Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN by m7G9AJ

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 10

									                      UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN
              SCHOOL OF DIVINITY, HISTORY & PHILOSOPHY
                      DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY

                                   CU 3011
                           SCIENCE AND RELIGION:
                        FROM GALILEO TO CREATIONISM
                                  (30 credits)

                              Academic Session 2007-2008
                           Course Co-ordinator: Ralph O’Connor
                          Information on the course for the session 2007-2008
This course handout tells you about the organisation of the course. It should be used in conjunction with the
Department’s Guidelines for Students on Level 3 and 4 Courses and the School Guidelines. Please read these
carefully and keep them for reference throughout the session.



                                                  Contents
                   1       Lecture Schedule and Seminar Readings                   Page 2
                   2       Essential and Important Information                     Page 2
                   3       Introduction to the Course                              Page 3
                   4       Aims and Learning Outcomes                              Page 4
                   5       Teaching and Learning Methods                           Page 4
                   6       Assessment                                              Page 5
                   7       Plagiarism                                              Page 5
                   8       The Role of the Course Co-Ordinator                     Page 5
                   9       Select Bibliography of Secondary Sources                Page 5
                   10      Essay Titles, Guidelines, Extensions & Penalties        Page 8
                  11      Student Feedback and Comment                            Page 10
                  12      Cultural History Beyond your Degree                     Page 10




                                        Cultural History Home Page:
                                          http://www.abdn.ac.uk/ch
1      Lecture Schedule and Seminar Readings

Lectures take place on Mondays, 12-1pm, in Taylor C24
Seminars take place on Fridays, 3-5pm, in Taylor C16

Week 1 (24-28 Sept)
       Lecture: Introduction: the relations between science and religion (Ralph O’Connor & Ben Marsden)
       Reading for seminar: Brooke, Science and Religion, Introduction and chapter 1

Week 2 (1-5 Oct)
       Lecture: Revolutionizing the sciences (Ben Marsden)
       Reading for seminar: Brooke, Science and Religion, chapter 2

Week 3 (8-12 Oct)
       Lecture: The trial(s) of Galileo (Ben Marsden)
       Reading for seminar: Brooke, Science and Religion, chapter 3

Week 4 (15-19 Oct) (Election of class representatives)
       Lecture: Divine activity in a mechanical universe (Ben Marsden)
       Reading for seminar: Brooke, Science and Religion, chapter 4

Week 5 (22-26 Oct)
       Lecture: Science and religion in the Enlightenment (Ralph O’Connor)
       Reading for seminar: Brooke, Science and Religion, chapter 5

Week 6 (29 Oct-2 Nov)
       Lecture: The fortunes and functions of natural theology (Ralph O’Connor / Ben Marsden)
       Reading for seminar: Brooke, Science and Religion, chapter 6

Week 7 (5-9 Nov)
       Lecture: The Bible and the historical sciences (Ralph O’Connor)
       No seminar this week

Week 8 (12-16 Nov) (Level/Year Meeting; first essay due in by 4pm, Monday 12 November)
       No lecture this week
       Reading for seminar: Brooke, Science and Religion, chapter 7; Moore’s essay in Lindberg and
             Numbers, God and Nature

Week 9 (19-23 Nov)
       Lecture: Evolution and Victorian religion (Ralph O’Connor)
       Reading for seminar: Brooke, Science and Religion, chapter 8

Week 10 (26-30 Nov) (Student Course Evaluation Forms to be completed)
      Lecture: Victorian alternatives to religion and irreligion
      Reading for seminar: Oppenheim, The Other World, chapters 3 and 4 (and pp. 59-62)

Week 11 (3-7 Dec) (Staff-Student Liaison Meeting)
      Lecture: Science and religion in the early twentieth century (Ralph O’Connor)
      Reading for seminar: Bowler, Reconciling Science and Religion, chapters 1 and 2

Week 12 (10-14 Dec) (second essay due in by 4pm, Monday 10 December)
      Lecture: Creationism and Intelligent Design
      Reading for seminar: Numbers’s essay in Lindberg and Numbers, God and Nature; Brooke and Cantor,
             Reconstructing Nature, 57-69




                                                     2
                                                 COMPUTING:
Ensure that you have a valid computing password. You can register from any campus networked PC by pressing
<esc> to get the registration screen. Type in your ID number. If registering for the first time the system will give
you a username and you create your own password. NOTE IT DOWN. If re-registering, type in your ID number
and the system will recognise your username. Then create a new password. You will need to re-register every
year.


