Infant Toddler Assessment by cZT8I2x


            Mary Ann Ellis EdS
Mary Ann Ellis EdS
            Madonna University

Madonna University
Bronfenbrenner 1979
• “Traditional Assessment ..the strange behavior of children
 in strange situations with strange adults for the briefest
 possible periods of time.”

• Is a brief, formal assessment process where we take
  a quick look to see if further evaluation is needed
• Not to be used for eligibility or diagnostics
• Professional administered or parent completed
 Types of Infant/Toddler Assessment
• Screening

• Authentic Performance Based

• Diagnostic Evaluation

• Early On Comprehensive Evaluation
                Recommended Screening Tools
                       Michigan Department of Education
                       Early On Reference Bulletin No. 11
                                March 24, 2011

•   Ages and Stages Questionnaire
•   Child Development Inventories, The Ounce Scale
•   Birth to Three Assessment and Intervention System
•   2nd Edition (Btais-2)
•   Screening Test of Developmental Abilities
•   Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening test
•   Brigance Screens
•   Denver Developmental Screening Test II
•   Developmental Profile 3
•   ESP: Early Screening Profiles
•   Infant-Toddler and Family Assessment
•   Devereaux Early Childhood Assessment program
•   Modified- Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
•   PEDS: Developmental Milestones for children zero to eight years

 Authentic Performance Based Assessment

• Young children must be assessed individually
  by adults they know in realistic settings and
  situations that reflect children’s actual
• Inappropriate assessment can be harmful to
  young children.
 NAEYC Position Statement on Assessment:
Assessment is not about evaluation but
about getting info
• True authentic based assessment would occur in a
  natural setting over a period of time by means of
  systematic observation
• The intent is to know a child’s development, learning
  styles and skills so we can determine what the child can
  do and be able to provide learning experiences for the
  next set of skills

ResultsMatter,Video library
Early Intervention-Authentic Assessment in Early Intervention
Best Practice:
Seeing the Child in the context of Family
Development is a Transactional Process
     Routines Based Assessment
• Developed at Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Family
 Research Program

• Robin McWilliam

• LeeAnn Jung, Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Education,
  University of Kentucky

• Case Example
             Diagnostic Evaluation
• Evaluation is a comprehensive procedure where specific
  criterion or norm-referenced instruments are used by
  qualified personnel to obtain a score for the purpose of
  identification of unique needs, diagnosis or eligibility for
• Must provide a more comprehensive view of the child’s
  functioning than Screening
• Must have fixed procedures of administration, scoring,
  standard materials and instructions
 Early On Comprehensive Evaluation
• What is Early On? –The delivery of services in Michigan
 for children from birth to three years of age who have
 developmental delays and or established conditions

• Michigan’s comprehensive plan for Part C of Public Law
  108-446 IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
                         Eligibility for Early On
• Developmental delay
• Established Conditions

               Developmental Delay
• Children from birth through 2 years of age whose
 development is delayed by 20% in one or more of the
 following areas:
  1.   Cognitive
  2.   Communication
  3.   Social/emotional
  4.   Adaptive/Self-Help
  5.   Physical including vision and hearing
    Approved Evaluation Instruments
• Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II)
• Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of early Development – Revised
• Infant-Toddler Developmental Assessment (IDA)
• Early Intervention Developmental Profile (EIDP)
• Hawaii Early Learning Profiles (HELP)/HELP Strands
• Battelle Inventory
                 Established Conditions
Children from birth through age two who
have a diagnosed physical
or mental condition that
has a high probability of
resulting in
developmental delay
       Establish Condition Categories
• The categories of established conditions are (but not
 limited to):
  1.   Chromosomal anomaly/genetic disorder
  2.   Neurological disorder
  3.   Congenital malformation
  4.   Inborn error of metabolism
  5.   Sensory disorder
  6.   Atypical developmental disorder
  7.   Severe toxic exposure
  8.   Chronic illness
  9.   Severe infectious disease
• Limited in how we follow recommended practices for
 Infant Toddler Assessment when we are looking for
 eligibility for Early On
  1.  Diagnostic nature requires standardization
  2. Timeline of 45 days
  3. Actual written law requiring formal assessment
       Early On Authentic Assessment
• Natural environment

• Several sources of information

• Parent child observation including recommended practice
 of parent participation in evaluation

• Parental input of developmental history and concerned

• Option of Informed Clinical Opinion (ICO)
  Comprehensive Evaluations/Integrative
• Comprehensive evaluations must contain:
   1. Developmental history which includes medical history
   2. Parent-child observation
   3. Recent health status report that is with 3 months for children 0-
      18 months and within 6 months for children 18 months through
      2 years old
   4. An appropriate formal evaluation measure.
                Integrative Report
• Descriptive info re: agency, child and evaluator
• Referral/ Evaluation info re: who, what, where and why
• Developmental & Health History
• Observational discoveries
• Developmental levels & descriptions
• Summary
• Recommendations re: eligibility including parental
  concerns etc.
• Signatures and titles of evaluators
• Integrative Reports Template.doc
          Informed Clinical Opinion
• “Informed opinion (e.g. clinical judgment)is a
 recommended practice authorized in the Individuals with
 Disabilities Act (IDEA) to (1) document the often
 unrecognized capabilities and subtle dimensions of the
 development and behavior infants and toddlers with
 special needs…” (Neisworth,Bagnato 2011)
               Guidelines for ICO
• Used for determining eligibility based on developmental
 delay regarding difficult to measure aspects of current
 developmental status and the potential need for early
             ICO is used for

• Children whose age is under 2
 months and therefore a 20%
 delay is difficult to measure

• Children over 2 months when
 delay is suspected but
 traditional tools do not show
 the delay.
• Is not a means to circumvent the eligibility criteria for
  Early On
• A multidisciplinary team must synthesize and interpret
  information from
  1.   Clinical Interview with parents
  2.   Evaluation of the child at play
  3.   Observation of the parent-child interaction
  4.   Information of the caregivers that spend significant time with the
  5.   Neurodevelopmental and other physical examinations
  6.   Additional psychometric and diagnostic data
• An ICO must:
   1. Be compiled into a written integrative report
   2. Identify what sources of information were used
   3. Identify who provided the information
   4. Identify the estimated % of delay
   5. Contain recommendations related to the IFSP
   6. Be attached to the IFSP(to ensure it is captured as part of the
      IFSP development)
Student Assignments/Activities to Develop
               Skill Base
• Observation of video clips to take anecdotal notes and
 score on sections of assessments or evaluations

• Observation/participation in sample assessment as a
 group in class including writing integrative report

• Developmental observational assessment or
 evaluation/report of a young child

• Play based evaluation and plan of action of a young child
 with unique needs in a classroom
          Thank you for attending
Presenter: Mary Ann Ellis EdS
           Infant/Toddler Developmental Specialist
           Madonna University
           Early Childhood Education
           (734) 729-7247

For further information:
Early On Training and Technical Assistance
& Early on Center for Higher Education
Or call: 866.334.5437

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