Social-Emotional Learning Programs

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Social-Emotional Learning Programs Powered By Docstoc
Learning Programs Available at
       Heartland AEA:
 Gold, Silver, & Promising Program
        Content Information

         Angelisa Braaksma, PhD
       Brian C. McKevitt, PhD, NCSP

          About This Information
• The information presented on these slides describes the content of
  social-emotional learning programs available at Heartland AEA in the
  Professional Library
• The program reviews were completed in 2004 by a group of Goal 2
  (social/emotional) committee members and summarized in a booklet,
  available online at
  handouts.html. Please consult the booklet for more in-depth information
  about the program review process.
• Programs reviewed were rated 1-5, based on their research base (1=no
  evidence to support effectiveness; 5=strong evidence to support
  effectiveness)…only programs with a rating of 3 and higher are
  included in these descriptions
• Other programs were reviewed but are not recommended based on their
  lack of evidence. See the booklet for a complete list of programs
                Program Reviewers
•   Sherese Beresford, School Social Worker
•   Charlotte Buttin, Early Childhood Consultant
•   Gloria Frolek Clark, Occupational Therapist
•   Brian McKevitt, School Psychologist
•   Monica McKevitt, School Psychologist
•   MaryAnn Strawhacker, Nurse Consultant
•   Barbara E. Rankin, Challenging Behavior Specialist
•   Stacy S. Volmer, Challenging Behavior Specialist
•   Summaries provided in this presentation were developed by
    Angelisa Braaksma, Brian McKevitt, and participants of a 2-
    day AEA training on July 26-27, 2005

            PATHS Curriculum
• Description - Curriculum that teaches the five areas of
  social and emotional development: self-control, emotional
  understanding, self-esteem, peer relations, and
  interpersonal problem-solving. The curriculum reduces
  teacher reports of aggressive behavior and increased
  teacher reports of students exhibiting self-control.
• Intended ages - K - 6
• Rating - 5 Gold Program

  Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies
• 119 lessons for promoting self-control, positive self esteem,
  emotional awareness, interpersonal problem solving skills,
  and relationships
• Can be used as a prevention or intervention program
• Best with small groups of 4-9 students but can be used
  whole class
• 20-30 minutes per day, 3-5 days per week
• Curriculum can continue across multiple years
• Manual includes suggestions for use with students with
  disabilities, anxious/withdrawn, and gifted students
            PATHS Lessons
• Sequenced according to increasing
  developmental difficulty
• Include direct instruction, dialogue, role
  plays, story telling, modeling, social
  reinforcement, attribution training, and
  verbal mediation
• Promote generalization

          PATHS Unit 1:
      Readiness & Self-control
• Promotes readiness skills and self-control of
• Optional unit
• Designed for low developmental level
  (Kindergarten or students with disabilities)
• Teaches self-control with stories, role plays,
  “Turtle Technique”
• Can be completed in 5-7 weeks

             PATHS Unit 2:
        Feelings & Relationships
• Develops emotional and interpersonal understanding
• 56 lessons
• 40-50 different affective states covered
• Taught in a developmental hierarchy from basic (e.g., mad,
  sad) to complex (e.g., jealousy, guilt, pride)
• First three problem solving steps covered:
    – Stop & calm down
    – Identify problem
    – Identify feeling

  PATHS Unit 3: Interpersonal
   Cognitive Problem Solving
• Teaches steps to problem solving
• 33 lessons
• Usually done during 2nd year of
  curriculum implementation after
  review of previous unit

          PATHS Unit 3 (cont.)
Steps to problem solving:
1. Stopping and calming down
2. Problem identification
3. Feeling identification
4. Deciding on a goal
5. Generating alternative solutions
6. Evaluating the possible consequences of solutions
7. Selecting the best solution
8. Planning the best solution
9. Trying the formulated plan
10. Evaluating the outcome
11. Trying another solution and/or plan
   Building Self Esteem & Peer
• Interspersed through other units
• “PATHS Kid for Today”
• Giving compliments, friendship issues,
  teasing, belonging part of other lessons

           Supplementary Unit
•   Problem solving meetings
•   Self-control review
•   Friendship and peer relations
•   Review of problem solving
•   Fairness/moral development

