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					ENV 311/ EEB 320
  Winter 2007
         A Small Tree diagram
                          Plants



Non-vascular                       Vascular



                  Non-flowering               Flowering



               Non-seed     Seed        Monocot       Dicot
         A Small Tree diagram
                          Plants



Non-vascular                       Vascular



                  Non-flowering               Flowering



               Non-seed     Seed        Monocot       Dicot
                            A Small Tree Diagram:
                                Bryophyta
Kingdom




                                                 Plantae
           Non-vascular                         Vascular
Phylum




              Bryophyta                        Tracheophyta


            Sphagnaceae
                                Non-flowering                                   Flowering
                    Non-seed                Seed
Division




            Pterophyta    Sphenophyta       Pinophyta                            Magnoliophyta

                                                                      Monocots              Dicots
Class




                                                                       Liliopsida        Magnoliopsida
                                                                      Cyperaceae         Aceraceae
Family




                                                                      Halogoraceae       Betulaceae
           Polypodiaceae Equisetaceae   Cupressaceae       Pinaceae   Hydrocharitaceae   Cornaceae
                                                                      Lemnaceae          Cruciferae
                                                                      Poaceae            Sarraceniaceae
                                                                      Potamogetonaceae   Ericaceae
                                                                      Sparganiaceae      Lythraceae
                                                                      Typhaceae          Platanaceae
Note: Orders are not shown                                                               Salicaceae
             Phylum Bryophyta
    Family Sphagnaceae, Sphagnum spp.
• Sphagnum spp.
• ID: feathery foliage, often
  growing in dense mats
  that readily absorbs water
• Habitat: bogs, acid
  wetlands, fens,
  responsible for bog
  formation, acid foliage
  grows on itself
• Notes: mosses are
  incredibly diverse and
  important in aquatic
  ecosystems
         A Small Tree diagram
                          Plants



Non-vascular                       Vascular



                  Non-flowering               Flowering



               Non-seed     Seed        Monocot       Dicot
                            A Small Tree Diagram:
                                Pterophyta
Kingdom




                                                 Plantae

                                                Vascular
Phylum




              Bryophyta                        Tracheophyta


            Sphagnaceae
                                Non-flowering                                   Flowering
                    Non-seed                Seed
Division




            Pterophyta    Sphenophyta       Pinophyta                            Magnoliophyta

                                                                      Monocots              Dicots
Class




                                                                       Liliopsida        Magnoliopsida
                                                                      Cyperaceae         Aceraceae
Family




                                                                      Halogoraceae       Betulaceae
           Polypodiaceae Equisetaceae   Cupressaceae       Pinaceae   Hydrocharitaceae   Cornaceae
                                                                      Lemnaceae          Cruciferae
                                                                      Poaceae            Sarraceniaceae
                                                                      Potamogetonaceae   Ericaceae
                                                                      Sparganiaceae      Lythraceae
                                                                      Typhaceae          Platanaceae
Note: Orders are not shown                                                               Salicaceae
        Phylum Pterophyta
• Has true leaves,
  roots, and stems
• Leaves are large, and
  many families
  demonstrate
  “circinate vernation”
           Family Polypodiaceae
       Sensitive Fern - Onoclea sensibilis
• ID: fruiting stalk looks like
  grapes, relatively simple
  diamond shaped frond.
• Habitat: streamsides, wet
  woods
• Notes: no seeds but
  spores, ferns pre-date all
  other plants except
  horsetails, older than
  dinosaurs
• Relatives: royal fern,
  wood fern, ostrich fern
         A Small Tree diagram
                          Plants



Non-vascular                       Vascular



                  Non-flowering               Flowering



               Non-seed     Seed        Monocot       Dicot
                            A Small Tree Diagram:
                               Sphenophyta
Kingdom




                                                 Plantae

                                                Vascular
Phylum




              Bryophyta                        Tracheophyta


            Sphagnaceae
                                Non-flowering                                   Flowering
                    Non-seed                Seed
Division




