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        2.1 Structure of Living Organisms and Their Function
                    (Physiology and Cell Biology).

•   Describe levels of organization and related functions in plants and animals,
    including, organ systems (e.g., the digestive system), organs, tissues (e.g.,
    ovules in plants, heart chambers in humans), cells, and subcellular
    organelles (e.g., nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondrion).
     – Structural hierarchy – for all
         • Atoms molecules organelles cells 
           tissues organs organ systems organisms
     – Examples:
         • Important organs of Circulatory system?
         • Functions of organelles in a cell?
     – Reductionism:
         • Explaining higher levels by reference to lower
           Sample Question
• In what part of the subcellular organelle is
  genetic material stored?
  – A. vacuoles
  – B. chromosomes
  – C. cytoplasm
  – D. membranes
• What do you need to know to answer the
       2.1 Structure of Living Organisms and Their Function
                   (Physiology and Cell Biology).

• Know structures and related functions of systems in plants and
  animals, such as reproductive, respiratory, circulatory, and digestive.

• Really just a repeat: Know the parts
    – More examples?
• Angiosperms are flowering plants that
  bear their seeds within fruits. If a flower
  depends on bees to carry the pollen from
  one flower to another, the pollen would
  most likely be on the:
  – A. stamen.
  – B. pistil.
  – C. sepals.
  – D. petals.
        2.1 Structure of Living Organisms and Their Function
                    (Physiology and Cell Biology).

•   Understand principles of chemistry underlying the functioning of biological
    systems (e.g., carbon’s central role in living organisms, water and salt,
    DNA, and the energetics of photosynthesis).

• Again, Reductionism:
     – More examples
         • Diffusion and Osmosis
         • Surface area to volume ratio
         • Thermodynamics and heat

        Multiple Choice Question
                          (From CSET website)

• The stems of a bunch of just-cut white flowers are immersed in a
  container of water to which blue dye has been added. After 24
  hours, 2 tablespoons of salt are added to the water. Twenty-four
  hours later the flowers will most likely appear:
   –   A. wilted and light blue.
   –   B. fresh and white.
   –   C. wilted and white.
   –   D. fresh and light blue.
• What do you need to know to answer this?
• Read the entire question!!!
   – multiple steps to arrive at the solution
   2.2 Living and Nonliving Components in
           Environments (Ecology).

  – Know the characteristics of many living
    organisms (e.g., growth, reproduction, and
    stimulus response).
• Properties of life:
  – 3 above +:
     • Homeostasis: maintaining conditions
     • Complexity
     • Take in and release energy and materials
        – (Metabolism)
     • Evolution: populations
• All life forms have common characteristics.
  Which of the following properties is the
  best evidence for considering viruses a life
  – A. They have a crystalline structure.
  – B. They are found inside animals, plants, and
    one-celled organisms.
  – C. They produce nucleic acids to reproduce
  – D. They possess the ability to become larger.
          Sample Question
• The process by which an organism’s
  internal environment is kept stable in spite
  of changes in the external environment is
  best described as:
  – A. respiration.
  – B. homeostasis.
  – C. an organ system.
  – D. the nervous system.
   2.2 Living and Nonliving Components in
           Environments (Ecology).

  – Understand the basic needs of all living
    organisms (e.g., food, water, and space), and
    can distinguish between environmental
    adaptations and accommodations.
• Some basic needs?
          Sample Question
• A woman goes on a 2 year hiking trek in
  the mountains. By the end of the 2 years,
  her leg muscles have increased in size,
  her lung volume has increased, and her
  red blood cell count has increased.
• Explain how each of these changes makes
  sense given what she has been doing
• Is this an example of adaptation? why or
  why not?
    2.2 Living and Nonliving Components in
            Environments (Ecology).

• Describe the relationship between the number
  and types of organisms an ecosystem can
  support and relationships among members of a
  species and across species.
• Illustrate the flow of energy and matter through
  an ecosystem from sunlight to food chains and
  food webs (including primary producers,
  consumers, and decomposers).
A generic food web
            • Where does
    Available Energy decreases as it
     moves through the food chain
          Consumption efficiency = Energy captured
                                   Energy Available
What happens to the energy
“lost” at each level?
      Carnivore production

 Herbivore Production                         ~5-15%

                                              ~0.5-1.0 %
            Primary Production
• Certain species of acacia trees have long hollow
  thorns that house stinging ants. The ants feed
  on nectar produced by the tree and attack
  anything that touches the tree. The relationship
  between the ants and the acacias is an example

•   A. mutualism.
•   B. parasitism.
•   C. commensalism.
•   D. predation.
   2.2 Living and Nonliving Components in
           Environments (Ecology).