2       Essential and Important Information

Rather than make this document extremely long and replicate information found elsewhere, this section will
direct you to important information which you must read and know. The most important document will be the
School’s Undergraduate Student Handbook. This contains a wealth of important information. In particular, it
gives you details on:
extensions & penalties for late submission of work;
plagiarism (what it is, how to avoid it, and the consequences – which can be severe – for plagiarising);
         Plagiarism is a serious offence everywhere in the academic community. The University’s definition is:
         ‘Plagiarism is the use, without adequate acknowledgement, of the intellectual work of another person
         in work submitted for assessment. A student cannot be found to have committed plagiarism where it
         can be shown that the student has taken all reasonable care to avoid representing the work of others as
         his/her own.’
and this very important rule about required work:
         In order to achieve a pass for a course, you must achieve a mark of at least six (6) on the CAS scale in
         every component piece of assessed work and achieve a mark of at least nine (9) overall when all
         elements of assessment are taken into account. The mark of 6 must be achieved with any deductions
         for late submission being taken into account, so for example if an essay is awarded a mark of 9, but it
         has 4 marks deducted due to late submission then it will be awarded a mark of 5. Thus you will be
         unable to pass the course, regardless of the marks that you achieve in the other elements of
         assessment. If you have failed to achieve a pass mark for a course for any reason you will be entitled
         to take a resit. This policy follows from the QAA expectation that a student who has passed a course
         has achieved all the specified learning outcomes; such an achievement is not consistent with a CAS
         mark of 0 – 5 on any piece of assessed work. A student who fails to achieve the threshold mark of six
         on all individual pieces of assessed work will be awarded a final mark for the course of eight (8),
         regardless of the average.

The University’s Policy on Student Complaints is available at www.abdn.ac.uk/registry/appeals. The Vice-
      President (Advice & Support) in the Students’ Association is available to help students wishing to
      make a complaint (tel.: +44(0)1224 272965).
The Guide to Writing Correctly has been designed to support your progress in University of Aberdeen courses. Its aim is
       to help you to become a more skilful and effective writer. There is also a Good Writing Guide which has
       additional useful information including details on the formatting of foot/endnotes and bibliographies.
Queen Mother houses the current working collections of printed material for historians. The open access
       basement contains older but still useful resources. King’s Stacks and Holland Street stores are not open
       access but material can be called up on the catalogue. There also extensive electronic resources.
       Gilian Dawson on Floor 1 of Queen Mother Library is available during office hours to give advice and
       instruction on databases and finding print resources in the library. g.d.dawson@abdn.ac.uk
General information on history, essay-writing, exam-preparation, honours, etc., can be found in Introduction to
       Levels 3 & 4.


3     Introduction to the Course

What is the relationship between science and religion, and why have Westerners so rarely agreed on it?
This course, based on the close study of primary sources between the Renaissance and the present day,
takes a historical perspective on this troubled and fertile relationship and uncovers the true stories behind
the simplistic myths often promoted in today’s media. Famous episodes in this history (such as the
Galileo and Darwin controversies) will be reexamined, and categories we often take for granted –

                                                          3
‘science’, ‘religion’, even ‘biblical literalism’ – will be questioned and set in their historical contexts.
Broad trends will be outlined and examined, but with close attention paid to the ways in which individual
people experienced the science-religion nexus. The course will conclude by bringing this historical
perspective to bear on present-day controversies.


4       Aims and Learning Outcomes

Aims
This course will introduce students to the history of the engagement between science and religion, to its
associated controversies, and to methodological and historical issues involved in considering scientific and
theological concepts alongside each other.

Learning outcomes
By the end of the course students will be able to:
     Demonstrate understanding of key events in the history of science and religion
     Understand the religious, scientific, social and political contexts of these debates
     Bring a historical perspective to bear on issues which remain highly contentious today
     Discuss a range of written and non-written primary sources
     Participate in group discussion
     Access, utilize and critically assess relevant information in books and on computers


5       Teaching and Learning Methods

Lectures are held weekly (Mondays, 12-1pm, Taylor C24), except for week 8 which has no lecture. Lectures will
provide essential background for seminars, essay-writing and examination preparation. Attendance is mandatory
(and will be monitored – see the School’s handbook on Class Certificates).

