised Messiah to
come to restore the kingdom of the Jews
        THE ROMAN EMPIRE
     The Rise of Christianity in Rome
        Jesus was both Jew and Roman
Jesus’ Teachings
    Monotheism – one true God
    Principles of the Ten Commandments
    God’s personal relationship with mankind
    God would end wickedness in the world
    and establish an eternal kingdom for those
    who would turn from their sins and believe
    in God
         THE ROMAN EMPIRE
     The Rise of Christianity in Rome

Jesus
*called 12 disciples -   students to learn the
things he was teaching
*history of Jesus’ teachings - found in Gospels,
the first four books of the N. Testament
*apostles - those who wrote about Jesus’ life
           THE ROMAN EMPIRE
    The Rise of Christianity in Rome
Jesus
 Believed by many to be the Messiah
 Ignored wealth & status, appealed to
  many
Jesus’ Death
Was proclaimed Messiah/King of the Jews
Popularity challenged Roman authority
Sentenced to be crucified
Three days later his body was gone
  (Gospels)
Began appearing to followers & later
  ascended into heaven
          THE ROMAN EMPIRE
      The Rise of Christianity in Rome
                Christian Legacy
 Followers believe Christ triumphed over death.


    Peter, the first apostle, helped spread the
   teachings of Christ and was later considered
        the first pope of the Roman Church.

      Paul, one of Christ’s followers, greatly
      influenced the spreading of Christianity
           through out the Roman world.
          THE ROMAN EMPIRE
  The Rise of Christianity in Rome
                   Christian Legacy
                          PAUL
~first a persecutor of Christians
~after conversion, spread Christianity with
     the help of the Roman road system
~wrote letters called epistles, to groups of
     believers
~universality of the message won many converts
           The Roman Empire
 Jewish   Rebellion
     66 A. D. Zealots rebelled against Rome
     70 A. D. Romans destroyed the Jewish
      temple in Jerusalem leaving only the
      western (Wailing Wall) wall
     DIASPORA – Jews driven from their
      homeland
     Jewish stronghold of Masada held out
      until 73 A.D.
     1/2 million Jews killed by the Romans
               The Roman Empire
          The Rise of Christianity in Rome

   Second Jewish Rebellion in 132 A. D.
   Jewish attempt to break free of Roman rule
   ½ million more Jews killed
   Judaism survived but the Jewish state did not
   Rome took over Judea
   Christians were persecuted, thousands died
   Christians used as scapegoats for the problems
    of Rome
                The Roman Empire

          The Rise of Christianity in Rome
   Many died as Christian martyrs under the
    persecution of Nero and other harsh emperors

   Thousands executed for failing to worship
    Roman gods.

   Despite the persecution, Christianity became a
    powerful religious force

 By the late 3rd century there were millions of
 Christians in Rome
                     The Roman Empire
The Rise of Christianity in Rome

   Church Organization
       Oldest existing institution in the world
        today
         • Priests – pastor of local congregation
         • Bishop – supervised several local churches
         *Archbishops – oversee several groups of local
           churches
         *Cardinals – oversee several groups of
           archbishops
         • Pope – the “Father” or head of the Christian
           church
         • * = positions added later in history
                 The Roman Empire
        The Rise of Christianity in Rome
   Constantine became ruler of Rome
     Fought others to rule Rome

     Prayed for divine help, then saw a “cross of

      light” and ordered crosses placed on the
      shields of his army and won the battle
     Converted to Christianity

     313 A. D. Constantine legalized Christianity

       • Issued The Edict of Milan – which allowed
         Christianity to be one of the recognized religions
         of Rome
          The Roman Empire
Constantine
 moved the capital of Rome to
 Byzantium and renamed the capital
 Constantinople.

Constantinople was known as the
    “crossroads of the world”
                 The Roman Empire
           The Rise of Christianity in Rome
   Problems Among Christians

       Disagreements about beliefs
       Different regions mixed Christianity with
        local beliefs and practices
       Beliefs that appeared to contradict church
        teachings were called heresy.
       Constantine called for an end to the disputes
        and issued the Nicene Creed which defined
        the basic beliefs of the church.
              The Roman Empire
              The Decline of Roman

Diocletian – ~ruler of Rome “Divided
                the empire”
             ~restored order to the
                empire
             ~doubled the size of
                the army using
                mercenary soldiers
            ~ordered workers to
                stay in their job
            ~divided Rome into
                Greek speaking
                East, and Latin
                speaking West
             The Roman Empire
              The Decline of Rome
     Problems Facing The Roman Empire
1. POLITICAL *political office was a burden
             *military interferences in politics
             *civil war and unrest
             *division of the empire
             *moving the capital to Byzantine
2. SOCIAL    *decline in interest in politics
             *low confidence in the empire
             *disloyalty &lack of patriotism
             * corruption & class division
             The Roman Empire
              The Decline of Rome

3. ECONOMIC – poor harvests
              disruption of trade
              no war plunder, drain of gold
              inflation
              crushing taxes
4. MILITARY - threat from northern tribes
              low military funds
              problems recruiting soldiers
              decline in military patriotism
                 The Roman Empire
                The Decline of Rome

   Invasions of the Western Empire
      Occurred over many years

      Germanic tribes historically occupied the

       northern boundaries
      376 -476 the tribes invaded Roman territory

      Visigoths, Vandals, Franks, Angles, Saxons,

       all invaded the north
      Huns, led by Attila, conquered other tribes

       (may have been fleeing plague) and
       eventually invaded both the east and west
       The Roman Empire
           Final Defeat of Rome


 Emperor became powerless
 Last emperor deposed, sent into exile
 Germanic tribes fought each other
 Roman control in the west was lost


 The East, Byzantine Empire, survived and
  prospered
 Lasted an additional thousand years
             THE ROMAN EMPIRE
HUNS – fierce Mongol nomads from Central Asia
      - destroyed everything in their path
 Huns indirectly responsible for the Germanic invasions.
 Likely the Germanic tribes were fleeing the Huns
 The Huns attacked both the Western & Eastern Empires.
 Huns attacked Rome.
 Pope negotiated their withdrawal.
Called the scourge of God.
Put his brother to death to take leadership.
Conquered many people from Asia through Europe.
Compelled conquered people to serve in his army.
Attacked Constantinople, but lack of technology caused
his defeat.
                 The Roman Empire

        Roman Roots in Western Civilization
Legacy of Rome
  Art and Architecture Greco- Roman Culture
     Roman sculpture, utilitarian, arches, domes
       bas-relief, frescos, and mosaics
  Literature – Virgil, The Aeneid, epic poetry
  Language – Latin, language of learning, root of
      Romance languages – English, Spanish, Italian
  Law – equal treatment under the law, innocent until
      proven guilty with burden of proof on accuser,
      punished only for actions, & law can be changed

				
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