• Identify the resources available in an
  ecosystem, and describe the
  environmental factors that support the
  ecosystem, such as temperature, water,
  and soil composition.
• Primary productivity
2.3 Life Cycle, Reproduction, and Evolution (Genetics
                    and Evolution).

• Diagram life cycles of familiar organisms
  (e.g., butterfly, frog, mouse).
2.3 Life Cycle, Reproduction, and Evolution (Genetics
                    and Evolution).

• Explain factors that affect the growth and
  development of plants, such as light,
  gravity, and stress.
• Based on a response to an external
  stimuli, which of the following terms most
  accurately describes the pictures above?
  – A. phototropism
  – B. geotropism
  – C. photosynthesis
  – D. respiration
2.3 Life Cycle, Reproduction, and Evolution (Genetics
                    and Evolution).

• Distinguish between sexual and asexual
  reproduction, and understand the process
  of cell division (mitosis), the types of cells
  and their functions, and the replication of
  plants and animals.
        Short answer question
  – Gene expression for a particular trait is influenced by
    dominant and recessive alleles. In the following
    scenario, a blue-eyed individual married a brown-
    eyed individual who carries only the dominant brown
    eye-color gene and no recessives.
• Using your knowledge of genetics:
  – Diagram a Punnett square showing the possible eye
    colors that can occur in the offspring of the above
    individuals; and
• Explain why a baby with blue eyes can be born
  to two parents with brown eyes.
2.3 Life Cycle, Reproduction, and Evolution (Genetics
                    and Evolution).

• Distinguish between environmental and
  genetic sources of variation, and
  understand the principles of natural and
  artificial selection.
• Understand the basis of Darwin’s theory,
  that species evolved by a process of
  natural selection.
• A farmer notices that his walnuts come in a wide range
  of sizes. He wants to increase the average size of his
  walnuts, so he only allows trees which produce large
  walnuts to breed. He continues to breed the trees for 20
  years, constantly destroying trees with small walnuts and
  breeding trees with large walnuts. After twenty years, he
  measures his walnuts and finds no change in the
  average walnut size. Which of the following is most
  likely missing, and would account for the farmer’s
  inability to increase the size of his walnuts?

   –   A) Differential survival based on walnut size
   –   B) Differential reproduction based on walnut size
   –   C) Variation in walnut size
   –   D) Heredity of walnut size
2.3 Life Cycle, Reproduction, and Evolution (Genetics
                    and Evolution).

• Know how evidence from the fossil record,
  comparative anatomy, and DNA
  sequences can be used to support the
  theory that life gradually evolved on earth
  over billions of years.
         A butterfly collector is studying a species of butterfly that has
expanded its range into a new area over the last thirty years. The butterflies
in the new area feed on a species of flower that has a deeper throat than the
flowers exploited by the butterfly species in its original range. The average
length of the proboscis that is used to suck nectar from flowers is also
greater in butterflies that inhabit the new area.
         The collector hypothesizes that individual butterflies that moved into
the area and exploited the new flower grew longer proboscises during their
lifetimes in order to reach the nectar. The gene for the longer proboscis was
then inherited by the offspring of these individuals until the entire population
consisted of butterflies with longer proboscises than butterflies in the original

Using your knowledge of evolutionary theory:

• discuss the validity of the researcher's explanation for the increase in
average proboscis length in butterflies inhabiting the new area; and

• provide an alternative explanation that is consistent with accepted
evolutionary theory for the change in proboscis length in butterflies inhabiting
the new area.
                           Eaten by Monkey       Rejected by Monkey
Insects of Bright Colors   23                            120

Insects of Dull Colors     83                             18

• The chart above summarizes a study of 244 species of
  insects offered to a monkey as food
• Which of the following is the most likely interpretation of
  the results of the study in terms of animals adapting to
  their environment?

    – A. Insects have adapted to have dull colors to avoid being eaten.
    – B. Some insects of bright colors have likely adapted to have
      bitter tastes.
    – C. Color as a variable is not sufficient in explaining the monkey’s
    – D. Monkeys have adapted to eat most species of insects.

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