Seminars are held weekly (Fridays, 3-5pm, Taylor C16), except for week 7 which has no seminar. Attendance is
again mandatory (and will be monitored). Designated groups of students will give presentations and lead the
seminars with the course co-ordinator serving as moderator and facilitator for the ensuing discussion. It is essential
that all students read the material set for each seminar. Primary-source extracts, to be distributed at each seminar,
will also be discussed.

Written work You are required to submit two essays of 2000-2500 words and to undertake one two-hour
examination. The deadlines for handing in these essays are Monday 12 November and Monday 10 December (not
later than 4pm). Essays will be returned with a mark taken from the Common Assessment Scale and with written
comments. You will have the opportunity to discuss your performance individually with a member of the teaching
team. See School Guidelines (and section 9 below) for information on essay writing, extensions, and the late
submission of work.

Core reading
It is essential that all students on this course prepare for each seminar by reading the set readings. Most of these
are taken from the course textbook: John Hedley Brooke, Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives
(Cambridge, 1991). Copies of this book will be available for sale at Blackwell’s. Other seminar readings are
taken from the following books:

Bowler, Peter J., Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago,
     2001)
Brooke, John, and Geoffrey Cantor, Reconstructing Nature: The Engagement of Science and Religion (Oxford,
     1998)
Lindberg, David C., and Ronald L. Numbers, eds., God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter
     between Christianity and Science (Berkeley, 1986)
Oppenheim, Janet, The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914 (Cambridge,
     1985)


                                                          4
Further reading
This is an essential part of any history course and will deepen your understanding and enjoyment of the discipline.
More detailed bibliographies will be provided in the lectures. The select bibliography in section 8 below provides
points of departure for further reading on the topics covered in the lectures. The footnotes and bibliographies of
these books and articles are two sources of still further reading; the search-features of the library catalogue,
browsing the open shelves, and consulting the course co-ordinator are other ways forward. A major outcome of a
university education should be an ability to find information on any topic within your field. You are encouraged to
show initiative in developing this ability.


6       Assessment

Assessment is based on the two essays (worth 40% of the final mark), one examination in January (worth 50% of
the final mark), and participation in seminars (worth 10% of the final mark).


7       Plagiarism

Students must familiarise themselves with information relating to plagiarism (also see above). If a student is any
doubt on the subject the student should contact the course co-ordinator. Plagiarism can have very serious
consequences.


8       The Role of the Course Co-ordinator

The co-ordinator for this course is Ralph O’Connor (office: Crombie Annexe 215). The role of the course co-
ordinator is not simply to teach, but to advise and help. Students who are having difficulty with their work for
whatever reason, or who require help or information, are welcome to consult me about any aspect of the course.
This is best done by emailing me on ralph.j.oconnor@gmail.com. Any recommendations, observations or
complaints about the running of the course should be addressed to me, either directly or by way of your class
representatives.


9       Select bibliography of secondary sources

The following list is mainly confined to books rather than articles, and is very far from exhaustive. Fuller lists
(including lists of primary sources) will be provided in the lectures.

Strongly recommended background reading for the whole course
Brooke, John, ‘Science and Religion’, in R. C. Olby et al., eds., Companion to the History of Modern Science
      (London, 1990), 763-82
Brooke, John, & Geoffrey Cantor, Reconstructing Nature: The Engagement of Science and Religion (Oxford,
      1998)
Cosslett, Tess, ed., Science and Religion in the 19th Century (Cambridge, 1984)
Knight, David M., Science and Spirituality: The Volatile Connection (London, 2003)
Lindberg, David C., & Ronald L. Numbers, eds., God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between
      Christianity and Science (Berkeley, 1986)
Lindberg, David C., & Ronald L. Numbers, eds., When Science & Christianity Meet (Chicago, 2003) – also
      contains invaluable further reading lists at the back
Livingstone, David N., et al., eds., Evangelicals and Science in Historical Perspective (Oxford, 1999)
Moore, James, The Post-Darwinian Controversies: a Study of the Protestant Struggle to Come to Terms with
      Darwin in Great Britain and America, 1870-1900 (Cambridge, 1979), chapter 1 (a good summary and
      debunking of the ‘conflict thesis’)
Numbers, Ronald L., Science and Christianity in Pulpit and Pew (Oxford, 2007)