            Pterophyta    Sphenophyta       Pinophyta                            Magnoliophyta

                                                                      Monocots              Dicots
Class




                                                                       Liliopsida        Magnoliopsida
                                                                      Cyperaceae         Aceraceae
Family




                                                                      Halogoraceae       Betulaceae
           Polypodiaceae Equisetaceae   Cupressaceae       Pinaceae   Hydrocharitaceae   Cornaceae
                                                                      Lemnaceae          Cruciferae
                                                                      Poaceae            Sarraceniaceae
                                                                      Potamogetonaceae   Ericaceae
                                                                      Sparganiaceae      Lythraceae
                                                                      Typhaceae          Platanaceae
Note: Orders are not shown                                                               Salicaceae
        Phylum Sphenophyta
                   Horsetails
• Shoots consist of
  nodes and
  internodes, leaves are
  whorled and scale-
  like
• Uses spores as the
  reproductive unit
  (encased in the
  strobilus)
• One extant family,
  Equisetaceae
           Family Equisetaceae
                Equisetum hyemale
• ID: green stem with
  dominant ridges, no
  branches or leaves.
  Strobilus on top made of
  sproangia.
• Habitat: disturbed wet
  areas.
• Notes: stem contains
  silica. Ancestors were
  once the dominant plant
  of the carboniferous age.
         A Small Tree diagram
                          Plants



Non-vascular                       Vascular



                  Non-flowering               Flowering



               Non-seed     Seed        Monocot       Dicot
                            A Small Tree Diagram:
                                Pinophyta
Kingdom




                                                 Plantae

                                                Vascular
Phylum




              Bryophyta                        Tracheophyta


            Sphagnaceae
                                Non-flowering                                   Flowering
                    Non-seed                Seed
Division




            Pterophyta    Sphenophyta       Pinophyta                            Magnoliophyta

                                                                      Monocots              Dicots
Class




                                                                       Liliopsida        Magnoliopsida
                                                                      Cyperaceae         Aceraceae
Family




                                                                      Halogoraceae       Betulaceae
           Polypodiaceae Equisetaceae   Cupressaceae       Pinaceae   Hydrocharitaceae   Cornaceae
                                                                      Lemnaceae          Cruciferae
                                                                      Poaceae            Sarraceniaceae
                                                                      Potamogetonaceae   Ericaceae
                                                                      Sparganiaceae      Lythraceae
                                                                      Typhaceae          Platanaceae
Note: Orders are not shown                                                               Salicaceae
          Phylum Pinophyta
• Seed plants all of
  which produce woody
  stems.
• All members produce
  abundant secondary
  xylem and grow as
  either trees or shrubs.
            Family Pinacea
• Monoecious trees
  with spirally arranged
  leaves.
• Essentially an
  evergreen group
  though Larix is
  deciduous.
Black Spruce - Picea mariana
              • ID: Leaves stiff, four-
                sided, dark blue-green ½"
                needles borne on woody
                pegs. Thin, scaly, and
                grayish-brown bark.
              • Habitat: Most abundant in
                peat bogs and swamps,
                also on transitional sites
                between peatlands and
                uplands.
Tamarack - Larix laricina
             • ID: pegs (short
               shoots) on twig
             • Habitat: moist soils =
               fens and bogs
               (peatlands)
             • Notes: only deciduous
               conifer in our area
            Family Cupressaceae
 Northern White-Cedar - Thuja occidentalis
• ID: Has scaled leaves (not
  needles). Trunk often divided
  into two or more secondary
  trunks. Fibrous bark,
  sometimes shredding.
• Habitat: Prefers lowland sites
  with strong flow of moderately
  mineral-rich soil water of near
  neutral pH and where the
  organic peat is moderately to
  well decomposed, usually 1'-6'
  thick and containing rotten
  wood.
• Notes: Will invade and form
  even-aged stands in openings
  created by windfall or cutting
  and recently burned swamps.
         A Small Tree diagram
                          Plants



