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# Notation

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```									Notation
The Staff

A set of five horizontal lines and four spaces, on
which note symbols are placed to indicate their
pitch.
Letter Names

*The pitches are referred to by
the first seven letters of the
alphabet
Clefs
•   A clef is a symbol placed at the beginning of a line
of music that establishes the letter names of the
lines and spaces of the staff

*Treble Clef
*Bass Clef
*C Clef
Treble Clef
a.k.a the G clef

g     a   b   c   d    e   f
f

Lines = Every Good Boy Does Fine
Space= FACE
Bass Clef
• a.k.a the F clef

Lines = Great Big Dogs Fight Animals
Space= All Cows Eat Grass
Leger Lines
• Go beyond the limit of the staff
C Clef
The C clefs are a set of movable clefs that designate middle c

Where the “intendish”
part is, that’s middle C
Octave Identification
<- Standard

• Alternate system of octave identification: Each octave is numbered beginning with
A0 for the lowest 3 notes on the piano extending go C8 for the highest note
Accidentals
• Symbols that are placed to the left of the note heads to indicate the raising
or lowering of a pitch

#:     Sharp – raises pitch by a half step
: Flat – lowers pitch by a half step

: Natural – cancels previous accidental

: Double Flat- lowers pitch 2 half steps

: Double Sharp – raises pitch 2 half steps
Intervals
•   The relationship between two tones
•   ½ is the smallest
•   Count the note you start on and the one you finish on
•   Take the key you’re in into consideration

Ex. The interval between C and E is a major third

The interval between A and F is a minor sixth
Enharmonic Equivalents
• Tones that have the same pitch but different names

• ex. F and E#
•      C# and Db
Notation Duration
The Tie
• A curved line that connects two adjacent notes of the same pitch into a single sound with a duration
equal to the sum of both note values
The Dot
• A dot lengthens the note by half its value
• A double dot lengthens the note by half the value of the second
dot
Meter
• Recurring patterns of strong and weak beats
• Indicated by meter signature
(Time Signature)

•Top number = number of beats in a
measure
*Bottom number = what type of note gets
one beat
The C stands for
common time which
means 4/4
Compound Meter
• Each pulse is a dotted note which is divided into groups of three
parts.

6/8 , 9/8, 12/8
Asymmetrical Meters
• When the pulse cannot be divided into equal groups

5/4, 5/8, 7/4, 7/8
Syncopation
• If a part of the measure that is usually unstressed is accented
Dynamics
• Indicate the general volume or level of intensity

Sudden accent on a single note
or chord

Crescendo (cres.) to gradually get louder
Direction of Notes
• If the note is above the middle line the stem goes down
• If the note is below the middle line the stem goes up
• When the note is in the middle the stem generally goes down except when the notes
around it are opposite.
• When notes are on leger lines the stems extend to the middle line
Beams

• When a note is connected by beams the beams are slanted to cross no more than one line of the staff

• When two melodies share the same staff the beams and stems go in the opposite direction

• Group the beats together to make reading the music easier

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