Automated Speed Enforcement by fgYY1y

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									Automated Speed Enforcement
Presented by Capt. Mike Spaulding and First Sergeant Jay Robinson




              Maryland Department of State Police
                                          History


• Technology actually dates back to 1905 when the first
  patent was issued for a “Time Recording Camera for
  Trapping Motorists” which enabled the operator to
  take time-stamped images of a vehicle moving across
  the start and end points of a measured section of road.
  The timestamps enabled the speed to be calculated,
  and the photo enabled the driver to be identified.


   1 Popular Mechanics (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Dt4DAAAAMBA), September 1905, page 926




                            Maryland Department of State Police
                                                                   History

        • The Dutch Company Gatsometer BV, founded by the
          1950’s rally driver Maurice Gatsonides, invented the
          first automated road-rule enforcement cameras. He
          wished to better monitor his speed around the race
          track and came up with the device in order to improve
          his time around the circuit. The company developed
          the first radar for use with road traffic and is the
          world’s largest supplier of speed camera systems.
          Because of this, “Gatso” is used around the world to
          signify a speed camera or photo radar.
2 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: research: Communities using automated enforcement (Http://www.iihs.org/research/topics/auto_enforce_list.html)




                                               Maryland Department of State Police
                                                            History

  • For over two decades, automated speed enforcement
    has been used extensively in Great Britain and
    Australia, as well as many other countries
  • In the United States, still a relatively new but growing
    enforcement tool, operating in more than 104
    jurisdictions, including the following States: Arizona,
    California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Illinois,
    Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, New Mexico,
    Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington

3 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: research: Communities using automated enforcement (http://www.iihs.org/laws/cameramap.aspx)




                                       Maryland Department of State Police
                                                       History




4 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: research: Communities using automated enforcement (http://www.iihs.org/laws/cameramap.aspx)



                                  Maryland Department of State Police
                                                          History

• In Maryland, the following communities currently
  operate speed camera programs or are in the process
  of installing photo enforcement technology:
  Baltimore, Baltimore County, Berwyn Heights,
  Bowie, Charles County, Chestertown, Cheverly,
  Chevy Chase, College Park, Frederick, Gaithersburg,
  Greenbelt, Howard County, Hyattsville, Landover
  Hills, Laurel, Montgomery County, New Carrollton,
  Prince George’s County, Princess Anne, Rockville,
  Salisbury, Silver Spring, Statewide work zones,
  Takoma Park, Trappe, Wicomico County.
5 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: research: Communities using automated enforcement (http://www.iihs.org/laws/cameramap.aspx)




                                      Maryland Department of State Police
                          History
• The effects of automated speed enforcement on
  crashes have been the subject of a considerable
  number of research efforts.
• A 2005 review analyzed data from 14 studies and
  found crash reductions in the immediate vicinities of
  camera sites ranging from 5 to 69 percent for all
  crashes, 12 to 65 percent for injury crashes, and 17 to
  71 percent for fatal crashes.
• A 2007 review of 13 studies reported injury crash
  reductions of 20 to 25 percent for fixed speed
  cameras and 21 to 51 percent for mobile speed
  camera programs.


                Maryland Department of State Police
                                                              History
   • In 2010, the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed 28
     studies that reported the effect on crashes and found
     reductions of 8-49 percent for all crashes, 8-50
     percent for injury crashes, and 11-44 percent for
     crashes involving fatalities and serious injuries, in the
     vicinity of camera sites.
   • Over wider areas, the review found reductions of 9-
     35 percent for all crashes, and 17-58 percent for
     crashes involving fatalities and serious injuries.
     Reviewed studies with longer duration showed that
     these trends were either maintained or improved with
     time.
6 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: research:Q&A: Speed – law enforcement, February 2011 (http://www.iihs.org/research/qanda/speed _lawenf.aspx)




                                           Maryland Department of State Police
                                                     History
• Locally, speed cameras have been used for quite
  some time both in Montgomery County and the
  District of Columbia. Again, these two programs
  have shown dramatic results.
• According to a recent Insurance Institute for Highway
  Safety study, on Montgomery County roads with
  ASE and warning signs, there was a 70% reduction in
  drivers traveling more than 10 mph over the speed
  limit.
• In DC, in 5 years the number of speeders went from 1
  in 3 motorists to less than 1 in 55 motorists
 7 Washington, D.C.:Metropolitan Police Department. “Photo Radar Results” http:/mpdc.gov/mpdc/cwp/view,a,1240,q,548110,mpdcNav_
 GID,1552,mpdcNav,[31886].asp




                                Maryland Department of State Police
    Speed Kills – Especially in a work zone!
• In the U.S., an average of more than 42,00 people are killed
  each year in motor vehicle crashes
• Approximately 1/3 of these traffic crashes are speed related
• The economic costs to society of speed related crashes
  according to NHTSA, are more than $40 Billion each year
• In MD, on average there are more than 2600 work zone related
  crashes each year
• Over the last 10 years, there have been an average of 13 people
  killed and 1749 people injured in work zone related crashes
• Four out of five people killed or injured in work zone crashes
  are drivers or passengers


