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Planting and Care of Young Pecan Trees

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					Planting and Care of Young
       Pecan Trees




        Lenny Wells
    University of Georgia
Tree Types
• Container grown
  – Plant late September or
    early October is best
  – Plant while dormant
    works well
  – Spring planting less
    successful
• Bareroot
  – Plant while dormant:
    January - March
         Planting Too Deep
• Most common cause of problems with
  young pecan trees
  – Trees unable to develop adequate brace roots
  Why are trees commonly planted too deep?

When a tree is grafted below
soil line, an artificial planting
depth discoloration is created
when soil is mounded back,
and trees are replanted to this
depth “the depth they grew in
the nursery”. They often then
sink further as soil settles.


Pecan, roots won’t readily develop
from the mature-wood grafted top.

  So major roots needed for
  anchorage cannot develop except
  underground several inches,
  where their effectiveness is greatly
  diminished.

                                         Bill Goff
• Planting Depth
  – Better to plant
    too shallow than
    too deep
  – Highest lateral
    root even with
    or just under
    soil line
Planting

• Bareroot: prune root to 18
  inches, remove lateral
  roots; prune top by 1/3-1/4.

• Container: prune any
  wrapped roots at container
  bottom
                                    30”           20”             10”
                                          Root length at planting

                                 Tree survival & growth depends on new
                                 root development, not the existing root
                                 system. New roots develop from the cut
                                 surface. More important in tighter
                                 soils.
Root Pruning
Planting
• Do not allow tree roots to dry
  out
• Heal-in for long term
    – Keep roots moist and covered
      in field
• Dig with 18” auger, deep
  enough to hold root system
• Fill hole with same soil
• Fill hole ¼-1/2 full of water, add
  dirt into the hole
• Pack soil, but do not compact
• Protect trunks from sunscald
  & herbicide
    – Trunk wraps/guards
    – White latex paint
• Prune top back by 1/3 to ¼
    – Faster rate of growth & more
      vigorous
    – Leave 2 buds
What size tree should I plant?

                         5
                             a                       c
                                         b
   Growth Response (m)



                         4
                                                         c
                         3                   b               Height after 6
                                                             yrs
                         2                                   Canopy Diam.
                                                             After 6 yrs
                         1

                         0
                             Small     Medium       Large
                                     Small=3’-6’
                                     Medium=6’-7’
                                     Large=7’-9’                              Wood, 1996
THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS
IN YOUNG TREE SURVIVAL & GROWTH

• Eliminate Weed Competition
• Adequate irrigation
Vegetation-free Distance                                             0.8

 in Bermudagrass Sod
                                                                     0.4
 • ‘Kanza’ on Giles rootstock




                                           Trunk diameter (inches)
                                                                            1st growing season
 • Bareroot whips ≈ 6 ft tall
                                                                       0
 • Irrigated as needed with solid-                                   2.0
   set sprinkler
 • Circles maintained vegetation                                     1.5
   free with glyphosate, entire                                              3rd growing season
   area treated with Surflan                                         1.0
                                                                      8
 • Results                                                                             18% larger
    – No effect &1st   2ndyear                                              6th growing season
    – 3rd year largest tree in 3 – 24 ft                              7
      vegetation-free circle
    – 4th year largest tree in 6 – 24 ft                              6
      vegetation-free circle
    – 5th & 6th largest in 24 ft                                             0    3    6    12 24
      vegetation-free circle                                               Vegetation-free dia. (feet)
                                                                                                 Mike Smith
             YIELD                                        0.5
                                                          0.4
                                                          0.3
• Token yield in the    5th   &   6th                     0.2
  growing seasons.
                                                          0.1
     – 5th year 6 ft or greater                                              5th growing season
       produced most yield                                0.0
     – 6th year 24 ft dia most yield                      0.5
                                                                0     4      8    12   16   20    24

                                                          0.4




                                        Yield (lb/tree)
                                                          0.3
                                                          0.2
•   7thgrowing season 18                                  0.1
    lbs/tree (1089 lb/a; 20’x35’                                            6th growing season
                                                          0.0
    spacing) with 24 ft dia.
                                                                0      4     8    12   16   20    24
                                                           20

                                                           15       334% increase
                                                           10

                                                            5
                                                                           7th growing season
                                                            0
                                                                0      4     8    12   16   20       24

                                                                     Vegetation-free dia. (ft)
                                                                                        Mike Smith
         What Herbicides are Safe to Use
             Around Young Trees?
• Postmergence:
  –   Glyphosate or Paraquat ---burndown
  –   Sandea---nutsedge, pigweed, wild radish
  –   Aim---pigweed/morning glory
  –   Basagran—some broadleafs and yellow nutsedge
  –   Poast---annual and perennial grasses
  –   Select---annual/perennial grasses
  –   Fusilade---annual/perennial grasses




• Pre-emergence:
  – Surflan
  – Prowl
  – Chateau
Irrigating Young Trees
  – Drip
     • Most efficient water application method.
     • Need to cover about 50% of the root
       zone with water.
     • Can apply nitrogen through the irrigation
       system.
     • Requires excellent filtration.
     • Requires treatment for microorganisms
       to avoid stoppage if water source is
       surface.
     • Can be automated.

