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					Nationalism in Europe

           Ch. 10.3
       Austria-Hungary
              &
     the Ottoman Empire
                    Intro.
• Bell Work
  – Explain the following quote:
  – “The enemy of my enemy is my friend”


• Flash Back
  – What is the name for the area of a map where
    the symbols are explained?
           Concluding 10.2
    2 Steps to German Unification
• Step 1 – The Austro-Prussian War
  – Bismarck makes a behind-the-scenes deal with
    Italy
  – Bismarck promises Italy the territory of Venetia
  – Persuaded France to stay neutral
  – Provoked Austria into war by sending troops
    into the Austrian state of Holstein
  – Prussia wins the short war with their superior
    military.
  – The German Confederation that had joined
    Austria to Prussia was destroyed.
           Concluding 10.2
    2 Steps to German Unification
• Step 2 – The Franco-Prussian War
  – Germany still not fully united; South German
    states were still not in the Confederation
  – Dispute over the territories of Alsace & Lorraine
    (in SW Germany near France) sparked
    nationalism in the south.
  – With the help of the southern states Germany
    defeated France
  – Germany was united!
             German Empire
• Germany was now a formidable power in Europe

• Railways connected the states & paved the way for
  Industrialization

• 1st Reich – Holy Roman Empire

• 2nd Reich - 1871 Germany prospered & developed
  into a strong empire under Bismarck & Wilhelm I.
• Federalist Government – power was shared
  between the states & the federal government.

• Bismarck thought that the R.C.C. posed a threat to
  his government.
• Said that the government not the church should
  control aspects of culture (i.e. education)
• Kulturkampf – “the struggle for culture”
• Social Reform
  – German socialists protested the working
    conditions of factories & called for reform.
  – Bismarck sought to reduce socialism’s appeal to
    the people & instead enacted many of his own
    reforms (benefits for health, accidents, old age,
    & disability).
         The Plot Thickens…
• Bismarck still felt France was a threat

• He allies with Austria-Hungary, Italy, &
  Russia with a pact to help protect one
  another from a possible attack by nations
  outside their circle.
     10.3 – Austria Hungary & The
            Ottoman Empire
• After the Congress of Vienna, Austrian emperor
  Franz I & his foreign minister Prince Metternich
  worked to maintain the power of the Austrian
  Empire & the Hapsburg monarchy.

• Carlsbad Decrees –
  – Created a system of censorship and investigation of
    nationalist groups (particularly within universities)
Tienanmen Square Protests
         China 1989
              Troppau Protocol
"States, which have undergone a change of government due
  to revolution, the result of which threaten other states,
  ipso facto cease to be members of the European Alliance,
  and remain excluded from it until their situation gives
  guarantees for legal order and stability. If, owing to such
  alterations, immediate danger threatens other states the
  powers bind themselves, by peaceful means, or if need be,
  by arms, to bring back the guilty state into the bosom of
  the Great Alliance."
         Congress of Troppau
• 1820
• Prince Metternich
• Austria, Prussia, Russia agreed to work
  together against nationalist revolutions in
  Europe
• Great Britain & France Refused
  – Why?
    An Emperor’s New Groove?
• 1848 – revolutions in France, Italy, &
  German states set off revolts in the Austrian
  Empire

• Metternich resigned due to rebellion in
  Vienna

• New Emperor Franz Joseph I
• Revolution in Hungary – people of many
  different nationalities lived in the Austrian
  Empire

• Magyars (an ethnic group) fought for
  independence

• Russian czar sent troops to help Austria
  crush the revolt.

• Franz Joseph I abolished liberal reforms
  enacted in 1848, including the new
  constitution.
            Dual Monarchy
• Franz Joseph I could not stop the nationalist
  movement

• Change came to the Austrian Empire in the
  form of a dual monarchy known as Austria-
  Hungary
            Dual Monarchy
• Compromise of 1867 – Austria (more
  industrialized) & Hungary (more agrarian)
  became 2 separate but equal states both
  ruled by the Austrian Emperor (lasted until
  1918).

• They shared the ministries of war, finance,
  & foreign affairs.

• Each had its own parliament.
        The Ottoman Empire
• “Turkish state that was the dominant power
  in the eastern Mediterranean from the 16th
  to the 19th century. It was broken up at the
  end of World War I, and its Anatolian
  heartland became the modern Republic of
  Turkey.” --- www.unitedstraming.com
                     The Rise of the
                     Ottoman Empire




The Decline of the
Ottoman Empire
       The Eastern Question
• What was to become of the European lands
  of the Ottoman Empire in the wake of the
  decay of Ottoman power?

• How should Europe prop up the Ottoman
  Empire in order to curb Russian expansion?
        The Eastern Question
• One time problem in European diplomacy

• It arose in the late 18th century as a by-
  product of the state system designed to
  preserve the European balance of power.
             Crimean War
• Erupted from a dispute between Catholics &
  Orthodox Christians in Palestine.

• Britain, France, & Ottoman Turks vs.
  Russia
              Crimean War
• Accomplishments:
  – Lasted 2 Years

  – Ended in Stalemate

  – ½ million deaths

  – Emergence of Florence Nightingale (read on
    page 325).
             The Balkan Wars
• Young Turks – 1908 nationalist group
  – Began a revolution in Turkey
  – Opposed the sultan (ruler of the Ottoman Empire)
  – Gained a more representative, liberal govt. and more
    individual freedoms


• Russia got involved
  – They wanted to gain a route to the Mediterranean Sea

				
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