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					            Article Questions:
1. has Israel made its mind up whether or not it
  will attack?
2 How is the international community currently
  punishing Iran?
3. When do we think Israel may attack Iran?
4. Does the U.S. support or oppose an Israeli
  attack?
5. How do we think Iran would respond to an
  attack by Israel?
6. How would the U.S. be affected if Israel
  attacked Iran?
Fast Draw…What’s going on with
      Israel and the Arabs?
Use the following link to provide a
  brief background history of the
    state of Israel prior to 1947.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/flash/0
          ,,720353,00.html
Israel
         • Current Pop – 6.8
           million
         • 81% Jewish
         • Claimed by both
           Jews and
           Palestinians.
      Terms and Locations to Know
•   Diaspora                Zionism
•   Palestine               Jerusalem
•   West Bank               Gaza (Israel withdraws in 2005)
•   Sinai Peninsula         Golan Heights
•   Arab Israeli War 1948   Suez Crisis
•   Abdel Nasser            6 Day War
•   PLO                     Yasser Arafat
•   Anwar Sadat             Yom Kippur War
•   Camp David Accords       Intifada
•   Hamas
           Pre-Israeli Creation
• Throughout the early 1900s Britain occupied
  much of the Middle East
  – Egypt = interest in Suez
  – Iran – keep supply lines with USSR open during
    WWII
  – Syria and Iraq
  – Palestine
European Influence through the years
             Creation of Israel
• Britain reverses Balfour Declaration in 1939.
  (need Arab oil) Decide to create an Arab
  Palestinian state.
• Brit basically closes Palestine to Jews.
• 1946 Zionists begin terror war against Brits
• 1947 Britain leaves Palestine to the U.N.
• U.N. votes to create a 2-state solution.
• Jerusalem will be an international city, shared
  by all.
• Jews accept the plan but Arabs do not.
2 State Partition
 Plan of 1947.
              Arab Israeli War 1948
• Israel declares independence in 1948. David Ben-Gurion = 1st
  PM
• Arabs are furious.
• U.N. troops withdraw in 1948 and neighboring Arab countries
  attack.
• Israel wins in 1949 and gains land.
   – Around Gaza (controlled by Egypt)
     Around West Bank(controlled by Jordan)
   – And in the North
• Palestinian refugee crisis begins: hundreds of thousands are
  now displaced.
• Land taken is now settled by Jews…when settlements are built,
  people tend not to leave on their own.
Arab Israeli War 1948 Look at the land gained by the Jewish
state after the war (even though it is in a different language)
Jordanian artillery shelling
    Jerusalem in 1948
     The Suez Crisis 1956 (AKA Sinai War)
• Cold War Time period so remember the U.S. and
  USSR are in competition for countries
• General Abdel Nasser = Egyptian President
• June 1956 Britain hands control of canal over to
  Egypt.
• Nasser refuses to let Israeli ships through
• Nasser signs arms deal with Czechs (acting for
  USSR).
• U.S. counters with deal to help finance an Egyptian
  dam.
• Nasser angers U.S. and we withdraw the offer.
          Suez Crisis Continued
• Nasser is furious = nationalizes canal
• Brits, Fr, and Israel hatch a plan to retake the
  canal. (Nationalization threatens their oil supply)
• Israel invades and takes the Sinai.
• Brit and France come to Israel’s aid. U.S. is caught
  off guard by attacks.
• U.N. demands a cease-fire and conflict ends. U.N.
  troops are called in to keep the peace.
• Israeli ships are allowed back through.
Suez Canal – connects the
Mediterranean to the Red
  Sea and Indian Ocean
Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
Awesome site for information about the 6-Day War. Very easy to understand
Gamal
Abdel
Nasser
                 6 Day War
• Border disputes arise between Israel and Syria
  and Jordan (Golan Heights Region)
• Terror attacks, and disputes over water
  escalate the conflict.
• Nasser backs his Arab neighbors and cuts
  Israel’s port on the Gulf of Aqaba.
• Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian forces mobilize
• June 5 1967 Israel launches a preemptive
  attack.
          6 Day War Continued
• Israel takes in 6 days of fighting
   – The Sinai Peninsula and Gaza from Egypt
   – The Golan Heights from Syria
   – The West Bank from Jordan
   – East Jerusalem from Jordan who has controlled it
     since 1948.
• Many Palestinians lose faith in the ability of
  Arab countries to recapture their land.
• In response many turn to terrorism and the
  PLO
    Israel now controls the Western
      Wall, one of its holiest sites.
•   “For some two thousand years the Temple Mount was forbidden to the Jews. Until you came
    — you, the paratroopers — and returned it to the bosom of the nation. The Western Wall, for
    which every heart beats, is ours once again. Many Jews have taken their lives into their hands
    throughout our long history, in order to reach Jerusalem and live here. Endless words of
    longing have expressed the deep yearning for Jerusalem that beats within the Jewish
    heart..You have been given the great privilege of completing the circle, of returning to the
    nation its capital and its holy center...Jerusalem is yours forever.”
    –Commander Motta Gur to his brigade upon their recapture of Jerusalem’s Old City and
    holy sites

