Success Stories of Interdisciplinary Research and Development by vGyR3uG

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									 Success Stories of Interdisciplinary Research
        and Development Worldwide
                             Prof.Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman
           Chairman of the Board and CEO, College of Internet Distance Education
                            Assumption University of Thailand
                          charm@ksc.au.edu www.charm.au.edu
                                    Pornphisud Mongkhonvanit
                            President, Siam Technology College, Thailand
                             Pornpisud@gmail.com www.siamtechu.net


Abstract- A survey of success stories of                        The term “Interdisciplinary” implies
interdisciplinary      research       and                    involvement with “Two or more disciplines”.
development projects from various                            For example, the subject of “Land use” may
countries worldwide. The first success                       involve Biology, Computer Applications,
story is form Thailand with the case of                      Geography, and etc.
royally supported projects which have                            With the popularity of the subject of
been highly beneficial to all concerned.                     “Internet”, most interdisciplinary research
The second success story is from the US                      and development projects in the year 2011,
which is supposed to be one of the most, if                  involve the applications of the Internet and
not the most, developed country. The                         related technologies.
third success story is from the UK
representing Europe. The fourth success                          Clicking Wikipedia for details on
story is from China which has the highest                    “Interdisciplinary”, the system redirects to
member of population. The fifth success                      “Interdisciplinarity” as shown in figure 1.2
story is from Korea which is the country                        Several interesting points from the
with the highest penetration of broadband                    Wikipedia article are
Internet.
                                                                1. T. Ausburg, in the book “An
Keywords- Interdisciplinary Development,                           Introduction to Interdisciplinary
Interdisciplinary   Research,    Success                           Studies” in 2006, stated that the
Stories.                                                           concept of interdisciplinary was
                                                                   started by Greek philosophers long
             I. INTRODUCTION                                       time ago.
   Searching for “Interdisciplinary” from                       2. The barrier in interdisciplinary
Google, 4,700,000 entries were found as                            projects is that most participants were
shown in figure 1.1                                                trained in traditional disciplines and
                                                                   find it difficult to adjust to differing
                                                                   perspectives and methods.
                                                                3. The number of interdisciplinary
                                                                   Bachelor’s Degree in the US
                                                                   increased from about 7,000 per year
                                                                   in 1973 to about 30,000 per year in
                                                                   2005.
                                                                4. Sample interdisciplinary fields such
                                                                   as Philosophy of Science, Integrative
   Fig. 1.1 Searching for “Interdisciplinary” from                 Learning,              Interprofessional
       Google, 4,700,000 entries were found.                       Education, and etc.


  The First International Conference on Interdisciplinary Research and Development, 31 May - 1 June 2011, Thailand

                                                       1.1
Prof.Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman and Pornphisud Mongkhonvanit



                                                                       and     Development    Center   for
                                                                       Assistive Technology, Educational
                                                                       Development for the Disabled,
                                                                       Improving Childhood Nutrition and
                                                                       Health, Conservation of Natural
                                                                       Resources, Environment and Local
                                                                       Wisdom, Community Integrated
                                                                       Development, and etc.
                                                                   The second sets of examples are from
      Fig. 1.2 Clicking Wikipedia for details on
                  “Interdisciplinary”.                         several        organizations     supporting
                                                               interdisciplinary research and development
II. INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH                                 such as NRCT (The National Research
        AND DEVELOPMENT                                        Council of Thailand), NSTDA (The National
                                                               Science and Technology Development
    There are thousands of success stories in                  Agency) and etc.
Interdisciplinary Research and Development
in Thailand. The first sets of examples are                        The third set of examples supporting
H.M. The King’s and HRH Princess Maha                          Interdisciplinary Research and Development
Chakri Sirindhorn’s Royal Projects.                            in Thailand is in the Interdisciplinary
                                                               Network of the Royal Society of Thailand
   Searching Google for “Interdisciplinary                     (INRIT) under the Royal Patronage of HRH
Thai Royal Projects”, 1.79 million entries                     Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn.
were found as shown in figure 2.1                                  INRIT has established seven branchesin
                                                               seven regions of Thailand: Upper Northern
                                                               Branch, Lower Northern Branch, Northeast
                                                               Branch, Central Branch, Eastern Branch,
                                                               Western Branch, and Southern Branch. The
                                                               Interdisciplinary Network Foundation for
                                                               Research and Development, with the Senior
                                                               Author as the Senior Chairman, to support
                                                               INRIT. The Interdisciplinary Network
                                                               Foundation for Research and Development
Fig. 2.1 Searching Google for “Interdisciplinary Thai
  Royal Projects”, 1.79 million entries were found.            has established Internet Poll Research Center
                                                               and Institute for Interdisciplinary Research.
   The first sets of examples are from
Sample success stories of the Royal Projects                   III. INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
   1. 1968 Ramon Magsaysay Award for                              AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE US
      research and development leading to
      the cultivation of highland crops for                        Searching Google “Success Stories R and
      opium substitution.                                      D Interdisciplinary in the US”, 3.54 million
   2. Research      projects    have    been                   entries were found as shown in figure 3.1
      conducted at 6 experimental stations
      in Chiang Mai.
   3. Self-Help Organizations (SHO) have
      been established with rice banks,
      production        groups,       village
      committees, and cooperatives
   4. Since 1995, HRH Princess Maha
      Chakri Sirindhorn’s IT Project has
      made many significant milestones                          Fig. 3.1 Searching Google “Success Stories R and D
                                                               Interdisciplinary in the US”, 3.54 million entries were
      such as Establishment of Research                                                 found.


