• The Mountain Pine is a high-altitude European pine, found in the Pyrenees and Balkan Peninsula mountains from mostly 1,000m to 2,200m, occasionally as low as 200 m in the north of the range in Germany and Poland, and as high as 2,700m in the south of the range in Bulgaria or in the Pyrenees. There are major two subspecies- Pinus mugo and Pinus mugo uncinata. Both subspecies have similar foliage, with dark green leaves in pairs, 3-7cm long. The cones are nut-brown, 2.5-5.5cm long, symmetrical, thin-scaled and matt texture in subsp. mugo, asymmetrical with thick scales on the upper side of the cone, thin on the lower side, and glossy, in subsp. uncinata. • The Scots Pine, (family Pinaceae), is a species of pine native to Europe and Asia. In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000m, while in the south of its range, it is a high altitude mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600m altitude. It is readily identified by its combination of fairly short, blue-green leaves and orange-red bark. The Scots Pine is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 25m in height and 1m trunk diameter when mature. The bark is thick, scaly dark grey- brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches. The lifespan is normally 150–300 years. • Pinus peuce is a species of pine native to the mountains of Bulgaria and The Balkan Peninsula. Growing typically at 1,000-2,200m altitude. It often reaches the alpine tree line in this area. The mature size is up to 35–40m height, and 1.5m trunk diameter. It is a member of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus. Macedonian Pine cones are mostly 8–16cm long, occasionally up to 20cm long, green at first, becoming yellow-brown when mature, with broad, flat to downcurved scales. The 6–7mm long seeds have a 2cm wing and can be wind-dispersed. It’s also a popular ornamental tree in parks and large gardens, giving reliable steady though not fast growth on a wide range of sites. It is very tolerant of severe winter cold, hardy down to at least -45°C, and also of wind exposure. • Spruces are large trees, from 20-60m tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small peg-like structure called a pulvinus. Spruce is one of the most important woods for paper uses, as it has long wood fibres which bind together to make strong paper. Spruces are cultivated over vast areas for this purpose. Also, spruce is useful as a building wood. Spruce wood is used for many purposes, ranging from general construction work and crates to highly specialised uses in wooden aircraft and many musical instruments. • Bilberry is any of several species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium-family Ericaceae. The species most often referred to is Vaccinium myrtillus, but there are several other closely related species. Bilberries are found in very acidic, nutrient-poor soils. One characteristic of bilberries is that they produce single or paired berries on the bush instead of clusters, as the blueberry does. The fruit is smaller than that of the blueberry but with a fuller taste. Bilberries are darker in colour, and usually appear near black with a slight shade of purple. While the blueberry's fruit pulp is light green, the bilberry's is red or purple, heavily staining the fingers and lips of consumers eating the raw fruit. • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is a small procumbent woody groundcover shrub 5-30cm high. The leaves are evergreen, remaining green for 1-3 years before falling. The fruit is a red berry. The leaves are shiny, small, and feel thick and stiff. They are alternately arranged on the stems. Undersides of leaves are lighter green than on the tops. New stems can be red if the plant is in full sun, but are green in shadier areas. Older growth stems are brown. In spring, they have white or pink flowers. Bearberry has historically been used for medicinal purposes. • Festuce is a genus of about 300 species of perennial tufted grasses, belonging to the grass family Poaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution, although the majority of the species are found in cool temperate areas. Fescues range from small grasses only 10cm tall or less with very fine thread-like leaves less than 1mm wide, to tall grasses up to 2m tall with large leaves up to 60cm long and 2cm broad. The fescues are used in soil erosion control programs, most notably the tall fescue. They are also used as feed for horses. • Agrostis gigantea, known by its common name Redtop, is a perennial grass of the Agrostis genus. It generally does well in response to fires, due to survival of rhizomes and seeds. This species is similar to Agrostis stolonifera, with the key difference being that the latter has stolons. In fact the two are sometimes treated as a single species.
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