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                 Anthony Cugini (, Zachary Ovington (

Abstract—Our paper will explain the extraordinary process             Key Words— Neuroprosthetic Limb, Brain-Signal Pathways,
behind using the mind to control robotic movements. We will           FMRI, Signal Fraction Analysis, Feedback Loop
analyze the signal pathways involved in the brain for the
movement of a limb. We then will see how computers can                             FROM HUMBLE BEGINNINGS
use math to interpret the neural data and then process said
information in order to output movement into a robotic limb.          The loss of the ability to interact with one’s surroundings is
Lastly, we will weigh the potential advantages and                    quite the scary and unimaginable concept, yet for some
disadvantages of a brain-computer interface (BCI).                    people this is a very real situation. Losing a limb—for ease
                                                                      of understanding, limb will solely refer to an arm in this
We will start our paper by discussing the biological                  paper--could result from happenstances outside one’s control
processes in the brain during the act of movement. We will            such as a battle, a motor accident, or genetics. These means
examine which parts of the brain control movement, in                 may seem a stretch for most people; however, many people
particular the fine coordinated movements behind the arm              still suffer from an inability to interact with their
and fingers. We will gain an understanding of the                     surroundings. Society has tried throughout the course of
electrochemical signals in the brain by observing the neural          history to find a means to cope with this sort of loss. Many
connections and pathways involved with movement and how               ideas have come about for coping with the loss of a limb, but
we can exploit them in order to control a machine.                    many were very inefficient prosthetics and only performed a
                                                                      handful of tasks. With the development of better technology,
After analyzing all the biological aspects of the brain during        scientists have been able to use the body’s own biological
movement, we will be able to understand how the computer              processes as a means of creating a new outlet for interaction
is connected to the brain through either the Central Nervous          that once seemed lost. By analyzing the thoughts of subjects,
System (CNS) or through the neural pathways by using free-            scientists can record the sequence of brainwaves and convert
time rotational MRI (fMRI). The computer, once the signals            them into a readily available computer language. This
are received, must interpret the desired motion by analyzing          computer language can then quickly be passed into a robotic
the data through signal fractional analyses and other                 limb which will carry out the intended action of the subject.
complex math algorithms.                                              Scientists hope to perfect the system and place a feedback
                                                                      loop that will return the sense of touch to the person in the
Once the computer has interpreted the desired movement, it            robotic arm[1]. This process, although very promising, still
will output a code to a robotic arm telling it how and where          needs much work. At this time the cost and reliability are
to move. The math and physics behind this will be a topic we          still major concerns, but the future is very promising. There
delve into late in the paper, discussing how a robotic limb           are some ethical concerns regarding the use of
interprets commands and is able to move in a three-                   neuroprosthetic limbs. Some people fear that the limbs will
dimensional space. We will then discuss the limitations of            be manipulated to provide unfair advantages to people who
the arm such as its weight. Lastly we will touch on in this           do not even require the limbs. In the end, the final product
section is the possibility of a feedback loop within the system       would be something comparable to the robotic arm Luke
where the limb can interpret touch and send a signal back             Skywalker receives after losing his arm to Darth Vader in
through to the brain.                                                 one of the most epic battles of our time.

                                                                                     A QUICK RECAP OF TIME
Continuing research on neuroprosthetic limbs will help
people who have lost a limb regain that lost ability,                 The idea of prosthetic limbs arose from the ancient
providing windows of opportunity for further development in           Egyptians. The idea they came up with was just to put a
this area to possibly the extent of a whole robotic body              wooden replacement in place of the missing limb. The use of
controlled only by thought. However, there are ethical                wooden replacements became more widely known from
concerns which arise from the Brain Computer Interfaces.              pirates as their peg legs. This became a more common
The limbs can be seen as an unfair way to advance the skills          practice for replacing lost limbs, however the idea was very
of people beyond the capacities of a normal human. Also,              basic, and the new limb could serve a very limited range of
the neural implants, if done incorrectly, can cause                   functions. As time went on and medical practices improved,
irreversible brain damage.                                            prosthetic limbs began to improve in both function and style,
                                                                      but the overall idea still was very archaic. The idea is just to
                                                                      have a new device fashioned out of any material available to
                                                                      serve usually the single function of grasping a designated
University of Pittsburgh
Swanson School of Engineering                                                                                   February 10, 2012
                                                                                                                  Anthony Cugini
                                                                                                                  Zachary Ovington

