; Notation
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  • pg 1
              The Staff

A set of five horizontal lines and four spaces, on
which note symbols are placed to indicate their
                                  Letter Names

*The pitches are referred to by
the first seven letters of the
•   A clef is a symbol placed at the beginning of a line
    of music that establishes the letter names of the
    lines and spaces of the staff

                                                       *Treble Clef
                                                       *Bass Clef
                                                       *C Clef
    Treble Clef
          a.k.a the G clef

      g     a   b   c   d    e   f

       Lines = Every Good Boy Does Fine
       Space= FACE
Bass Clef
 • a.k.a the F clef

  Lines = Great Big Dogs Fight Animals
  Space= All Cows Eat Grass
                         Leger Lines
• Go beyond the limit of the staff
                                       C Clef
The C clefs are a set of movable clefs that designate middle c

                                                         Where the “intendish”
                                                         part is, that’s middle C
                         Octave Identification
                                                                   <- Standard

• Alternate system of octave identification: Each octave is numbered beginning with
  A0 for the lowest 3 notes on the piano extending go C8 for the highest note
• Symbols that are placed to the left of the note heads to indicate the raising
  or lowering of a pitch

      #:     Sharp – raises pitch by a half step
               : Flat – lowers pitch by a half step

               : Natural – cancels previous accidental

                   : Double Flat- lowers pitch 2 half steps

                   : Double Sharp – raises pitch 2 half steps
•   The relationship between two tones
•   ½ is the smallest
•   Count the note you start on and the one you finish on
•   Take the key you’re in into consideration

                                              Ex. The interval between C and E is a major third

                                              The interval between A and F is a minor sixth
                Enharmonic Equivalents
• Tones that have the same pitch but different names

• ex. F and E#
•      C# and Db
Notation Duration
                                            The Tie
• A curved line that connects two adjacent notes of the same pitch into a single sound with a duration
  equal to the sum of both note values
                           The Dot
• A dot lengthens the note by half its value
• A double dot lengthens the note by half the value of the second
• Recurring patterns of strong and weak beats
• Indicated by meter signature
  (Time Signature)

                       •Top number = number of beats in a
                       *Bottom number = what type of note gets
                       one beat
                                                                 The C stands for
                                                                 common time which
                                                                 means 4/4
                     Compound Meter
• Each pulse is a dotted note which is divided into groups of three

6/8 , 9/8, 12/8
                     Asymmetrical Meters
• When the pulse cannot be divided into equal groups

5/4, 5/8, 7/4, 7/8
• If a part of the measure that is usually unstressed is accented
• Indicate the general volume or level of intensity

                                                                Sudden accent on a single note
                                                                or chord

                           Crescendo (cres.) to gradually get louder
                           Decrescendo (decres) gradually get softer
                          Direction of Notes
• If the note is above the middle line the stem goes down
• If the note is below the middle line the stem goes up
• When the note is in the middle the stem generally goes down except when the notes
  around it are opposite.
• When notes are on leger lines the stems extend to the middle line

• When a note is connected by beams the beams are slanted to cross no more than one line of the staff

• When two melodies share the same staff the beams and stems go in the opposite direction

• Group the beats together to make reading the music easier

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