Non-vascular                       Vascular



                  Non-flowering               Flowering



               Non-seed     Seed        Monocot       Dicot
                            A Small Tree Diagram:
                               Magnoliophyta
Kingdom




                                                 Plantae

                                                Vascular
Phylum




              Bryophyta                        Tracheophyta


            Sphagnaceae
                                Non-flowering                                   Flowering
                    Non-seed                Seed
Division




            Pterophyta    Sphenophyta       Pinophyta                          Magnoliophyta

                                                                      Monocots              Dicots
Class




                                                                       Liliopsida        Magnoliopsida
                                                                      Cyperaceae         Aceraceae
Family




                                                                      Halogoraceae       Betulaceae
           Polypodiaceae Equisetaceae   Cupressaceae       Pinaceae   Hydrocharitaceae   Cornaceae
                                                                      Lemnaceae          Cruciferae
                                                                      Poaceae            Sarraceniaceae
                                                                      Potamogetonaceae   Ericaceae
                                                                      Sparganiaceae      Lythraceae
                                                                      Typhaceae          Platanaceae
Note: Orders are not shown                                                               Salicaceae
      Phylum Magnoliophyta
• Phylum consisting of nearly a quarter of a
  million species of angiosperms.
• Plants range in habit and form from
  minute, aquatic duckweeds to giant,
  buttressed forest trees.
• Plants are typified by a true flower
         A Small Tree diagram
                          Plants



Non-vascular                       Vascular



                  Non-flowering               Flowering



               Non-seed     Seed        Monocot       Dicot
                            A Small Tree Diagram:
                                 Liliopsida
Kingdom




                                                 Plantae

                                                Vascular
Phylum




              Bryophyta                        Tracheophyta


            Sphagnaceae
                                Non-flowering                                   Flowering
                    Non-seed                Seed
Division




            Pterophyta    Sphenophyta       Pinophyta                           Magnoliophyta

                                                                       Monocots             Dicots
Class




                                                                        Liliopsida       Magnoliopsida
                                                                      Cyperaceae         Aceraceae
Family