object. During World War Two, the wooden limb concept                  of the body. However, it is also involved in coordinating
was refined when doctors were able to take some of the left            multiple movements at the same time. Such coordination
over muscle in the arm and shoulder and use it to operate              would be necessary, for example, trying to hop on one leg
very simple hook prostheses [2]. This was quite the change,            and swing an arm around in a circular formation above the
now people were able to grasp objects of varying size even             head [5].
with a missing arm or hand.                                                      Once the correct cycle of movements is prepared,
         As the twentieth century progressed, the three most           pattern correction is done continuously throughout life, it is
common types of prostheses became cosmetic, body-                      sent to the cerebellum where the information is checked for
powered, and myoelectric. The cosmetic prostheses provide              errors and once finalized it is sent to the cerebral cortex. The
no actual benefits to the patient; they are simply a                   cortex is the final stop in the brain as the cortex then sends
replacement for the missing limb. These would be                       signals through the nervous system to afferent neurons,
comparable to the wooden replacement limbs; however, the               neurons that are located all throughout the body and
look is much more appealing and the price is very cheap.               involved in motor control, and alerts the neurons to the
The body-powered limbs are very similar to the hook                    upcoming movement which is soon after carried out. To
replacements from World War two. These newer versions,                 send a signal from the cortex through the nervous system to
however, can utilize the opposite arm as well as left over             the afferent neurons, the body utilizes the electric action
muscle to operate the grasping apparatus making it more                potential within the neurons. The action potential is a charge
readily available to patients. The myoelectric limbs utilize           aligned on the edge of the neuron, the dendrite. When
the electric potential of the left over muscles as a means of          activated, the dendrite opens and disperses the charge down
operating a computer system within the arm. The electric               through the myelin sheath, the bridge connecting two
potentials in the left over muscle are measurable and                  neurons. The charge then leaps a gap into the axon of the
therefore can be used to open and close a robotic hand. The            receiving neuron. This new neuron is now activated and
idea here is that when the person sends a signal to his arm,           carries out the same process. The process continues down an
the computer picks up on the signal and either opens or                almost endless line of neurons until the action is carried out.
closes. Some of the newer versions of myoelectric limbs use            With the neuroprosthetic limb, scientists want to catch the
pressure sensors in order to ensure that the robot is not over         idea of movement when it is spawned in the brain and
or under grasping the object in question [3]. This method,             instead of having the body carry out the movement through
although very successful, mainly depends on whether or not             action potentials, scientists will have a robot carry out the
the patient has left over muscle in his arm. These methods             movement by means of computer processes. This movement
for replacement, although quite good, leave a lot to be                process will be started by analyzing and generation code for
desired, and this is where neuroprosthetic research hopes to           movement.
improve upon. Neuroprosthetics were seen as a last resort
sort of measure, but due to many recent advances and
successes, the idea has become much more accepted as a
means of replacing lost parts.

The first step in creating a neuroprosthetic limb is an
understanding of the biological processes involved in
movement. Within the brain, an area known as the primary
motor area has been identified as the primary source of
major movement [4]. The area is divided up into an upper
and lower hemisphere and each hemisphere corresponds to
movement in a certain part of the body. The top hemisphere
is mainly for lower body movement, and the lower
hemisphere controls the upper body from the arms to the                A FLOWCHART DEPICTING THE PATH OF THE BRAIN SIGNALS
face. This area is mainly involved in discrete and fine tuned          TO THE COMPUTER [6]
movements of the limbs. At the lower end of the primary
motor area is the secondary motor area. This area is not                  FROM MAN TO MACHINE (A MORE COMPLEX
discrete like its nearby cousin, but instead this area is mainly                        TRIP)
involved with large movements of the body. Also, this area
plays a major role in receiving sensations in the parts of the         Scientists must be able to analyze a sequence of stimulations
body during movement. Near these areas in the brain is                 in the areas of the brain involved with movement and to
another area known as the supplementary motor area. This               predict the desired movement solely from said sequence.
area, like the secondary, is involved with large movements             First, in order to analyze the sequence, a real time depiction