  Special Issue of the International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, Vol. 19 No. SP1, June, 2011

                                                         1.2
                                               Success Stories of Interdisciplinary Research and Development Worldwide



    The first set of examples of successful                       The first set of examples of successful
interdisciplinary research and development                    interdisciplinary research and development
in the US is ARPA and the Internet                            in the UK is in the field of Computer
                                                                  1. Charles Babbage and the first
    - 1969, US Defense Department’s
                                                                      programmable computer which are
      Advanced Research Project Agency
                                                                      difference Engine in 1822 and
      (ARPA) started the Internet.
                                                                      analytical Engine in 1837. Later
    - 1979 USENET contributed to the
                                                                      versions of the computers are used in
      Internet rapid expansion.
                                                                      interdisciplinary     research     and
    - 1991 the World Wide Web (WWW)
                                                                      development everywhere.
      increased the popularity of the Internet.
                                                                  2. Ada Lovelace, the World’s First
    - 2011 the Internet is used everywhere.
                                                                      Computer Programmer. Computer
  The second set of examples is about                                 programs or software are as
Moon Landing and Space Exploration                                    important, if not more important, than
    - 1969 the first moon landing by the                              hardware. Computer software is used
      American Apollo 11 (spurred by                                  in interdisciplinary research and
      USSR’s Sputnik which was in orbit in                            development everywhere.
      1957).                                                      The second set of examples is from the
    - NASA (The US National Aeronautics                       UK Medical Research Council (MRC) for
      and Space Administration) has                           about 100 years, MRC has supported
      conducted     many    interdisciplinary                 interdisciplinary research and development
      research and development projects.                      projects. MRC has produced 29 Noble Prize
                                                              winners such as first antibiotics penicillin,
   The third set of examples is about                         Structure of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid),
energy-related interdisciplinary research and                 and Lethal link between smoking and cancer.
development by the US Department of                               The third set of examples in the UK is
Energy:                                                       from the Royal Institution of Great Britain
    -   to increase energy efficiency                         (RIGB), in which the senior author is a
    -   to improve building technologies                      Fellow. RIGB has 23 Nobel Laureates who
    -   to improve transportation technologies                have carried out interdisciplinary research
    -   to improve industrial technologies                    and development such as Physiology and
                                                              Comparative        Anatomy,        Astronomy,
IV. INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH                                Crystallography, and etc.
  AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE UK
                                                              V. INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
    Searching Google “Success Stories R and                      AND DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA
D Interdisciplinary in the UK”, 1.96 million
entries were found as shown in figure 4.1                         Searching Google “Success Stories R and
                                                              D Interdisciplinary in China”, 1.26 million
                                                              entries were found as shown in figure 5.1




 Fig. 4.1 Searching Google “Success Stories R and D
Interdisciplinary in the UK”, 1.96 million entries were
                         found.                               Fig. 5.1 Searching Google “Success Stories R and D
                                                              Interdisciplinary in China”, 1.26 million entries were
                                                                                      found.


   The First International Conference on Interdisciplinary Research and Development, 31 May - 1 June 2011, Thailand