  – Microsprinkler                                   1st year trees
     • Less efficient water application than drip,   4hrs every other day (8 gph emitter)
       but acceptable.                               Budbreak through September
     • Can cover most of the root zone.
     • Requires good filtration, but not as good
       as drip.
     • Can be automated.
Protecting Young Trees From Pests
• Budbreak:
   – Pecan budmoth (chlorpyrifos)
   – Phylloxera (imidacloprid,
     chlorpyrifos)                                Pecan Budmoth
   – Boring Beetles (chlorpyrifos)                Damage
   – Asian Ambrosia Beetle
     (permethrin)


• Budbreak – July:
   – Leaf hoppers (imidacloprid,
     chlorpyrifos)
   – Thrips (chlorpyrifos)


• June-September:
   – Walnut caterpillar, Fall
     webworms (chlorpyrifos,
     pyrethroid)
                                   Leafhopper Damage
                                                                  Walnut caterpillar
                  Deer Protection
• Two ways to
                   Garlic Oil Dispenser
  protect trees    Bag of 50: $29.25
                   Bag of 250: $111.40
  from deer:       www.gemplers.com
  – Repellants
  – Elimination




                          Will remove
                          large bucks for
                          free
Fertilization
• Year 1:
  – No fertilizer until May/June
  – ½ lb 10-10-10
  – Apply Zinc Sulfate at 1 lb per
    tree for the 1st 3 yrs.
  – 2-3 sprays foliar Zn
  – Mouse Ear Trees:
     • Apply Ni at rate of 1.5 qts/100
       gallons or
                                             Effect of Temik on Young Pecan Trees
                                                 Seedling Shoot Length
                                                                                                                                                                           SeedlingTrunk Diameter
                            60                                                                                                            18




                                                                                                      Trunk Diameter Increase (cm)
                                                                                                                                          16
                            50
    Shoot Length (inches)




                                                                                                                                          14
                            40                                                                                                            12
                                                                                      UT                                                                                                                                  UT
                                                                                                                                          10
                            30                                                        Aldicarb 0.25                                                                                                                       Aldicarb 0.25
                                                                                      Aldicarb 0.5                                              8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aldicarb 0.5
                            20                                                                                                                  6

                                                                                                                                                4
                            10                                                                                                                  2

                                                                                                                                                0
                             0
                                  May     June       August    September   November                                                                     May           June          August       September     November

                                                     Date                                                                                                                           Date



                                                          Seedling                                                                                    700
                                                                                                                                                      600
                    50

                                                                                                                                     Dry weight (g)   500
Chlorophyll Index




                    45
                                                                                                                                                      400
                                                                                      UT
                    40                                                                Aldicarb 0.25
                                                                                                                                                      300
                                                                                      Aldicarb 0.5                                                    200
                    35
                                                                                                                                                      100
                    30                                                                                                                                  0
                                 August          September           November                                                                                    Root                   Stem                   Total
                                                   Date                                                                                                       Aldicarb (0.25 lb)   Aldicarb (0.5 lb)   Untreated
  Effect of Temik on Young Pecan
               Trees
Cape Fear
                               80
     Trunk Diamter Increase




                               70
                               60
                               50
              (cm)




                               40
                               30
                               20
                               10
                                0
                                     Year 1    Year 2    Year 3     % Bearing

      Temik 0.5 lbs/tree                      Temik 0.25 lbs/tree    Untreated




                              70
                              60                                                                  70
  Increase (mm)
  Trunk Diamter




                              50                                                                  60



                                                                                 Trunk Diameter
                                                                                 Increase (mm)
                              40                               Temik (0.25 lb)                    50
                              30                               Temik (0.5 lb)
                                                                                                  40                          Temik (0.25 lb)
                              20                               Untreated
                                                                                                  30                          Temik 0.5 lb)
                              10                                                                  20                          Untreated
                               0                                                                  10
                                    Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
                                                                                                   0
 Sumner                                                                                                Year 1 Year 2 Year 3


                                                                                         Elliott
   First Year Orchard Establishment
                 Costs
Item                        Unit       Quant.     Price                $ Per acre
lime                        Ton               1           30                    30
Fert                        lbs              12        3.33                  39.96
Zinc                        lbs              24        0.35                   8.40
Herbicide                   Appl              3       29.25                  87.75
Trees                       Tree             24           15                  360
Labor                       hrs              20            7                  140
Irrigation (oper.)                            1           13                    13
Irrig. Install.             acre                                             $630
Spray Material              acre              2           15                    30
Note: Irrigation Installation does not include pump            Total     $1339.11



Costs based on 30 X 60 spacing = 24 trees per acre
Questions?

				
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