                                                                                                                                                   Anthony Cugini
                                                                                                                                                   Zachary Ovington

of the process must be mapped out. To do this, neurologists
have developed real time MRIs (fMRIs) in order to show
which areas are stimulated most heavily during movement of
specific limbs. These MRIs work by analyzing which areas                        Original Signal                                       SVD filter

are most active in the brain. Areas that are more active
require much more blood and the MRI can detect these
changes in blood flow and produce a map of the changes [7].
The blood can be detected because the subject is given
radioactive sugar, radioactive here meaning that this sugar
can be detected by the magnetic waves produced by the
MRI. This sugar will be in the blood going through the brain
                                                                                          Signal fraction filter
to the active areas and the MRI is able to pick up on the
radioactive sugar by analyzing the reflections of the waves
off of the sugar. The data gathered from the MRI can then be
used to help scientists set up a general path that certain body
movements will generate. However, no two brains are alike,                                                         Department of Mathematics

so scientists have to convert the pathways certain sequences                       SIGNAL-FRACTION ANALYSIS IN ACTION [9]
take into a much more universal language.
           In order to overcome this difficulty, scientists                                       WIGGLE YOUR BIG TOE
developed signal fraction analysis as a means of translating
signals into a much simpler mathematical language. Signal               With a method for establishing a sequence of stimulations
fraction analysis is basically fitting a 3-D path to a complex          for movement, scientists now must begin compiling a
set of data. The analysis takes the positions of the signals            database for movements and their respective thought
and plots them onto a 3-D grid [8]. The equation also takes             sequences. These databases can be placed into a program
into account time delay so as for a more accurate                       that will analyze a person’s thoughts and compare one’s
interpretation of the data. The need to account for a time              brain activity with the database to successfully predict which
delay is that the recording device is not at a 1:1 ratio with the       movement is desired. This program will have to incorporate
actions being carried out in the brain. So the motion and               a means of analyzing a person’s brain most likely by means
brainwaves generated will be slightly off. The analysis                 of EEG. An EEG is a simpler method of analyzing brain
accounts for the delay of the system and the number of lags             patterns that is much less cumbersome than an fMRI, but is
that may be experienced during the recording of the action.             also much less precise. The EEG analyzes brainwaves going
This will help to set up a more accurate time frame for the             through the brain and will output about the same information
movement and its associated sequence of brainwaves. The                 as an fMRI because they both look for areas in which most
analysis also involves filtering out outlying points. These             activity is occurring. The program must also incorporate
points may be the result of tainted data such as eye                    signal fraction analysis to obtain a better representation of
movements or twitching. In order to remove the outlying                 the patient’s thoughts for a more successful comparison with
points, scientists set up a baseline for the information they           the database. The final movement can then be sent from the
want filtered out. This is done by measuring the brainwaves             computer into a robotic limb that will move through space
necessary for an eye blink or some other minor action that              according to the movement desired. In order to develop a set
would contaminate the overall data. With the outliers                   path of movement for the robotic limb scientists have
removed, the remaining set is mostly all pertaining to the              projected a coordinate plane onto a person’s body. The Y-
desired movement. Using the same idea as behind the                     axis extends from the shoulder straight out forwards. The X-
famous Lorenz Attractor, the idea being that a chaotic                  axis would extend from one shoulder to the opposite
system follows a linear path, scientists are able to take the           shoulder. The Z-axis would be from the shoulder straight up
sequence of signals and develop a set path for a movement               and down. The origin of the axis, point (0,0,0), would lie at
that the stimulations in the brain will follow. The final path          the shoulder of the arm to which the limb is connected. The
can be used as a blueprint for the same movement in most                program we described earlier earlier would take the desired
brains. With a means of writing out blueprints for                      movement and convert it into an initial and final point on
movements, scientists can begin to compile a database that              this axis. These points will then be given to the robotic limb
can be stored in a robotic limb.                                        and it will move accordingly starting from the initial position
                                                                        and ending at the desired position in space relative to the
                                                                        origin. The movement from the initial point to the final will
                                                                        be automatically generated because getting from A to B is
                                                                        not as important as how it was gone about. The robotic arm
                                                                        will have the same degree of freedom as a human arm [10].
                                                                        This means that the robot will be able to move within the

