Plants and Animals by yurtgc548


									• The Mountain Pine is a high-altitude European pine,
  found in the Pyrenees and Balkan Peninsula mountains
  from mostly 1,000m to 2,200m, occasionally as low as 200
  m in the north of the range in Germany and Poland, and
  as high as 2,700m in the south of the range in Bulgaria or
  in the Pyrenees. There are major two subspecies- Pinus
  mugo and Pinus mugo uncinata. Both subspecies have
  similar foliage, with dark green leaves in pairs, 3-7cm
  long. The cones are nut-brown, 2.5-5.5cm long,
  symmetrical, thin-scaled and matt texture in subsp.
  mugo, asymmetrical with thick scales on the upper side
  of the cone, thin on the lower side, and glossy, in subsp.
• The Scots Pine, (family Pinaceae), is a species of pine
  native to Europe and Asia. In the north of its range, it
  occurs from sea level to 1,000m, while in the south of its
  range, it is a high altitude mountain tree, growing at
  1,200–2,600m altitude. It is readily identified by its
  combination of fairly short, blue-green leaves and
  orange-red bark. The Scots Pine is an evergreen
  coniferous tree growing up to 25m in height and 1m trunk
  diameter when mature. The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-
  brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on
  the upper trunk and branches. The lifespan is normally
  150–300 years.
• Pinus peuce is a species of pine native to the mountains
  of Bulgaria and The Balkan Peninsula. Growing typically
  at 1,000-2,200m altitude. It often reaches the alpine tree
  line in this area. The mature size is up to 35–40m height,
  and 1.5m trunk diameter. It is a member of the white pine
  group, Pinus subgenus Strobus. Macedonian Pine cones
  are mostly 8–16cm long, occasionally up to 20cm long,
  green at first, becoming yellow-brown when mature, with
  broad, flat to downcurved scales. The 6–7mm long seeds
  have a 2cm wing and can be wind-dispersed. It’s also a
  popular ornamental tree in parks and large gardens,
  giving reliable steady though not fast growth on a wide
  range of sites. It is very tolerant of severe winter cold,
  hardy down to at least -45°C, and also of wind exposure.
• Spruces are large trees, from 20-60m tall when mature,
  and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and
  conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are
  attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each
  needle on a small peg-like structure called a pulvinus.
  Spruce is one of the most important woods for paper
  uses, as it has long wood fibres which bind together to
  make strong paper. Spruces are cultivated over vast
  areas for this purpose. Also, spruce is useful as a
  building wood. Spruce wood is used for many purposes,
  ranging from general construction work and crates to
  highly specialised uses in wooden aircraft and many
  musical instruments.
• Bilberry is any of several species of low-growing shrubs
  in the genus Vaccinium-family Ericaceae. The species
  most often referred to is Vaccinium myrtillus, but there
  are several other closely related species. Bilberries are
  found in very acidic, nutrient-poor soils. One
  characteristic of bilberries is that they produce single or
  paired berries on the bush instead of clusters, as the
  blueberry does. The fruit is smaller than that of the
  blueberry but with a fuller taste. Bilberries are darker in
  colour, and usually appear near black with a slight shade
  of purple. While the blueberry's fruit pulp is light green,
  the bilberry's is red or purple, heavily staining the fingers
  and lips of consumers eating the raw fruit.
• Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is a small procumbent woody
  groundcover shrub 5-30cm high. The leaves are
  evergreen, remaining green for 1-3 years before falling.
  The fruit is a red berry. The leaves are shiny, small, and
  feel thick and stiff. They are alternately arranged on the
  stems. Undersides of leaves are lighter green than on the
  tops. New stems can be red if the plant is in full sun, but
  are green in shadier areas. Older growth stems are
  brown. In spring, they have white or pink flowers.
  Bearberry has historically been used for medicinal
• Festuce is a genus of about 300 species of perennial
  tufted grasses, belonging to the grass family Poaceae.
  The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution, although the
  majority of the species are found in cool temperate areas.
  Fescues range from small grasses only 10cm tall or less
  with very fine thread-like leaves less than 1mm wide, to
  tall grasses up to 2m tall with large leaves up to 60cm
  long and 2cm broad. The fescues are used in soil erosion
  control programs, most notably the tall fescue. They are
  also used as feed for horses.
• Agrostis gigantea, known by its common name Redtop, is
  a perennial grass of the Agrostis genus. It generally does
  well in response to fires, due to survival of rhizomes and
  seeds. This species is similar to Agrostis stolonifera, with
  the key difference being that the latter has stolons. In fact
  the two are sometimes treated as a single species.

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