Revolutionizing the sciences
Dear, Peter, Revolutionizing the Sciences (Basingstoke, 2001), especially chapters 1 and 2
                                                        5
Funkenstein, Amos, Theology and the Scientific Imagination from the Middle Ages to the Seventeenth Century
      (Princeton, 1986)
Grant, Edward, ‘Science and Theology in the Middle Ages’, in Lindberg & Numbers, God & Nature, chapter 2
Henry, John, ‘Religion and Science’, in his The Scientific Revolution and the Origins of Modern Science
      (Basingstoke, 2002), 85-97
Hooykaas, R., Religion and the Rise of Modern Science (Edinburgh, 1973)
Lindberg, David C., ‘Science and the early church’ in David C. Lindberg & Ronald L. Numbers, eds., God and
      Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science (Berkeley, 1986), chapter
      1

The trial(s) of Galileo
There is a huge literature, but useful starting points include:
Biagioli, Mario, ‘Framing Galileo’s Trial’, chapter 6 in his Galileo, Courtier (Chicago, 1993)
Eisenstein, Elizabeth, ‘Another look at Galileo’s trial’, within chapter 7 of her The Printing Revolution in Early
        Modern Europe (Cambridge, 1993), 226-54
Feldhay, Rivka, Galileo and the Church: Political Inquisition or Critical Dialogue? (Cambridge, 1995)
Finocchiaro, Maurice A., ‘The Galileo Affair’ in his Galileo on the World Systems: A New Abridged
        Translation and Guide (Berkeley, 1997), 38-47
Redondi, Pietro, Galileo Heretic (London, 1988)
Shea, William R., ‘Galileo and the Church’, in David C. Lindberg & Ronald L. Numbers, eds., God and
      Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science (Berkeley, 1986), chapter
      4

Divine activity in a mechanical universe
Brooke, John Hedley, ‘The God of Isaac Newton’, in John Fauvel et al., eds., Let Newton Be! (Oxford, 1988)
Cohen, I. B., Puritanism and the Rise of Modern Science: the Merton thesis (New Brunswick, 1990)
Deason, Gary B., ‘Reformation Theology and the Mechanistic Conception of Nature’, in David C. Lindberg &
      Ronald L. Numbers, eds., God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and
      Science (Berkeley, 1986), chapter 6
Merton, Robert K., Science, Technology and Society in Seventeenth-Century England (new edn., 1970)
Webster, Charles, ‘Puritanism, Separatism, and Science’, in David C. Lindberg & Ronald L. Numbers, eds.,
      God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science (Berkeley, 1986),
      chapter 7

Science and religion in the Enlightenment
Brooke, John Hedley, ‘Science and Religion’, in Roy Porter, ed., Eighteenth-Century Science, 741-61
Dick, Steven J., Plurality of Worlds: The Origins of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Democritus to Kant
       (Cambridge, 1982), later chapters
Jacob, Margaret C., ‘Christianity and the Newtonian World View’, in David C. Lindberg & Ronald L.
       Numbers, eds., God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science
       (Berkeley, 1986), 238-55
Outram, Dorinda, The Enlightenment (Cambridge, 1995), chapters 3-4
Porter, Roy, Enlightenment (London, 2000), chapter 5

The fortunes and functions of natural theology
Brooke, John Hedley, 1979. ‘The Natural Theology of the Geologists: Some Theological Strata’, in L. J.
      Jordanova & Roy S. Porter, eds., Images of the Earth: Essays in the History of the Environmental
      Sciences (Chalfont St. Giles, 1979), 39-64
Brooke, John, and Geoffrey Cantor, Reconstructing Nature: The Engagement of Science and Religion (Oxford,
      1998), chapters 5-7
Topham, Jonathan, ‘Science and Popular Education in the 1830s: The Role of the Bridgewater Treatises’,
      British Journal for the History of Science, 25 (1992), 397-430
Topham, Jonathan, ‘Science, Natural Theology, and Evangelicalism in Early-Nineteenth-Century Scotland:
      Thomas Chalmers and the “Evidence” Controversy’, in David N. Livingstone et al., eds., Evangelicals
      and Science in Historical Perspective (Oxford, 1999), 142-74
Topham, Jonathan, ‘Beyond the “Common Context”: The Production and Reading of the Bridgewater
      Treatises’, Isis, 89 (1998), 233-62