                                                                                                                     Anthony Cugini
                                                                                                                     Zachary Ovington

same realm of possibilities that a human arm can. These                    [12]. The wrist and hands have minimal structure on the
degrees of freedom will be achieved by disregarding any                    outside so as to not restrict much movement. However, they
desired movement that lies outside the realm of possibilities              do require some small fragments of the saturated carbon
as a random or passive thought. In order to ensure the arm is              fiber on the outside near the knuckles and back of the hand
able to go about its movements, a technician will have                     for protection and to help hide some of the internal
already programmed the set paths from the database. Robots                 materials.
are able to move very precisely because they are ‘taught’                            The internal structure of the arm and all the
their movements. This literally means that a technician will               components that make up the actual robotic movement
guide a robot through its paths by means of a remote control.              require a much more varied mix of materials. The metals
Whilst this is happening the internal database of the robot                used in the main makeup of the robotic joints can be
will be recording the paths and how to move about them.                    aluminum, steel, or titanium. Aluminum is a cheap and
Finally, a technician can go in and take the paths the robot               lightweight metal; however it cannot support much weight
learned and set them according to the correct thought                      and will buckle under high external pressures. Steel is a
sequence in the database.                                                  very strong and durable metal, except it adds a lot to the
                                                                           overall weight of the arm. Lastly titanium is both extremely
                    CAN WE BUILD IT?                                       strong and lightweight, but the cost of titanium will hinder
Once the database of sequences has been established and the                having much of it being used in the construction of the arm.
method for training the movements has been determined, the                 The best construction of the internal components of the arm
next step will be to construct the limb. This process must                 is an alloy that is a mix of all three metals. This will be a
address two main factors: the first being that the arm is                  good way to have a strong, lightweight metal that is also
comfortably placed on the person, and the second being that                relatively cheap to manufacture. The internal components
the arm is durable and not too hard to support. The arm is                 must add as little weight as possible to the arm, but also
made up of several different parts, with materials that are                must be able to move about freely within the structure of the
well suited to the area in question. The material used to                  arm. This means that the parts must be carefully placed in
construct the socket for the arm is usually a plastic polymer              order to ensure the arm is capable of its full range of motion.
laminate. This is created by taking a plastic, first in a liquid           The placement of the parts must also take into account all of
stage, and mixing it with a catalyst and reinforcement                     the wiring and the power source required to work the arm.
textiles to speed up the hardening process. The plastic is then            The power source is usually a lithium battery that has an
put in a mold that will fit the person’s arm and it is left to             extended life. It can be placed comfortably within the arm,
harden. The advantages of this material are its light nature               or the patient can opt for an external power source to be
and its durability. The only problem is that once it is set and            worn that is much easier to replace, but may be inconvenient
on the prosthetic, it is very difficult to remold. So if it is a bit       or cumbersome. Scientists are also looking to develop a
painful in one area, remolding the socket will not be an easy              power source that is self recharging. The source would
or cheap process as compared to remolding of the other                     recharge from the internal biological energy in the actual
materials available. Two other materials often used in the                 person. The natural electric potential generated by the body
socket are thermoplastics and silicon. These materials are                 to effect movement in the arm will instead be converted into
not quite as strong or durable as the plastic polymer                      a constant flowing source of electricity to recharge the
laminates, but they are much more comfortable and much                     battery. This will not drain energy out of the patient because
easier to reshape for the patient [11]. These materials will               it will be using the potential that was meant to move the arm.
need to be replaced more often than the plastic polymer
laminate, but will provide much more comfort and
           Moving down to the bulk of the outside of the arm,              With all the parts of the arm completed and everything in its
or the forearm, the materials used here are the plastic                    right place, the patient can now begin using the arm.
polymer laminates saturated more heavily with                              However, with no prior training, the patient may not be able
reinforcement textiles to ensure much more durability. The                 to control his thoughts enough to use the limb correctly. This
reinforcement textile mainly used here is carbon fiber. The                is where some rehabilitation services are necessary. The
carbon fiber will provide an extremely durable and                         idea of moving a limb that one does not have is not an easy
structurally sound shelter for the instruments within the arm.             thought to come by. The patient has to supply enough
The carbon fiber has to be placed carefully on the arm, as it              thought so that the fMRI can pick up on his neural activity,
heavily restricts the movement of the arm and is not very                  and this requires quite a bit of concentration to get the hang
pliable. So the technicians have to be careful to place it                 of at first. Also, with no sensory messages going from the
solely on the forearm for protection. The carbon fiber and                 arm to the brain, the patient will have trouble at first
plastic polymers are very strong and durable; however they                 recognizing when he is actually going through with a
are also very light so as to not add to the overall weight of              movement. A common technique for rehabilitation here is
the object which makes them choice materials for the arm                   mirror therapy.