                                                                      Halogoraceae       Betulaceae
           Polypodiaceae Equisetaceae   Cupressaceae       Pinaceae   Hydrocharitaceae   Cornaceae
                                                                      Lemnaceae          Cruciferae
                                                                      Poaceae            Sarraceniaceae
                                                                      Potamogetonaceae   Ericaceae
                                                                      Sparganiaceae      Lythraceae
                                                                      Typhaceae          Platanaceae
Note: Orders are not shown                                                               Salicaceae
                Cyperaceae
             Sedges - Carex spp.
• ID: flattened blades
  are often keeled,
  triangular at base
• Habitat: fens,
  marshes, wetlands
• Notes: hundreds of
  species in Michigan,
  often dominate
  groundcover in fens,
  marshes
                 Halogoraceae
           Milfoils - Myriophyllum spp.
• Its name comes from
  Greek, "myri" meaning
  "too many to count", and
  "phyll", meaning "leaf“
• ID: Whorls of fine,
  pinnately divided leaves.
• Habitat: submersed
  aquatic environments
• Notes: Waterfowl eat the
  fruits and leaves.
  Muskrats eat the entire
  plant.
                   Lemnaceae
             Duckweed - Lemna spp.
• ID: Very simple plants,
  lacking a stem or leaves,
  but consisting of a small
  bladelike structure
  floating on or just under
  the surface, with or
  without simple rootlets.
• Habitat: floating
• Notes: An important food
  source for waterfowl.
  They may provide nitrate
  removal.
                          Poaceae
      Common reed - Phragmites australis
• ID: Stiff stems, erect, up to 16
  ft. tall, leaves alternate along
  top half of stem. “Feathery”
  leaf florets.
• Habitat: Wetlands, shores, and
  waters several feet deep.
• Notes: Until recently the status
  of the plant as native to North
  America or introduced has
  been in dispute but new work
  has demonstrated the
  existence of native and
  introduced genotypes of P.
  australis
            Potamogetonaceae
         Pondweed - Potamogeton spp.
• ID: lots of variety between
  species, most are floating
  leaved, attached plants
  with opposite leaves and
  a pink flower in summer
• Habitat: range from
  submerged to floating
  leaved to emergent
• Notes: phosphorous
  pump from sediments
  into water column
                       Typhaceae
                  Cattails - Typha spp.
• ID: long, flat fleshy leaves,
  seed head large and brown
  (like a hotdog on a skewer)
• Habitat: usually
  everywhere except bogs
• Notes: emergent,
  extremely prolific especially
  in areas of stable water
  level and high nutrient
  loads;
• two main species - T.
  latifolia and T. angustifolia -
  may hybridize
                Sparganiaceae
          Bur-reeds - Sparganium spp.
• ID: Plants slender, to
  more than 2 m long;
  leaves and inflorescences
  usually floating.
• Habitat: Typically
  emergent in shallow
  water.
• Notes: Perennial, reed-
  like marsh plants, colonial
  from rhizomes.
               Hydrocharitaceae
            Elodea - Elodea canadensis
• ID: Three leaves per
  whorl around the stem.
• Habitat: Lives entirely
  underwater, except
  flowering parts. Can be
  found from very shallow
  to deep waters. Grows
  best in silty, nutrient-rich
  waters.
• Notes: Provides good
  habitat for many aquatic
  inverts and cover for
  young fish and
  amphibians. Waterfowl
  eat Elodea.
         A Small Tree diagram
                          Plants



Non-vascular                       Vascular



                  Non-flowering               Flowering



               Non-seed     Seed        Monocot       Dicot
                            A Small Tree Diagram:
                               Magnoliopsida
Kingdom




                                                 Plantae

                                                Vascular
Phylum




              Bryophyta                        Tracheophyta


            Sphagnaceae
                                Non-flowering                                    Flowering
                    Non-seed                Seed
Division




            Pterophyta    Sphenophyta       Pinophyta                           Magnoliophyta

                                                                       Monocots             Dicots
Class




                                                                      Liliopsida         Magnoliopsida
                                                                      Cyperaceae          Aceraceae
Family