•   I felt truly shaken and stood there murmuring a prayer for peace. Motta Gur’s paratroopers
    were struggling to reach the Wall and toudh it. We stood among a tangle of rugged, battle-
    weary men who were unable to believe their eyes or restrain their emotions. Their eyes were
    moist with tears, their speech incoherent. The overwhelming desire was to cling to the Wall,
    to hold on to that great moment as long as possible.”
    –Chief of Staff Yitzchak Rabin
The Western Wall aka Wailing Wall
             Western (Wailing) Wall
• Constructed in 19 BC by Herod the Great
• Wailing wall translated means “Weeping Wall” like crying. Named
  this because they cry due to the destruction of The Temple Mount
• The wall basically served as a retaining wall for the hill the temple
  was built on.
• The Temple of Solomon was built on the Temple Mount and
  destroyed in 586 BC by the Babylonians.
• A second temple was built in 516 BC but it was destroyed in 70 AD
  by the Romans along with the rest of Jerusalem.
• This wall is all that remains of the Holy Temple
• Jews come to the wall to pray because it is the closest they can
  come to the “gate of heaven” that was located in the “Holy of
  Holies” in the Temple where they believe God resided on Earth.
Men and Women are separated at the
 wall due to Orthodox Jewish beliefs
 Prayers are
inserted into
 the wall on
   slips of
   paper.
Six Day War
Israel before and after the 6 Day War
         Yom Kippur War 1973
• New Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and
  Syria plan war against Israel.
• Attack on Yom Kippur – Holiest of Jewish days
• Egypt wants back Sinai and Syria the Golan
  Heights held by Israel since 1967.
• Israel is 1st caught off guard but eventually
  pushes further into Egypt and Syria.
• All sides now want peace.
Yom Kippur War
          More Modern Topics
• Research the Camp David Accords: Explain
  what they were and why they were so
  important.
• How do you think the Camp David Accords
  would have effected the Palestinians?
  (opinion)
          More Modern Topics
• What was the Palestinian Intifada?
• Why did the Israelis often look like the “bad
  guys” during the Intifadas?
         More Modern Topics
• What were the Oslo Accords?
• What did they do?
                    Today
• What is the Palestinian Authority?
• Who is its leader today?
          Camp David Accords:
• 1977 Sadat visits Israel and surprises the
  world.
• U.S. president Jimmy Carter begins to
  negotiate a peace deal.
• He invites Sadat and Israeli President Begin to
  Camp David.
• Camp David Accords signed by Egypt and
  Israel
• Peace is reached on Israel’s SW border but
  not with the Palestinians.
The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
 • Camp David = Peace with Egypt but what about the
   Palestinians?
 • PLO is the Palestinian political and military wing.
 • It is recognized representation of the Palestinians by
   the U.S. and U.N.
 • Largely made up of Palestinian refugees
 • Yasser Arafat was the leader until his death in 2004.
 • This group carried out many terror attacks against
   Israel and participated in the Intifadas.
 • Eventually a peace agreement was reached with the
   Oslo Accords.
   Is a 2 state solution possible?
• 60 Minutes Video
             Palestinian Intifada
• Literally means “shaking” in Arabic
• Violent uprising of young Palestinians against Israelis
  over occupied grounds.
• 1st one lasted from 1987 thru 1993. A second one
  began in 2000 and went through ? (many say it
  ended in 2006)
• An estimated 1,100 Palestinians were killed by Israeli
  forces and 164 Israelis were killed by Palestinians in
  the 1st.
• Protestors are made up of Palestinian refugees.
• Sometimes it is nonviolent protest, sometimes rock
  throwing, sometime rocket launching.
Invasion and Intifada
    12-year-old Palestinian Muhammad al-Durrah became an icon of the
Palestinian uprising in 2000 when he was killed on September 30, 2000 after
being caught in a crossfire. Controversies continue over whether Palestinians
   or the Israeli Defense Forces killed him, or whether he even died at all
       Current Situation as of 2010
• Gaza and the West Bank are currently under the
  governance of the Palestinian National Authority
• Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem anger
  Palestinians (and are considered illegal by the
  U.N.).
• What to do with 4.6 million refugees in Jordan,
  Lebanon, Syria, West Bank and Gaza.
• Constant Palestinian terrorism that often prompts
  strong Israeli military responses.
• Israel restricts and sometimes cuts off trade into
  Gaza and the West Bank
• Still working towards a two state solution.
PNA and Israeli
    Flags
POINTS OF
TENSION IN
JERUSALEM




 1 Gilo: 850 homes approved for publication and planning objections in Nov 2009
 2 Pisgat Zeev: 600 homes approved for publication and planning objections in Jan 2010
 3 Sheikh Jarrah: Several Palestinian families evicted in past 18 months to make way for Jewish
 settlers after court ruled in ownership dispute
 4 Ramat Shlomo: 1,600 homes approved for publication and planning objections in Mar 2010
 5 Silwan: Demolition orders on 88 Palestinian homes built without difficult-to-get permits - Israel
 planning controversial renewal project
 6. West Bank barrier: Making Palestinian movement between West Bank and Jerusalem harder -
 Israel says it's for security
Israeli Military

        • Military known as the Israeli
          Defense Force (IDF)
        • One of the most modern
          militaries in the world.
        • Compulsory military service for
          both males and females
           – Males = 3 years
           – Females = Less than 2
           – Both are fighters
Why are Israel and the U.S. such close
                allies?
• Strategic importance = location in the Middle
  East…both also actively fight terror and share
  intelligence
• Political ties with Jewish businessmen and
  Washington
• Share similar values (freedom, free market,
  etc. [Cold War ties]) and similar religious
  backgrounds.
Great site for summing up the Israeli
         Palestinian conflict
Interactive site that explains it all
      plus good intro video

				
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