models by hedongchenchen


									Models for Problem-Based Learning

          Institute for Transforming
          Undergraduate Education

           University of Delaware
        The principal idea behind PBL is?

A. PBL challenges students to learn to learn.
B. Learning is initiated by a problem.
C. Student-centered work in permanent
“The principal idea behind PBL is
 that the starting point for learning
 should be a problem, a query, or a
 puzzle that the learner wishes to
 Boud (1985)
       The principal idea behind PBL is?

A. PBL challenges students to learn to learn.
B. Learning is initiated by a problem.
C. Student-centered work in permanent groups.

Barriers to Using PBL?
            Barriers to Using PBL?
            (some responses)
1. Mindset of the teachers, fear of change and loss of good.
2. Not enough resources for students to do research
3. Belief in process by professors and how to teach using PBL
4.  Need skill to identify problems, both prof and stud
5.  Lack of communication, self esteem of students
6.  Lack of team work skills
7.  Socio-cultural differences of students, diversity of preparation
    and backgrounds
8. Restructuring course content and use of classtime to
    to use PBL
9. Resistance by students; they prefer traditional classes.
10. Individualistic behavior; students may prefer to work alone.
11. Prepare case studies and problems if not available.
Factors in Choosing a Model

Class size
Intellectual maturity of students
Student motivation
Course learning objectives
Instructor’s preferences
Availability of peer facilitators
      Common Classroom Models

•   Medical school
•   Floating Facilitator
•   Peer Facilitator
•   “Hybrid”
       Medical School Model

•   Dedicated faculty tutor
•   Groups of 8-10
•   Very student-centered environment
•   Group discussion is primary class activity

A good choice for
• Highly motivated, experienced learners
• Small, upper-level seminar classes
   Floating Facilitator Model

• Instructor moves from group to group
  – Asks questions, directs discussions, checks
• Group size: 4
• More structured format: greater degree of
  instructor input into learning issues and
       Floating Facilitator Model

Other class activities:
   – Groups report out
   – Whole class discussions
   – (Mini-)lectures

A good choice for
• Less experienced learners
• Classes of all sizes
      Peer Facilitator Model

Advanced undergraduates serve as facilitators
  – Help monitor group progress and dynamics
  – Serve as role models for novice learners
  – Capstone experience for student facilitators

A good choice for
• Classes of all sizes
    Dealing with Large Classes

Floating facilitator or peer facilitator models are
  the most appropriate.
Requires a more teacher-centered, structured
  format: instructor directs group activities
Group size: 4
Reduce grading burden through group (vs.
 individual) papers, projects
     “Hybrid” PBL

• Non-exclusive use of problem-driven learning in a
• May include separate lecture segments or other active-
  learning components
• Floating or peer facilitator models common

Often used as entry point into PBL in course
 transformation process
   A Sampler: ITUE Leaders’ PBL Courses

Small Classes (< 30 students)
  –   General Chemistry
  –   Introductory Biology, General Physiology
  –   Introduction to Biochemistry
  –   Biochemical Evolution, Intermediary
  A Sampler: ITUE Leaders’ PBL Courses

• Medium-Large Classes (40-120 students)
  –   Problems of the Criminal Judiciary
  –   Psychology and the Law
  –   Physical Science
  –   “Science Semester” for elem. education majors
           Small Course Characteristics
                 Model           Student type          % PBL                  Comments
                                 (year/major)         Grp #,(size)
General         Floating      FR                      40-50          Mixed with lecture, demos,
Chem (H)        facilitator   Science (not chem)      4-5, (4)       other activities

Intro Biology   Peer         FR/SO                    85-90          6-7 PBL problems per
                facilitators Science, allied health   4-5, (4-6)     semester
General       Peer         SO/JR                      85-90          6-7 PBL problems per
Physiology(H) facilitators Biology                    4-5, (4-6)     semester

Intro to        Peer         SO                       100            Uses scientific articles as
Biochemistry    facilitators BIOC majors              5-8, (4)       problems

Intermediary    Floating      SR, GRAD                100            Progressive disclosure
Metabolism      facilitator   Majors                  3, (3-6)       (staged) problems

Biochemical     Floating      SR, GRAD                100            Case study problems
Evolution       facilitator   Majors                  3, (3-5)
  Typical PBL Sequence: Gen. Chem.

Problems are used to introduce concepts: no prior
  discussion of concepts in class.
Guiding questions are used to focus learning.
Groups work in class (texts); meet to finish outside
  before next class meeting.
Groups report out, typically via overheads.
Summaries are prepared from or based on reports.
Problem is followed by fuller discussion of related
  issues, connections to earlier work
How Class Time is Used: Gen Chem.

                Percent of PBL Class Time
                      CHEM 104H 03S

        1   4   7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40
                        class number
           Medium-Large Course Features

               Model       Student type        % PBL                    Comments
                           (year/major)      Grp.#, (size)

Prob. Crim. Floating     FR/SO               25-33%          TA’s assist as facilitators
Judiciary   facilitators Majors and          25, (4-6)       Mix w/ lecture, other activities
Psych and     Floating     JR/SR             50%             TA’s assist as facilitators
the Law       facilitators PSYC, CRJU        10, (4)         Mix w/ lecture, other activities

Physical      Floating     All levels        60%             TA’s assist as facilitators
Science       facilitators Gen. Ed. course   34, (4)         Large auditorium/fixed seats

“Science      Floating     SO                60%             Multiple instructors
Semester”     facilitators Elem. Ed.         12, (5)         Meets in Gore 208
                                                             120 min sessions, 5 days/week
         Large Physical Science vs Small Physics
            for Gen. Ed.            for Pre-meds
•   120 students                        •   fewer than 30 students
•   auditorium/fixed seats              •   round tables/chairs
•   permanent groups, 3-5               •   permanent groups of 4
•   problems initiated in large class   •   problems initiated in class
•   group discussion, lecture
                                        • more group oriented
                                          discussion than whole class
                                          activity or lecture
• learning issues addressed in large
  class and discussion                  • learning issues addressed
• multiple choice/show work               mainly in groups
  exams                                 • individual and group “show
• 3 projects related to problems          your work”
                                        • one large project
     “Science Semester”

An integrated science and teaching methods
 course for future teachers: combines biology,
 physical science, geology and science methods

  •PBL is central focus of 4 curricular units: integrated
  with active learning and lecture
  •Session times: 120 min, 5 days/week.
  •Large class (60) and 3 smaller (20) discussion
  •Multiple instructors as facilitators and discussion
Activities in “Science Semester”

                • Research vessel experience
                • Assessment strategies:
                   – Group, individual testing
                   – Web pages
                   – PowerPoint presentations to
                     community experts
                   – Letter to editor
                   – Poster presentations
                   – Concept maps
                   – Micro-teaching
Reflections and Questions

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