• Description - Curriculum framework seeks to contribute to
  children’s intellectual, social, and physical development so
  they can achieve success and social responsibility in school
  and life. Video, curriculum materials, and assessment
  tools are available for educators and families that address a
  wide range of topics.
• Intended ages - Birth to adolescence
• Rating - 4 Silver Program

                Curriculum Series
• Framework for education whose goal is to provide
  meaningful and realistic educational experiences for all
• Fundamental premise is that children are active learners
  who construct their own knowledge through meaningful
• Six curriculum components:
   –   Active Learning
   –   Classroom Arrangement
   –   Daily Schedule
   –   Content
   –   Teacher/Child Interaction
   –   Assessment                                            14
              Curriculum Series
– Active Learning
  •   Appealing materials
  •   Opportunities for manipulation
  •   Choices for children
  •   Language from children
  •   Adult support
– Classroom Arrangement
  • Five or more defined activity areas/centers
  • Wide range of interesting materials
  • Well-organized, child-accessible storage, labeled
              Curriculum Series
– Daily Schedule
  •   Consistent routine
  •   Plan-do-review sequence
  •   Small-group instructional workshops
  •   Balance of teacher-planned and child-planned activities
– Content
  • Scope and sequence defined by key experiences in math,
    language and literacy, science, movement, etc.
  • Teacher-planned daily workshop times focusing on key
    content areas
  • Child-planned activities related to key experiences
  • Has additional books focusing on Language and Literacy,
    Mathematics, and Science
                Curriculum Series
– Teacher-Child Interaction
   • Teachers support and extend children’s learning by engaging
     in instructional dialogue
   • Teachers share control with children
   • Teachers work to create a positive social environment
   • Teachers support children’s intrinsic motivation to learn
– Assessment
   •   Anecdotal notes collected by teachers on children’s progress
   •   Student work samples in portfolios
   •   Assessment of child progress guided by key experiences
   •   Daily assessment and planning by teachers
 High/Scope Curriculum Series
• What Makes High/Scope Stand Out?
  – Not a packaged curriculum based upon a set of
    consumables; It is a set of guidelines, principles,
    and suggested activities
  – Teaching practices can work in a variety of
    school and nonschool settings
  – “3 Rs” are a central part of the curriculum
  – Probably already doing parts of the approach
  – Proven track record
           I Can Problem Solve
• Description - Prevention curriculum that offers teachers a
  school-based program focused on developing problem-
  solving and good thinking skills. Three level of teaching
  are provided: basic word concepts, focus on own and
  others’ feelings, and skills in identifying alternative
  solutions and thinking about consequences.
• Intended ages - Pre- K - Elementary
• Rating - 4 Silver Program

          I Can Problem Solve
• Originally called Interpersonal Cognitive Problem
• Goal is to teach children thinking skills that can be
  used to help resolve or prevent “people” problems
• Focus is to teach children how to think, guide
  children to think for themselves, teach children
  how to evaluate their own ideas, and encourage
  children to come up with many solutions to
  problems on their own

           I Can Problem Solve
• Lessons focus on Pre-Problem-Solving Skills and
  Problem-Solving Skills
• Problem-Solving Dialoguing
   – Both child and teacher must identify the problem
   – When dialoguing, it is important to understand and deal
     with the real problem
   – Once the real problem has been identified, the teacher
     must not alter it to fit his or her own needs
   – The child, not the teacher, must solve the problem
   – The focus is on how the child thinks, not on what he
 I Can Problem Solve: Preschool
• Age 4, language may be appropriate for some 3
  year olds
• Sessions
   – 20 minutes per lesson
   – One lesson/day - 4 months
   – 59 lessons in two categories - pre-problem solving
     skills and problem-solving skills
   – Each lesson contains a stated purpose, list of suggested
     materials, and a teacher script

 I Can Problem Solve: Preschool
• Conducting Lessons
   – Present the lessons as games
   – Vary the wording of the script to suit the group
   – Divide the class into groups of 6 to 8 children, some
     boys and girls
   – Lessons include ample repetition, so students don’t
     have to be caught up if absent
• Includes Complementary Applications to assist
  with generalization to the classroom and to life
     I Can Problem Solve:
Kindergarten and Primary Grades
• Kindergarten and primary grades
• Sessions
  – 20 - 40 minutes per lesson
  – Daily lesson - 4 months
  – 83 lessons in two categories - pre-problem
    solving skills and problem-solving skills
  – Each lesson contains a stated purpose, list of
    suggested materials, and a teacher script