                 Maryland Department of State Police
                  Senate Bill 277
• MD general Assembly passed SB277, Vehicle Laws
  – Speed Monitoring Systems, which was signed by
  Gov. O’Malley and went into effect October 1, 2009
• The law authorizes the use of ASE systems in
  highway work zones on expressways or controlled
  access highways where the speed limit is 45 mph or
  greater
• The law also extends the authorization for use of
  speed monitoring systems in school zones, but can
  only be used Mon – Fri between 6:00 am to 8:00 pm

              Maryland Department of State Police
                            The Law
•   Sets threshold for citations at 12 mph over speed limit
•   Sets maximum fine at $40
•   Defines work zone
•   Conspicuous road signs
•   Must be operated by trained/certified individual
•   Only warnings for first 30 days
•   Citations are like parking tickets (civil citations)
•   No citations to rental or leased vehicles (<6 months)
•   Citations must include a recorded image of the rear of the
    motor vehicle showing a clear and legible identification of the
    entire registration plate number, and at least 2 time-stamped
    images of the motor vehicle with a data bar that shows speed,
    date, time



                   Maryland Department of State Police
                           The Law
• Requires the signature of a police officer
• Requires the citations must contain notice of the right to have
  the ASE operator present at trial (w/20 days notice)
• Requires the citations must be mailed no later than 2 weeks
  after violation if vehicle registered in MD, 30 days if
  registered in another state
• Cannot mail to a person who is not the vehicle owner
• If fine not paid and violation not contested, MVA may refuse
  to register, reregister or suspend registration
• Mandates that the vendor’s fee may not be contingent on the
  number of citations issued


                   Maryland Department of State Police
                    Work Group
• June 2009, a work group was formed which included
  the following agencies: MSP, MdTAP, SHA, MVA,
  District Court, MDOT, FHWA, and consultants
• Initially planned to roll-out new program in Spring
  construction season of 2010
• However, it was then decided that we would roll-out
  upon implementation of new law October 1, 2009
• Therefore, agreed on a 2 phase roll-out – short term
  October 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010 during which we
  would piggy-back off of Montgomery County’s
  existing program with their vendor, and long term
  beginning July 1, 2010 with our own vendor
               Maryland Department of State Police
                        Work Group
• In just 4 short months, this dedicated group of professionals
  accomplished a great deal, to include:
• Vendor Showcase – July 2009
• RFP preparation and submission
• COMAR creation and approval
• Business rules development
• Citation form creation
• SOP’s within each agency
• MOU’s
• Field Demonstration
• Unit creation/personnel selection, training
• Weekly status meetings

                   Maryland Department of State Police
                   Work Group


• The end result was the Maryland SafeZones program




              Maryland Department of State Police
              Maryland SafeZones
• Maryland SafeZones is a joint program between the
  Maryland State Highway Administration, Maryland
  State Police and Maryland Transportation Authority.
  The Maryland SafeZones program is a safety
  program focused on changing driver behavior in work
  zones through a comprehensive effort involving
  engineering, education and enforcement. The
  Maryland SafeZones program uses automated speed
  enforcement to enhance the safety of motorists and
  workers in work zones on expressways and freeways
  that are owned, operated and maintained by the State
  of Maryland.

               Maryland Department of State Police
Maryland SafeZones




Maryland Department of State Police
Maryland SafeZones




Maryland Department of State Police
                  Implementation
• Began 30 day warning period on October 1, 2009
• Started with only two ASE vehicles deployed
  between three different work zones for 8 hour periods
• ASE systems were RADAR-based
• MSP WZASE Unit consisted of two troopers and a
  supervisor for the review/approval of citations
• Unit fell under the supervision of the MSP/SHA
  Liaison and was housed at SHA SOC




              Maryland Department of State Police
                     Implementation
• Violations recorded at the work zone site are transmitted
  electronically to vendor’s download stations
• From there the violations are put through two levels of review
  by the vendor, based upon business rules and criteria
  established
• Once violations have passed through these two levels of
  review, and the vendor has conducted name and address
  acquisition, they are transmitted to a secure website for police
  review and approval
• The approved citations are then mailed by the vendor to the
  registered owner via US Mail
• Violators can review their violations on-line, and if they
  choose, may pay their fine on-line, by phone, by mail, or in
  person at vendor’s facility.

                 Maryland Department of State Police
                  Implementation

• Unit approval rate was in the mid 80% range
• Most of rejections were due to multiple vehicles in
  photo
• Short-term solution to this issue was the
  implementation of a “grid overlay” on violation
  photos (idea came from Illinois)
• Long-term solution was to change speed
  measurement platform to “scanning LIDAR”
• This was the system that we asked for in our long
  term program RFP

               Maryland Department of State Police
If any portion of more than one vehicle is in the “overlay angle” for the correct roadside deployment set
                         up, then the event would be rejected for Multiple Vehicle.
This shows (1) full vehicle and (1) partial vehicle in the LEFT side overlay angle so this would be rejected
                                              as Multiple Vehicle




                         Overlay Angle
                         – LEFT side
                         deployment