                                                        6
The Bible and the historical sciences
Moore, James R.. ‘Geologists and Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century’, in David C. Lindberg &
      Ronald L. Numbers, eds., God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and
      Science (Berkeley, 1986), 322-50
Rudwick, Martin J. S., ‘The Shape and Meaning of Earth History’, in David C. Lindberg & Ronald L.
      Numbers, eds., God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science
      (Berkeley, 1986), 296-321
Rudwick, Martin J. S., Scenes from Deep Time: Early Pictorial Representations of the Prehistoric World
      (Chicago, 1992)
Rudwick, Martin J. S., Bursting the Limits of Time: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Revolution
      (Chicago, 2005), 326-37
Rupke, Nicolaas A., The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology (1814-
      1849) (Oxford, 1983)
Secord, James A., ‘Introduction’, in Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, ed. James A. Secord (London, 1997),
      ix-xliii

Evolutionary theory and Victorian religion
Durant, John, ed., Darwinism and Divinity: Essays on Evolution and Religious Belief (Oxford, 1985)
Hodge, M. J. S., ‘Origins and Species before and after Darwin’, in R. C. Olby et al., eds., Companion to the
      History of Modern Science (London, 1990), 374-95
Livingstone, David N., and Mark A. Noll, ‘B. B. Warfield (1851-1921): A Biblical Inerrantist as Evolutionist’,
      Isis, 91 (2000), 283-304
Livingstone, David N., ‘Re-placing Darwinism and Christianity’, in David C. Lindberg & Ronald L. Numbers,
      eds., When Science & Christianity Meet (Chicago, 2003)
Moore, James, The Post-Darwinian Controversies: a Study of the Protestant Struggle to Come to Terms with
      Darwin in Great Britain and America, 1870-1900 (Cambridge, 1979)
Secord, James A., Victorian Sensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception, and Secret Authorship of
      Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (Chicago, 2000), especially chapters 7-9
Turner, Frank M., Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian
      England (New Haven, 1974)
Turner, Frank M., ‘The Victorian Conflict between Science and Religion: A Professional Dimension’, Isis, 69
      (1978), 356-76

Victorian alternatives to religion and irreligion
Brooke, John, & Geoffrey Cantor, Reconstructing Nature: The Engagement of Science and Religion (Oxford,
      1998), 43-57 (on Comte’s ‘Religion of Humanity’)
Kottler, Malcolm, ‘Alfred Russel Wallace, the Origin of Man, and Spiritualism’, Isis, 65 (1974), 145-92
Lightman, Bernard, The Origins of Agnosticism: Victorian Unbelief and the Limits of Knowledge (Baltimore,
      1987)
Mauskopf, Seymour H., ‘Marginal Science’, in R. C. Olby et al., eds., Companion to the History of Modern
      Science (London, 1990), 869-85
Moore, Lawrence, In Search of White Crows: Spiritualism, Parapsychology and American Culture (New York,
      1977)
Oppenheim, Janet, The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914 (Cambridge,
      1985)
Turner, Frank M., Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian
      England (New Haven, 1974), chapters on Myers, Sidgwick, and Wallace
Wright, T. R., The Religion of Humanity: The Impact of Comtean Positivism on Victorian Britain (Cambridge,
      1986)

Science and religion in the twentieth century
Bowler, Peter J., Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago,
      2001)
Brooke, John Hedley, Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, 321-47 (‘Postscript’)
Gilbert, James, Redeeming Culture: American Religion in an Age of Science (Chicago, 1997)
Jammer, Max, Einstein and Religion: Physics and Theology (Princeton, 1999)
Larson, Edward J., Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America’s Continuing Debate over Science and
      Religion (New York, 1997)
                                                      7
Larson, Edward J., ‘The Scopes Trial in History and Legend’, in David C. Lindberg & Ronald L. Numbers,
      eds., When Science & Christianity Meet (Chicago, 2003), 245-64
Roberts, Jon H., ‘Psychoanalysis and American Christianity, 1900-1945’, in David C. Lindberg & Ronald L.
      Numbers, eds., When Science & Christianity Meet (Chicago, 2003), 225-44

Creationism and Intelligent Design
Moore, James, ‘The Creationist Cosmos of Protestant Fundamentalism’, in Fundamentalisms and Society:
      Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education (Chicago, 1993), 42-72
Numbers, Ronald L., ‘The Creationists’, in David C. Lindberg & Ronald L. Numbers, eds., God and Nature:
      Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science (Berkeley, 1986), 57-69
Numbers, Ronald L., The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design (expanded edition)
      (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2006)