     I Can Problem Solve:
Kindergarten and Primary Grades
• Conducting Lessons
   – Present the lessons as games
   – Vary the wording of the script to suit the group
   – Can be conducted with entire class, but small groups are
   – Go at the pace of your group
   – Can move quickly, but do not skip lessons, for students
     who are familiar with previous lessons
• Includes Complementary Applications to assist with
  generalization to the classroom and to life
        I Can Problem Solve:
         Intermediate Grades
• Intermediate elementary grades
• Sessions
  – 40 - 45 minutes per lesson
  – Start at the beginning of the year
  – Three lessons/week - within a school year
  – 77 lessons in two categories - pre-problem
    solving skills and problem-solving skills
  – Each lesson contains a stated purpose, list of
    suggested materials, and a teacher script
            I Can Problem Solve:
             Intermediate Grades
• Conducting Lessons
   –   Present the lessons as games
   –   Vary the wording, but don’t lose the concepts
   –   Most lessons can be conducted with entire class
   –   Go at the pace of your group
   –   Be sure to apply concepts taught in lessons informally in
       classroom interactions and build them into the
• Includes Complementary Applications to assist
  with generalization to the classroom and to life
              Project RIDE
• Description - Responding to Individual
  Differences in Education (RIDE) is a
  collection of resources designed to assist
  teachers with the pre-referral and inclusion
• Intended ages - Early childhood to Middle
• Rating - 4 Silver Program

              Project RIDE
• RIDE - Responding to Individual
  Differences in Education
• Intent of the program is to assist teachers to
  identify at-risk behaviors and then match
  those needs to documented classroom

   Project RIDE: Early Childhood
• Basic Components
   –   Effective Early Childhood Classroom Practices
   –   Computer Tactics Bank
   –   Video Library
   –   Parental Collaboration
• Effective Early Childhood Classroom Practices
   – Based upon the premise that early childhood educators can
     benefit from systematically examining the extent to which
     their current classroom procedures are congruent with best
     practices as reported in professional literature
   – Based upon principles developed by the National
     Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
   – Includes Effective Practices Self-Evaluation and        30
     Modification forms
 Project RIDE: Early Childhood
• Computer Tactics Bank
  – List of behaviors and matched intervention tactics
  – Each tactic description includes: (1) appropriate age, (2)
    short introductory statement, (3) necessary steps of the
    procedure, (4) details of special considerations, (5)
    monitoring guidelines, and (6) original reference(s)
  – Choosing a Tactic
  – Reinforcements and Incentives
  – Video Library - demonstrations of some tactics for

 Project RIDE: Early Childhood
• Parental Collaboration
  – What is Collaboration and Why it is Important
  – Collaborative Conference: Before, During and
  – Includes Collaboration Team Request for
    Assistance, Action Plan, and Follow-Up Report

   Project RIDE: Elementary and
           Middle School
• Responds to the following needs:
   – Need to provide teachers with alternative teaching and behavior
     management tactics for students who do not qualify for special
     services but who need social or academic interventions
   – Need to provide teachers with inclusionary tactics so students
     with disabilities might be educated with their general education
   – Need for a prereferral system which increases the probability
     that students referred to special education are, in fact, students
     in need of placement
   – Need to capitalize on one of the best resources within a school
     building: a small group of colleagues trained in problem
  Project RIDE: Elementary and
          Middle School
• Four Basic Components
  –   Effective Classroom Practices
  –   Computer Tactics Bank
  –   Video Library
  –   School-Wide Assistance Team (SWAT)

  Project RIDE: Elementary and
          Middle School
• Effective Classroom Practices
   – Based upon the premise that teachers can benefit from
     systematically examining the extent to which their
     current classroom procedures are congruent with the
     findings of educational research
   – Based upon literature review conducted by the
     Northwest Regional Laboratory and other sources like
     Strategies and Tactics for Effective Instruction and The
     Tough Kid Book series
   – Includes Effective Practices Self-Evaluation and
     Modification forms

Project RIDE: Elementary and
        Middle School
– Five Guidelines
  • There are high expectations for all students
  • Instruction is clear and focused
  • Learning is monitored closely
  • Behavior management plans are in place
  • There is a positive atmosphere in the