                                                                                                                   Anthony Cugini
                                                                                                                   Zachary Ovington

                                                                        they had originated within an actual limb, and the person
                                                                        would then be able to sense touch once again in their
                                                                        prosthetic limb. This would in time hopefully replicate how
                                                                        the central nervous system passes information from the
                                                                        surroundings to the brain, but instead with signals
                                                                        originating in computer code. This idea can also be applied
                                                                        to other senses such as sight and hearing, yet these senses
                                                                        require much more research and time before being applied to
                                                                        the real world. Furthermore, scientists hope to develop an AI
                                                                        system within the computer portion of the arm to begin
                                                                        learning the patterns of the arm, while being used by the
                                                                        patient. The AI in the robot will respond to new movements
                                                                        with the perception-action-reward cycle.

                   MIRROR THERAPY [13]

This involves using a mirror partition to give the patient the
idea that their lost limb is still intact by reflecting the image
of their still intact hand across the mirror. By thinking about
moving their lost appendage and seeing the reflection
moving, the patient can begin developing the concentration
necessary to move the neuroprosthetic limb. But as the
patient begins actually using the arm, they will continue to
become more adapted to the process of moving the limb.
Another type of therapy used is virtual reality therapy. This
involves immersing the patient in a virtual world in which
they have all of their limbs available. The therapy also
involves having the subject connected to either an EEG or
fMRI to read their brainwaves and move them around in the
virtual world according to their neurological signals. This
therapy is much more effective because it involves the same                      THE PERCEPTION ACTION REWAD CYCLE [14]
process that the neuroprosthetic limb involves. This Therapy
has the patient’s movements correspond to the patterns of               The idea of this cycle is that the robot will predict a response
activity and inactivity in their brain.                                 to a movement. The response will be a certain emotion in the
                                                                        person, and if the behavior, or movement, performed does
                 Reviving a Sense of Touch                              not elicit the proper emotion, the AI will learn to adapt and
                                                                        move differently according to the person’s emotions. The
Without some sort of feedback loop providing sensory                    correct movement will elicit the correct response and the AI
information back to the brain from the limb, the person may             will slowly become faster and more efficient with its
have trouble fully adapting the new limb. This would be                 movements until it is almost just an exact copy of the
comparable to forever having an arm that is fully asleep                patient’s lost appendage. This cycle will take time for the AI
while being awake, the arm is just a piece of mass that has             to adapt to the emotions of the patient, but in the end will be
no feeling yet still serves an important purpose. Therefore,            the most efficient means of a neuroprosthetic limb and will
the next step for the field of neuroprosthetics is the                  become the most user friendly brain computer interface.
application of a sensory feedback loop in the limb. This
would mean that on the robotic arm they would place                                                ETHICS
sensors every so often that would record the feelings of
certain objects or change in pressure of the surroundings.              But with each scientific advance there are ethical concerns
The information gathered from the sensors would then be                 that must be considered.The surgery required to place a
passed through a reverse of the entire process that went                neuroprosthetic system onto an individual is very extensive
through to move the arm. The information would go                       and invasive, before choosing to go through with the
backwards through the database and through a reverse signal             surgery, a patient must assess all possible positive and
fraction analysis to develop the correct sequence of signals            negative repercussions of the surgery. First off, the addition
to implant back into the patient’s brain to elicit the correct          of a robotic limb requires some surgery in order to fit the
feeling. The brain would then pick up on these signals as if            limb to their arm and the person will now have a large piece