10       Essay Titles, Guidelines, Extensions, and Penalties

The two essays are due to be submitted on Monday 12 November (not later than 4 pm) and Monday 10
December (not later than 4pm). Before starting, consult the section on essay writing in the School Guidelines.
A good essay must include a substantial bibliography and the text should indicate that you have read what you
cite (see guidelines on how to present your essay below). If you have difficulty obtaining reading materials,
consult a member of the course teaching team.

Choosing your topic

You are strongly encouraged to devise your own essay titles, in consultation with either Ralph O’Connor or
Ben Marsden. Alternatively, here are some we prepared earlier:
]
    To what extent can Western ‘science’ and ‘religion’ be considered distinct in the period before the
       Scientific Revolution?
    Are the true origins of the ‘Scientific Revolution’ to be found in religion?
    Does the Galileo case confirm the ‘conflict thesis’ of science and religion?
    How close did the so-called ‘Age of Reason’ come to being an ‘Age of Atheism’?
    Did natural theology function as a platform for the popularization of science or a barricade to serious
       scientific thought?
    How was the new science of geology shaped by the Bible?
    In what ways did nineteenth-century biologists and palaeontologists reconcile the concept of species
       extinction with the power and benevolence of God?
    Thomas Huxley claimed that extinguished theologians lay about the cradle of every new science. Was
       he right, and what were his motives for making this claim?
    Was Victorian spiritualism a science or a religion?
    ‘The so-called “Victorian crisis of faith” had no importance outside a small circle of neurotic
       intellectuals’ (Ron Ron Ol’chap). Discuss.
    How did scientists in the first half of the twentieth century conceptualize the relationship between
       science and religion?
    Is it possible for historians to transcend ‘cultural conditions’ in evaluating the interactions of science
       and religion?


Writing your essay

We look kindly on essays which:

      target the question
      make full reference to historical context and primary sources (N.B. answers [e.g. on the topic of
       natural theology] which make no such reference will be marked down.)
      employ a clearly signposted argument
      make good use of secondary and primary sources (library permitting)
      take a critical approach to these sources
      avoid anachronistic judgements
                                                       8
        show balanced consideration, good English, and careful presentation

In short, to quote guru Neb Nedsram, ‘style, sources, argument, these three; but the greatest of these is
argument.’ Before submitting your essay, use this checklist:

i)    Do I have a clear introduction? (Write one - perhaps the final thing to do)
ii)   Do I have a clear conclusion? (Write one)
iii)  Have I targeted the question? (Cut irrelevant material ruthlessly)
iv)   Do the points I make and the nuggets of evidence I cite follow in a logical progression?
      (Make sure they do)
v) Could I reorder material to clarify my argument? (For example, starting from simple premises and moving
      to more complex issues)
vi) Can I find a specific example to back up a general argument or an as-yet-unsubstantiated assertion?
      (Read some more)
vii) Can I suggest a convincing general argument or pattern from specific examples I have come across in
      reading? (Think more)
viii) Have I repeated myself?
ix) Have I used phrases or terms that I do not myself understand? (Cut them – or find out about them)
x) Have I cut out all ungrammatical material (run-on sentences, it’s… etc.)?
xi) Are my citations full and consistent? (Make them so)
xii) Are my jokes as funny as I think they are? (Probably not, although you never know)
xiii) Have I followed the instructions above regarding the title page? (Do so)
xiv) Have I followed the instructions below regarding footnotes and bibliography? (Do so)

For more information on writing good essays, consult the ‘Good Writing Guide’ on the English Department’s
website: go to http://www.abdn.ac.uk/english/resources/index.php and click on ‘Good Writing Guide’.