 Project RIDE: Elementary and
         Middle School
• School-Wide Assistance Team (SWAT)
  – Team of teachers who use expertise to assist
    their peers in resolving classroom and/or
    school-wide problems
  – Create a Climate for SWAT
  – Establish the Team and Train Members
  – Develop SWAT Procedures and the Process
  – Includes SWAT Request for Assistance, Action
    Plan, and Follow-Up Report forms
 Project RIDE: Elementary and
         Middle School
• Implementation
  – Objectives, timelines, and responsible
  – Validate the tactic using data
    • May add tactic to computer school’s
      computer bank if it has been validated and
      replicated and there is staff agreement

              Second Step
• Description - Violence prevention
  curriculum for grades pre-K to 9. Scripted
  lessons focus on empathy, impulse control,
  problem solving, and anger management.
• Intended ages - Pre-K to 9
• Rating - 4 Silver Program

             Second Step:
   A Violence Prevention Curriculum
School-wide prevention curriculum
• Skills addressed:
  –   Empathy
  –   Impulse control
  –   Anger management
  –   Problem solving

            Second Step: Goals
1. To increase students’ ability to:
     • Identify others’ feelings.
     • Take others’ perspectives.
     • Respond empathically to others.
2. To decrease impulsive and aggressive behavior
   in students through:
     • Recognizing anger warning signs
     • Using anger reduction techniques
     • Applying a problem-solving strategy to social
     • Practicing behavioral social skills to deal with
       potentially violent situations
    Second Step: Curriculum
•   Lessons are designed for whole-class use
    but can be adapted for small groups
•   Lessons are presented in a sequence of 5
    I.     Understanding the Problem
    II.    Training for Empathy
    III.   Anger Management
    IV.    Problem Solving
    V.     Applying Skills
      Second Step: Curriculum
• Lessons are scripted for clarity and ease of use
• Materials include overhead transparencies, in-class
  activities, videos, role play scenarios, posters,
  Impulsive Puppy, and Slow Down Snail
• Generalization techniques are addressed in the
  teacher’s guide
• 30 minutes per lesson, 1-2 lessons per week

                Stop and Think
• Description - A component of Project ACHIEVE.
  Scripted lessons guide one through teaching,
  demonstrating, and reviewing social skills lessons. All
  lessons follow the Stop and Think Process, in which
  students are taught to stop and think about making good
  and bad choices.
• Intended ages - Pre-K to 8
• Rating - 4 Silver Program

             Stop and Think
• Students are taught to stop and think about
  how they want to handle a situation before
  acting, decide whether they want to make a
  good choice or bad choice, think about the
  steps they need to follow, put their plan into
  action, and positively reinforce themselves
• Interpersonal, problem-solving, and conflict
  resolution skills

              Stop and Think
• Comes in four manuals:
  –   PK-1st grade
  –   2nd-3rd grade
  –   4th-5th grade
  –   6th-8th grade
• Each focuses on skills that are relevant and
  needed by students in the targeted age group

             Stop and Think:
             Teaching Process
•   Teach skills
•   Model skills
•   Role play skills
•   Provide performance feedback
•   Transfer the training by prompting and
    having students use the skills as much as
    possible during the day
   The Stop and Think Process
1. Stop and Think!
2. Are you going to make a Good Choice or
   a Bad Choice?
3. What are your Choices or Steps?
4. Do It!
5. Good Job!

      Stop and Think Lessons
• Lessons take 10-30 minutes (depending on
• Lessons are divided into two phases:
  teaching and application
• Two weeks are recommended for each
  lesson to cover both phases adequately
• Lessons are loosely scripted

          Waksman Social Skills
• Description - Curriculum provides short-term assertion
  training (goals for each lesson with objectives). The
  program provides training activities in specific social skill
  areas such as responses to teasing, setting clear goals, and
  how to handle losing and failure.
• Intended ages - Adolescence
• Rating - 4 Silver Program

    The Waksman Social Skills
    Curriculum for Adolescents
• Manual describes procedures and activities
  designed to teach children and adolescents more
  appropriate social or assertive behavior patterns
• Designed for adolescents with or without
  disabilities and with deficits in social skills and
  peer relationship difficulties
   – Not appropriate as a total intervention for severe
     behavior problems
   – May be used in conjunction with a behavior
     management or special education program