                                                        1.3
Prof.Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman and Pornphisud Mongkhonvanit



    Examples of successful interdisciplinary                         of engineering fields. KIST became
research and development in China are                                the world’s first institute to develop
                                                                     spin-transistor technology which is
    1. China ranked 4th in the world in
                                                                     the core of the next-generation
       R&D spending with US$ 87 billion
                                                                     semiconductor industry. KIST has
       in 2009 (US is first, Japan is second,
                                                                     been conducting interdisciplinary
       and Germany is third).
                                                                     fusion technology, neural science,
    2. China to become WHO’s center in
                                                                     computational science, and human
       traditional     Chinese      medicine.
                                                                     interface technology.
       Chinese Academy of Science (CAS)
                                                                  2. Korea Science and Engineering
       predicted that China will be leader in
                                                                     Foundation (KOSEF) established
       such as Stem Cell research and
                                                                     in 1977. KOSEF carry out basic
       development, Nuclear Fission, Space
                                                                             and apply research such as
       Science, and Clean Energy.
                                                                     Nano-Technology, Bio-Technology,
    3. Beijing Institute of Life Science of
                                                                     Energy and Environment Programs,
       the Chinese Academy of Science
                                                                     Space R&D Programs, and Nuclear
       (BIOLS, CAS) established by
                                                                     R&D Programs.
       combining Institute of Biophysics,
                                                                  3. National Research Foundation of
       Institute of Zoology, Institute of
                                                                     Korea (NRF) founded on 26 June
       Microbiology, Institute of Genetic
                                                                     2009 by combining Korea Science
       and Developmental Biology, Institute
                                                                     and Engineering Foundation, Korea
       of Genomics, Institute of Psychology,
                                                                     Research Foundation, and Korea
       and Institute of Botany to carry out
                                                                     Foundation       for      International
       interdisciplinary     research     and
                                                                     Cooperation of        Science       and
       development.
                                                                     Technology.        NRF        supports
VI. INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH                                       International Joint Research, Base
  AND DEVELOPMENT IN KOREA                                           formation for globalization, and Base
                                                                     construction for global R&D.
    Searching Google “Success Stories R and
D Interdisciplinary in Korea”, 861,000                              VII. CONCLUDING REMARKS
entries were found as shown in figure 6.1
                                                                   In the year 2011, with the airplane,
                                                               anyone can go anywhere in the world in just
                                                               one day. In the year 2011, with the Internet,
                                                               anyone can go anywhere in the world in just
                                                               a minute or so. Therefore, in the year 2011,
                                                               research and development should be done
                                                               with interdisciplinary approach.
                                                                   Not only Thailand, US, UK, China, and
                                                               Korea but also most other countries have
Fig. 6.1 Searching Google “Success Stories R and D             been       successful       in     conducting
 Interdisciplinary in Korea”, 861,000 entries were             interdisciplinary research and development.
                       found.
                                                                   All interested parties should find more
    Examples of successful interdisciplinary
                                                               information from Google and other search
research and development in Korea are
                                                               engines to study, adopt, and adapt to apply in
    1. Korea Institute of Science and                          Interdisciplinary Research and Development
       Technology (KIST) founded      in                       Projects for the benefits of all concerned.
       1966.        KIST   carry     out
       interdisciplinary research    for
       economic growth and modernization


  Special Issue of the International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, Vol. 19 No. SP1, June, 2011

                                                         1.4
                                               Success Stories of Interdisciplinary Research and Development Worldwide



                 REFERENCES                                   [13] National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF).
                                                                   www.nrf.re.kr/html/en/about/about_02_01.html.
    (This list of references is arranged in the                    Retrieved 22 May 2011.
order of citation similar to the case of
footnotes)
[1] Wikipedia.                      Interdisciplinarity.
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdisciplinarity.
    Retrieved 22 May 2011.
[2] The Interdisciplinary Network of the Royal
    Institute of Thailand Under the Royal Patronage
    of HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn.
    www.inrit.net/HRHPrincessSirindhorn.asp.
    Retrieved 22 May 2011.
[3] Arpa Story. ARPA and Internet. www.internet-
    story.com/arpa.htm. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
[4] Wikipedia.          Space           Exploration.
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_exploration.
    Retrieved 22 May 2011.
[5] DOE Office of Science Policy 5/95. DOE
    SUCCESS STORIES: THE ENERGY MISSION
    IN           THE           MARKETPLACE.
    www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/indiv
    idualPage/ACC0058/1.pdf. Retrieved 22 May
    2011.
[6] Wikipedia.           Charles           Babbage.
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Babbage.
    Retrieved 22 May 2011.
[7] Wikipedia.             Ada                Lovelace.
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ada_lovelace.       Retrieved
    22 May 2011.
[8] Wikipedia. Medical Research Council (UK).
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_Research_Counci
    l_(UK). Retrieved 22 May 2011.
[9] Seattle Institute of Oriental Medicine (SIOM).
    State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser
    Physics.
    www.siom.ac.cn/eng/researchlaboratories11.asp.
    Retrieved 22 May 2011.
[10] Beijing Institutes of Life Science. Beijing
     Institutes of Life Science Chinese Academy of
     Sciences.
     english.biols.cas.cn/aboutus/briefintroduction/.
     Retrieved 22 May 2011.
[11] Wikipedia. Korea Institute of Science and
     Technology                               (KIST).
     en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korea_Institute_of_Scienc
     e_and_Technology. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
[12] Korea Science and Engineering Foundation
     (KOSEF).
     community.nrf.re.kr/english_new/introduction/int
     roduction_01.html. Retrieved 22 May 2011.




   The First International Conference on Interdisciplinary Research and Development, 31 May - 1 June 2011, Thailand

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