Scholarly apparatus

Every essay should have end/footnotes, page numbers, and a full bibliography:

End/footnotes. You must give credit where credit is due. Quotations, paraphrases, statistics, interpretations, and
significant phraseology taken from books and articles must be carefully and correctly cited in footnotes or
endnotes, in an absolutely consistent format. On the other hand, obvious facts on which all authors would
agree need not be footnoted. For further information and guidance consult the School Guidelines. Footnotes
may be placed either at the bottom of the page or at the end of the paper. One acceptable format for footnotes is
indicated by the following examples:
Standard entry:
W. H. McNeill, Venice: The Hinge of Europe, 1081-1797 (Chicago, 1974), 27.
Multi-volume work:
M. Roberts, Gustavus Adolphus: A History of Sweden, 1611-32 (2 vols., London, 1958), ii, 2-39.
Article within a book:
L. Stone, ‘The English Revolution’, in R. Forster & J. P. Greene, eds., Preconditions of Revolution in Early
    Modern Europe (Baltimore, 1970), 57.
Article in a journal:
E. W. Monter, ‘Witchcraft in Geneva, 1537-1662’, Journal of Modern History, 43 (1971), 195-7.

In citing a work for which the publication data has been given in an earlier footnote, it is not necessary to repeat
the same data in full. Simply write the author’s surname, an abbreviated title and the page number. If the work
was cited in the immediately preceding footnote, you do not even have to write the surname; simply write ibid.
and the page number. The following sequence should make these practices clear:
6
  J. P. Kenyon, ed., The Stuart Constitution 1603-1688. Documents and Commentary (Cambridge, 1966), 203.
7
  Ibid., 2.
8
  J. Stoye, Europe Unfolding, 1648-1688 (London, 1968), 85.
9
  Kenyon, Stuart Constitution, 207.


                                                         9
Bibliography. Your paper should also include a bibliography (i.e. a list of the works cited in your
footnotes/endnotes, not a list of works you have looked at; any material consulted but not cited may be noted
under an additional heading: ‘works consulted’). Bibliographies should be arranged in alphabetical order by
author’s surname, and must include at least one primary source, as well as secondary works including articles
from journals and collections of essays. It is expected that students will devise their own reading lists. (If citing
a whole book do not include page numbers in the bibliography; if citing an article in a book or journal, give the
page numbers of the whole article). The following should make this clear:

Kenyon, J. P, ed., The Stuart Constitution 1603-1688. Documents and Commentary (Cambridge, 1966)
McNeill, W. H., Venice: The Hinge of Europe, 1081-1797 (Chicago, 1974)
Monter, E. W., ‘Witchcraft in Geneva, 1537-1662’, Journal of Modern History, 43 (1971), 180-204
Stone, L., ‘The English Revolution’, in R. Forster & J. P. Greene, eds., Preconditions of Revolution in Early
    Modern Europe (Baltimore, 1970), 55-108

Websites: full citations should also be given when material has been accessed via the internet. As much of the
following information as possible should be provided:
Author, ‘Title of Article’, <url location, http://www.> (date)
For example: Andrew Ayton, ‘Edward III and the English aristocracy at the beginning of the Hundred Years
War’, <http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/articles/ayton2.htm> (1998)


Submitting your essay

    Two copies of your essay must be submitted – one with only your ID number on the title page (please
     delete any use of your name, for example, in headers and footer, on the copy with no name on the title
     page).
    All pieces of work must be submitted to the departmental office (Crombie Annex, ground floor) where the
     time and date will be noted on the title page.
    Serious deviation from departmental formatting style in end/footnotes or bibliography (see below) will
     have a negative impact on the mark given to the essay.
    Evidence of inadequate proof-reading (such as repeated typographical errors, incomplete sentences, the use
     of contractions, etc.) will have a negative impact on the mark given to the essay.
    End/footnotes should be used not only for direct quotations but also to show where specific bits of
     information (not widely known) have originated as well as ideas, analysis and ways of considering an issue
     unique to a given author (i.e., when you are paraphrasing someone else’s thoughts and ideas). Failure to
     make adequate use of end/footnotes will have a negative impact on the mark given to the essay and may, in
     exceptional circumstances, be construed (potentially) as suggesting plagiarism.
    All work must come with an Assessment Cover Sheet which can be found on-line; an electronic copy will
     have been sent to all students registered for History courses. You should consult the School’s handbook for
     more information on extensions & penalties for late submission of work and plagiarism.


11       Student Feedback and Comment

The Department is very interested in student feedback. Details on how the Department gathers information and
responds to suggestions can be found at Responding to Student Feedback. In addition, examples of how the
Department has involved students in significant decision-making are at Student Questionnaire Results.


12       Cultural History beyond your Degree

The Department has numerous opportunities for postgraduate study in cultural history.




                                                         10

								
To top