    The Waksman Social Skills
    Curriculum for Adolescents
• Instruction
   – Twice a week for nine weeks
   – Counselors, school psychologists, and special education
     teachers can use without special training
• Grouping
   – Small, heterogeneous group of students
   – Waksman Social Skills Rating Scale (WSSRS) and
     checklist of skills can be used to identify potential

   The Waksman Social Skills
   Curriculum for Adolescents
• Sessions
  – 45 - 60 minute lesson
  – Each lesson has a general goal, specific
    behavioral objectives, student worksheet,
    instructions for activities, and homework
  – Begin with review of previous lesson and end
    with summary of current lesson
  – All participants need to role-play all lessons
       The Waksman Social Skills
       Curriculum for Adolescents
• 18 Sessions & Review Session
   –   Passive, aggressive, assertive
   –   Requests and refusals
   –   Eye contact, posture, and voice
   –   Clear goal statements
   –   Social problem solving
   –   Conversation skills
   –   Disclosing feelings
   –   Touching and listening
   –   Enhancing self-esteem and positive body image
   –   Compliments and self-reinforcement

       The Waksman Social Skills
       Curriculum for Adolescents
• 18 Sessions and Review Session
   –   Receiving criticism
   –   Reactions to anger
   –   Self-relaxation
   –   Drug refusal skills, group pressure, and teasing
   –   Losing and failure
   –   Embarrassing situations
   –   Avoiding fights and solving arguments
   –   Self-confidence

       Connecting With Others
• Description - Presents a strategy to promote self-
  advocacy, communication, interpersonal
  behaviors, and problem solving
• Intended Ages - K-12
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

        Connecting with Others
• Manuals target four different age groups: K-2, 3-5,
  6-8, 9-12
• Scripted lessons are based on the theoretical
  concepts of transactional analysis, assertion
  training, and cognitive behavior modification
• It is the goal of this program to give students the
  skills necessary to take control of their lives,
  enabling them to experience successful
  relationships that bring self-fulfillment and
  enduring satisfaction                               57
           Devereaux (DECA)
• Description - DECA program was developed to
  promote healthy social and emotional growth in
  preschoolers by strengthening their protective
  resiliency factors. Based upon the concept of
  resiliency, the separate elements of the program
  comprise an integrated system that leads to better
  outcomes for children
• Intended Ages - 2-6
• Rating - 3 Promising Program
• Uses observations & DECA questionnaire
  for assessment
• Suggestions and strategies are given for
  teachers and parents on:
  –   Using the environment
  –   Using the daily program
  –   Using activities and experiences
  –   Using supportive interactions

• Based on the philosophy that fostering
  resilience is important for all children and
  leads to social/emotional health
• Users must be trained in assessment in order
  to interpret rating scales

           First Steps to Success
• Description - An early intervention program designed to
  divert at-risk children from a path leading to an antisocial
  pattern of behavior. It is a joint home and school
  intervention that enhances early school experiences and
  assists at-risk children by teaching them to get along and
  engage appropriately in school work.
• Intended ages - K
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

        First Steps to Success
• Early intervention targeting at-risk children
  to prevent the development of anti-social
• Three components:
  – Screening
  – Class
  – Home base

        First Steps to Success
• Lessons are not scripted, but examples are
• Minimum of 30 school days over 6 weeks
• No direct social skill lessons, but attention
  given for appropriate behaviors
• Requires a school coach to implement
• Videos are included for training
         Getting to Know You
• Description - Social skills lessons intended to be
  taught daily. Emphasis on “think aloud”
  component with social skills instruction.
• Intended ages - grades 1-9
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

           Getting to Know You
• Comes in three manuals (grades 1-3; 4-5; 6-9)
• Addresses seven social skills:
   –   Classroom skills
   –   Friendship
   –   Expressing feelings
   –   Relieving stress
   –   Solving problems
   –   Replacement skills
   –   Self-acceptance
        Getting to Know You
• Teaches “think aloud” strategies
• Includes role-plays and transfer activities
• Authors recommend a 4-5 year plan to learn
  and master each skill
• Designed to be implemented school-wide
• All students and staff learn a familiar and
  common language
        In Control: A Skill
        Building Program
• Description - Program guide is
  intended to help teach young people
  effective anger management skills
• Intended ages - School age
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