                               Maryland Department of State Police
                Challenges to ASE


• “Cash-cow” argument – University of
  Missouri report refutes this argument
• Constitutional arguments
  –   Privacy
  –   Due Process
  –   Equal Protection
  –   Privatizing Law Enforcement


               Maryland Department of State Police
        The Future of Law Enforcement?
•   Speed cameras
•   Red Light cameras
•   Bus Lane cameras
•   Toll booth cameras
•   Level crossing cameras
•   Congestion charge cameras
•   Double solid line cameras
•   HOV cameras
•   Turn cameras
•   Parking cameras
•   Over-weight/over-height cameras

                Maryland Department of State Police
    Current Status of Maryland SafeZones

• October 2009 – Purchase and Deployment of two(2)
  Automated Speed Enforcement Vehicles(ASEV)
• The ASEV operators work 8 hour shift deployments
• April 15, 2010 – ASEVs converted from utilizing
  RADAR to LIDAR to improve the accuracy of the
  units and increase approval rates
• LIDAR conversion improved approval rate from mid
  80% range to 97%. Majority of unit disapprovals are
  uncontrollable incidents such as rental vehicles and
  dealer tags

              Maryland Department of State Police
    Current Status of Maryland SafeZones

• September 12, 2010 – Purchase and Deployment of
  an additional ASEV for a total of three(3)
• September 12, 2010 – ASEV operators work hours
  were increased to 16 hour shift deployments
• September 26, 2010 – Increased the ASEV fleet to
  four(4) and continued with 16 hour shift deployments
• November 1, 2010 – Purchase and Deployment of an
  additional ASEV for a total of five(5)



              Maryland Department of State Police
    Current Status of Maryland SafeZones


• July 19, 2011 – Increased the ASEV fleet to seven(7)
  and ASEV operators continue to work 16 hour shift
  deployments
• There is currently no discussions of increasing the
  ASEV fleet at this time.




              Maryland Department of State Police
    Current Status of Maryland SafeZones

• The program began with two(2) deployment locations
  for the ASEVs
• It has expanded to eleven(10) deployment locations
• These deployment locations are permanent work
  zones with concrete barriers and signage
• The unit is also experimenting with deploying
  ASEVs during “Shave and Pave” work zones
• These are temporary work zones which required the
  use of construction cones/barrels and signage


             Maryland Department of State Police
   Current Status of Maryland SafeZones
Permanent ASEV Deployment Locations
• I-95 @ MD 100, Howard County
• I-695 @ Charles Street, Baltimore County
• I-695 @ MD 26, Baltimore County
• MD 295 @ I-195, Anne Arundel County
• I-70 @ South Street, Frederick County
• I-495 @ Northwest Branch, Montgomery County
• I-270 @ MD 80, Frederick County
• I-695 @ Wilkens Avenue, Baltimore County
• I-95 @ Tydings Bridge, Cecil/Harford County
             Maryland Department of State Police
   Current Status of Maryland SafeZones
Permanent ASEV Deployment Locations
• I-95 @ Chesaco Avenue, Baltimore County



“Shave and Pave” ASEV Deployment Locations
• I-95 @ D’Arcy Road




             Maryland Department of State Police
    Current Status of Maryland SafeZones


• The purchase of additional ASEVs and the increase in
  ASEV operators deployment hours has led to
  additional personnel being assigned to the WZASE
  unit
• The WZASE unit currently has a supervisor and
  five(5) troopers for review/approval of citations




              Maryland Department of State Police
    Current Status of Maryland SafeZones
Statistical Data
• The unit has approved 776,972 violations during the
  two(2) year span
• 744,255 citations and 32,717 warnings
• During the first three weeks of an ASEV new
  deployment location. It is the unit’s policy to issue
  warnings
• The volume of violations will vary depending on
  deployment location, speed limit, volume of traffic,
  and weather conditions

               Maryland Department of State Police
      Current Status of Maryland SafeZones

Statistical Data
• Yearly Stats Breakdown:
   2009 - 19,299
   2010 - 360,304
   2011 - 417,668

●    Majority of the 2009 violations occurred while the
    program was in a “pilot program” status which we
    don’t include towards our total violations count

                Maryland Department of State Police
    Current Status of Maryland SafeZones

Court Statistical Data
• 1,750 violations have been taken to court
• 478 have been found guilty
• 110 have been found not guilty
• 1151 failed to appear for court
• 11 paid prior to the court date




              Maryland Department of State Police
    Current Status of Maryland SafeZones
Court Statistical Data
110 Not Guilty:
• 49 found not guilty because the ACS operator was
  late for court
• 5 found not guilty because the ACS operator had not
  received his training certificates prior to court
• 35 found not guilty by a new judge for reasons such
  as out-of-state violators because they travelled a long
  distance to come to court, violators that were only
  going 12 mph over the speed limit

               Maryland Department of State Police
    Current Status of Maryland SafeZones

Court Statistical Data
• The remaining 21 violations that have been found not
  guilty in the courts for various reasons
• It is important to educate and involve the courts and
  judges in the different counties that the ASEVs will
  be deployed




              Maryland Department of State Police
  Current Status of Maryland SafeZones

Thank you



          Any Questions ?




          Maryland Department of State Police

								
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