                                                                      Halogoraceae        Betulaceae
           Polypodiaceae Equisetaceae   Cupressaceae       Pinaceae   Hydrocharitaceae    Cornaceae
                                                                      Lemnaceae           Cruciferae
                                                                      Poaceae             Sarraceniaceae
                                                                      Potamogetonaceae    Ericaceae
                                                                      Sparganiaceae       Lythraceae
                                                                      Typhaceae           Platanaceae
Note: Orders are not shown                                                                Salicaceae
                     Aceraceae
                       Acer spp.
• Name derives from the
  Latin “acris” (sharp), from
  the hardness of the wood,
  used for lances in the
  past.
• ID: Opposite leaf
  arrangement, with usually
  palmately lobed leaves.
  Distinctive “key” fruit,
  shaped to distribute
  seeds in the wind.
       Acer negundo
“Ash-leaved Maple” or “Boxelder”
                • ID: It is a small, usually
                  fairly short-lived tree that
                  grows up to 10-20 m tall,
                  with a trunk diameter of
                  30-50 cm, rarely up to 1
                  m diameter. The shoots
                  are green, often with a
                  whitish to pink or violet
                  wax coating when young.
                  It has pinnate leaves with
                  usually five (sometimes
                  three or seven) leaflets.
       Acer rubrum
“Red maple” or “Swamp maple”
Acer saccharinum
   “Silver maple”
                    Betulaceae
                       Alnus spp.
• ID: alternate leaves, blunt
  ends, lenticels, cones and
  male catkins, gray
  branches
• Habitat: near
  groundwater seeps, not
  found in bogs
• Notes: very shade
  intolerant. Alders
  establish symbiotic
  relationships with
  nitrogen-fixing bacteria,
  that convert N2 into soil-
  soluble NO3.
                   Cornaceae
  Red-osier Dogwood – Cornus stolonifera
• ID: opposite, simple
  leaves with latex veins,
  red stems, green when
  young, lenticels
• Habitat: streamsides,
  lakeshores, wetlands
  known for it propensity to
  form arching stolons
• Notes: other red dogwood
  (C. amomum) has hairy
  twigs, and round lenticels
  in similar habitat
• Relatives: flowering
  dogwood, bunchberry
                 Cruciferae
          Watercress - Rorippa spp.
• Fast-growing aquatic
  or semi-aquatic
  perennials native from
  Europe to central Asia
• The stems of
  watercress are
  floating and the
  leaves are pinnately
  compound.
• Relatives: Egyptian
  papyrus
                   Sarraceniaceae
       Pitcher Plant - Sarracenia purpurea
• ID: leaves shaped into a
  pitcher-like shape in which
  water accumulates
• Habitat: sphagnum bogs and
  tamarack swamps, also fens
  and boggy interdunal flats and
  pools, surviving in both acid
  and alkaline habitats
• Notes: invertebrates fall into
  accumulated, often cannot
  escape because of downward-
  pointed hairs on the inside of
  the plant. Some insects and
  mites live in the water,
  including the larvae of the non-
  biting mosquito, Wyeomyia
  smithii Coq. (Diptera:
  Culicidae), which only is found
  in these plants.
                      Ericaceae
  Leatherleaf - Chamaedaphne calyculatta
• ID: leatherly leaves with
  powdered undersides
  (tiny hairs), distinctive
  fruit
• Habitat: very open, acid
  wetlands (bogs), forms
  dense knee-high thickets
• Notes: member of an
  acidophilic family, limited
  to certain habitats,
  common in northern
  Michigan
• Relatives: blueberry,
  huckleberry, wintergreen
                  Lythraceae
     Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
• ID: stalks of purple
  flowers growing densely
  in almost pure meadows
• Habitat: streamsides,
  lakeshores, marshes
• Notes: extremely
  aggressive invasive
  species, wiping out many
  other native riparian
  species, and is hard to
  control.
• Relatives: waterwillow
                         Oleaceae
              Black ash - Fraxinus nigra
• ID: Hardwood with compound
  (7-11) leaflets. Branchlets
  stout; dark buds; trunk light-
  grey bark, soft with corky
  edges. Fruit appear in May or
  June, about the same time as
  the leaves, and are an
  elongated, winged, samara.
• Habitat: Grows in bogs, along
  streams, or in poorly-drained
  areas that are often seasonally
  flooded. It is most common on
  peat and muck soils. Grows
  better in moving waters.
• Notes: The seeds are
  important food for birds and
  small mammals, and the twigs
  and leaves provide browse for
  deer.
                        Platanaceae
         Sycamore - Platanus occidentalis
• ID: Leaves are 3 and
  sometimes 5-lobed, flat
  medium green in summer; fall
  color is tan to brown. Its bark is
  distinctive: on older trees it
  peels and flakes, leaving a
  lighter underbark.
• Habitat: Grows on the edge of
  streams and lakes and small
  depressions having slow
  drainage, as well as on wet
  muck land, shallow peat soils,
  and soils associated with river
  bottoms and flood plains.
                   Salicaceae
                 Willow - Salix spp.
• ID: narrow, toothed
  leaves, single budscales,
  appressed buds,
  yellowish twigs
• Habitat: open wet places,
  streamsides, lakeshores,
  often colonizing newly
  exposed ground
• Notes: trees or shrubs
  with roots in water,
  aspirin made from bark,
  cotton-like seeds are
  common to family
The End

				
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