                                                                                                                  Anthony Cugini
                                                                                                                  Zachary Ovington

of moving metal attached to them at all times. This moving             materials that makeup the outer portions of the forearm can
part, even though thoroughly tested, may not perform                   be switched around to help cut cost.
correctly at all times and may, in certain situations, result in                  Also, the upkeep of the limb is also something to
a movement that is dangerous to the patient or to those                be of concern. But routine maintenance check-ups are not
around him.                                                            completely necessary since the arm is automatically
          Another concern is more social than physical, for            updating itself every time it is used. The fuel cell for the arm
example: this addition of a robotic part may effectively               is also something that is being worked on for sustainability.
cause a separation between the patient and his peers who               The current research into rechargeable batteries will greatly
choose against or cannot afford to have the surgery. The               increase the sustainability of the limb and will drastically
patient may be regarded as now being different or part                 reduce the need to surgically replace the battery. With
machine which may give way to some discrimination. The                 scientists working on a way to have the arm automatically
discrimination may arise from the cost of having a                     recharge itself with the naturally occurring electrical signals
neuroprosthetic limb because surgery is extremely expensive            in the body, the cost and upkeep of the arm will further be
at the current time. This cost will further spark debates              reduced.
between insurance agencies and amputees concerning the                            Not only will the arm be a sound investment, but
need of the surgery and the circumstances under which the              the arm will also help sustain human life. No matter how
surgery becomes necessary. The robotic limb may also                   much rehabilitation a person goes through, life will not be
trigger a loss of identity in the patient. The patient may feel        entirely the same without his arm. The goal of having a
like they rely too heavily on the robotic parts or that they are       neuroprosthetic limb would be to help make the lives of the
slowly becoming defined by the new attachment. New sorts               patients much easier to handle. The arm, after sufficient
of psychological problems will begin to arise as a result of           work and training, should basically replicate the functions of
the identity loss associated with the robotic limbs. People            a normal arm, minus some minor drawbacks like a humming
may also begin to see ways to manipulate the                           noise perpetually resonating from the arm; simple tasks such
neuroprosthetics to exploit new prospective abilities in               as lifting objects, driving a stick shift, or even trying to
people that may have never been thought possible. To                   remain balanced while standing will be made drastically
prevent this, many limitations must be established                     easier once the new limb can replicate the functionality of
concerning the future research and use of the brain computer           the lost limb.
interface systems. Lastly, if scientists were to get the
feedback loop working to its full capacity, the computer will                         THERE AND BACK AGAIN
directly be placing thoughts into a person’s mind. This is an
area of concern because any malfunction in the system will             With the advent of neuroprosthetic limbs, society is about
directly be affecting the person’s mind and may cause                  ready to leave behind the prosthetics of the past. The system
serious mental instability or damage. Also, the computer               of movement in the robotic limbs has been worked on
may not be implanting the correct or wanted thoughts into              consistently over the past few years and is slowly becoming
the person’s mind. The computer will only be dealing with a            perfected. The analyzing of the brain for the thoughts
small section of the person’s brain, yet this still can have an        behind movement with the fMRI is making more apparent
intense lasting effect on the person’s mental health.                  the sequences of thought for movement. With signal fraction
                                                                       analysis and other mathematical analyses, scientists are able
                     SUSTAINIBILITY                                    to create an ideal database for the sequences of movement to
                                                                       be easily accessed by a computer. These databases can be
Any new engineering achievement is often needs to be                   converted into easily read programs for robots to follow and
evaluated for its significance in sustainability. Sustainability       to output movement based on the originally spawned idea in
for a neuroprosthetic limb is ensuring that it is a financially        the brain. Also, with a list of materials that optimize
viable endeavor for a patient, that the limb’s upkeep is not           movement and help to minimize cost and unwanted space
an extreme inconvenience to the patient, and, most                     usage, the research so far in this field is very promising and
importantly, that the limb will help improve the quality of            bright. Not to mention the future research that indicates we
the patient’s life.                                                    are on the verge of being able to replace lost appendages
          While constructing a neuroprosthetic limb for a              entirely in both functionality and dependability. With the
patient, the engineers involved in the construction have to            main components of the system in place, scientists are
ensure the price is not something of major concern. By                 looking to create feedback loops with the use of sensors to
analyzing the cost and required function of the materials              grant amputees the sense of touch along with movement.
chosen to construct the limb, patients have some flexibility           This will give way to creating an AI system that will adapt
on cost. The patient can choose some of the materials                  to the person’s own emotions and become an extremely
depending on whether he desires a better comfort or                    efficient moving neuroprosthetic limb. With the clear goal of
lifespan. The materials that go into the joint socket and the          someday having a neuroprosthetic limb that looks like the