                 In Control
• Goal is to teach students effective anger
  management skills
• Ten sessions focused around 10 key points
  designed to be completed in 10 weeks
• Lessons take approximately 45-60 minutes each
• Each session includes a goals, objectives,
  materials list, overview, and a leader script
  (including role plays)

 Making Choices: Social Problem
    Solving Skills for Young
• Description - Purpose of the program is to teach social
  problem-solving skills to children. It outlines a skill
  building program focusing on helping children build
  enduring friendships, work collaboratively with others, and
  respond positively to social situations.
• Intended ages - K-Middle School
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

              Making Choices
•   Goals of the program include:
    –   Enduring friendships
    –   Responding positively to new social situations
    –   Working productively in groups
•   Based on a social information-processing

            Making Choices
Lessons are included in seven units:
1. Learning about Emotions and Feelings
2. Encoding: Identifying Social Cues
3. Interpretation: Making Sense of Social Cues
4. Goal Formulation and Refinement: Setting
    Social Goals
5. Response Search and Formulation: Inventing
6. Response Decision: Making a Choice
7. Enactment: Acting on Choices                  71
        One-Minute Academic
      Functional Assessment and
• Description - Offers a precise and easy technique to
  ascertain the causal factors affecting performance and
  detect if a student can’t do--or won’t do--the work.
• Intended ages - K-12
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

    Safe and Civil Schools Series
• Description - Collection of practical materials designed to
  help schools improve the safety and civility of all their
  school settings. Goal of the materials is to empower
  school personnel with techniques to help all students
  behave responsibly and respectfully.
• Intended ages - K-9
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

  Safe and Civil Schools Series
• Comprehensive multi-media program that
  guides schools through the process of
  designing a proactive school-wide
  discipline plan.
• Includes staff development, implementation
  of behavior management and motivation
  practices, and behavior support for ALL
   Safe and Civil Schools Series
• Team-based implementation is
• Six 60-minute trainings sessions for all staff
• Three modules for implementation
• Requires technology to implement fully

            Skill Streaming
• Description - Process utilizes four direct
  instruction principles of learning: modeling,
  role-playing, performance feedback, and
  generalization to teach youth desirable pro-
  social behaviors.
• Intended ages - Early childhood to
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

                   Skill Streaming
• Goal to teach pro-social behavior:
   –   Beginning social skills
   –   Classroom survival skills
   –   Friendship making
   –   Dealing with feelings
   –   Dealing with aggression
   –   Dealing with stress
• Skill lessons are taught in large or small groups
• Lessons have 9 steps for modeling, role playing,
  performance feedback, and generalization
• Lessons are not scripted but include specific steps, training
  notes, and content for modeling.
    Steps to Self-Determination
• Description - Purpose is to help adolescent
  students become more self-determined.
  Role of education is to provide students
  opportunities to gain the skills, knowledge,
  and experiences that will help them assert
  their individuality and achieve their goals.
• Intended age - Adolescence
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

    Steps to Self-Determination
• Goal is to help adolescents be able to make
  informed decisions, value oneself, and
  achieve goals
• Seven hours of orientation required
• Includes 16 sessions of approximately 55
  minutes each
• Includes scripted lessons and activities

              Tough Kids
• Description - Designed to help teachers,
  psychologists, counselors, and social
  workers provide students with appropriate
  replacement behaviors for challenging
• Intended ages - All
• Rating - 3 Promising Program

               Tough Kids
• The Tough Kid Book defines who the tough
  kid is and gives classroom management
  strategies with examples
• The Tough Kid Social Skills Book is a
  curriculum that teaches targeted social skills
  in a structured framework
• Includes sections on assessment and
  instruction, along with materials

                    Tough Kids
• Social skills targeted include:
   –   Starting a conversation
   –   Joining in
   –   Recognizing and expressing feelings
   –   Having conversation
   –   Playing cooperatively
   –   Solving problems
   –   Using self-control
   –   Solving arguments
   –   Dealing with teasing
   –   Dealing with being left out
   –   Accepting “no”
                   Tough Kids
• Each lesson includes:
   –   Review
   –   Direct teaching
   –   Discussion with examples
   –   Modeling
   –   Role-play
   –   Feedback & reinforcement
   –   Generalization
   –   Goal setting
• Lessons take 60 minutes each, materials are
  included                                      83

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