                                                                                                                          Anthony Cugini
                                                                                                                          Zachary Ovington

one imagined for Luke in Star Wars, scientists are very                           propel to the current moment. I, and my partner, would like
hopeful about the future of neuroprosthetic research.                             to say a few things to a few some-bodies that have partaken
                                                                                  in our great journey to heck and back. However, they can’t
                           REFERENCES                                             be here to accept their awards, this being a paper and what
                                                                                  not. This paper is just sort of just a figment of our
[1]Palmer, Katie. (2011, April 22). “A Neuro-Engineer’s Call to Arms.”
Scienceline. [Online]. Available:         imaginations, so I must digress and only thank the people
engineer%E2%80%99s-call-to-arms/.                                                 who actually spent time behind the keyboard.
[2]”Prosthesis” Britannica Academic Edition [Online Encyclopedia]
[3]“Prosthesis” Britannica Academic Edition [Online Encyclopedia]
[4] Nathan, Peter “function of the human nervous system” Britannica
Acedemic          Edition      [Online       Encyclopedia]       Available:
[5] Nathan, Peter “function of the human nervous system” Britannica
Acedemic          Edition      [Online       Encyclopedia]       Available:
[6] B jorn, Carey. (2005, March 17). “Brain Power: Mind Control of
External        Devices.”       LiveScience.       [Online].     Available:
[7] Lee, Jong-Hwan.(2009,January 23) “Brain-machine interface via real-
time         fMRI”         Science        Direct[Online].        Available:
[8] Knight, James. (2003, Fall). “Signal Fraction Analysis and Artifact
Removal                 in            EEG”[Online].              Available:
[9] Kirby, Michael “Some Mathematical Ideas for Attacking the Brain
Computer Interface Problem” Colarado State University [Power Point]
[10] Anderson, Joel. “Neuro-Prosthetics, the Extended Mind, and Respect
for Persons with Disability.” [Online]. Available: http://igitur-
[11] Uellendahl,Jack.(2008, September 18). “Materials Used in Prosthetics
Part      2”      inMotion[Online].     Available:     http://www.amputee-
[12] Uellendahl,Jack.(2008, September 18). “Materials Used in Prosthetics
Part      2”      inMotion[Online].     Available:     http://www.amputee-
[13] Hegarty, Stephanie “What phantom limbs and mirrors teach us about
the brain”BBC News Magazine[Online Magazine] Available:
[14] Palmer, Katie. (2011, April 22). “A Neuro-Engineer’s Call to Arms.”
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                  ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
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There comes a time in every man’s life that he must find a
person to thank for all the great things that have occurred to


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