Modern World Problems - PowerPoint by 3HF743

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									Modern World Problems

       RUSSIA
       Objective & Purpose
Focus on Russia’s history, politics, religion &
 interaction with their world neighbors.
                 Economy
• During the Soviet era, the Kremlin ran up a debt
  of close to $150 billion.
• 2006 – Paid off all foreign debts. Oil sales are
  primarily responsible
• 2006 GDP – $1.74T, (US - $13.2T)
• 2006 GDP per capita - $12.2K (US - $44K)
• 2006 - 8th straight year of growth, averaging
  6.7% annually since 1998
• 2007 – Annexed 460,000 square miles of the
  Arctic for oil/gas exploration.
Politics- Name that leader
           Political- up to 2000
• Romanov Dynasty (1682-1917)
• 1917 – Bolshevik Revolution (Lenin) = Union of Soviet Socialist
  Republics (USSR).
• 1928-53: Stalin. Communist rule / Russian dominance of USSR,
  millions of lives lost.
• 1985-91: Mikhail Gorbachev: in an attempt to modernize
  communism introduced:
 Glasnost – openness (religion, Media, and communications)
 Perestroika - economic restructuring
 Democratization – a gradual opening of the political system
  1991 – USSR dissolves.
• US gives $4 billion to Russia to encourage democracy, market
  reform & threat reduction
            Politics- 2000 – Present
•    Vladimir Putin. KGB intelligence officer for 15 years (headed Russia’s version of
    FBI)
•   Putin embraced a military campaign in Chechnya. Youthful appearance (compared
    to past Soviet leaders).
•   Executive branch – Strong presidential powers.
•   Legislature – known as the Federal Assembly
     –   Duma – Lower House – 450 members elected proportionally. In 2001 Putin striped the
         Duma’s ability to debate budget; instead voting only to approve/disapprove.
     –   Federal Council – Upper House – 178. Used to be 2 reps from each region. As of 2000,
         now appointed by top executive and legislative officials.
•   Critics of Putin have “bad luck”:
      2006 – Russian rights abuse Journalist Anna Politkovskaya gunned down.
      2006 – Former KGB defector colonel Alexander Litinenko poisoned.
      2007 – Reporter & former colonel, Ivan Safronov was investigating Russian sales of
       weapons to Syria & Iran died after falling out a window.
      2007 – Opposition activist sent to psychiatric hospital
 2008 – Dmitry Medvedev - President, appoints Vladimir Putin - Prime Minister.
Russian obsession with Vladimir
            Putin
      Cultural & Religious
• Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-
  15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)
                 Social
• Frustrated over gap between Russia’s self
  image & its diminished capabilities.
• Sept 12th – Day of Conception – since
  2004 federal holiday aimed at increasing
  birth rate.
                              Military
•   Soviet Military Operations: 1948-49 – Berlin Blockade, 1956 – invade
    Hungary, 1962 – Cuban Missile crisis, 1960’s – 1970’s supported Ho Chi
    Minh in Vietnam, 1968 – invade Czechoslovakia, 1979-1989 – invade
    Afghanistan
•   Size of Military: 1986 – 4.3 million, 2001 – 1 million, 2006 – 3.7 million
•   1992 – Pulled troops out of Afghanistan & Cuba and began destroying
    ICBM’s (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles)
•   2000 – When elected Putin sharply increased military spending.
•   2003 – Russia moved 377 tons of weapons from Iraq to Syria prior to U.S.
    invasion of Iraq.
•   Russian military spending, 2006 - $200B, 2007 – $41B, 2008 – $34B, 2009
    – $51B
•   2007 – 1st Russian/Chinese military exercise held in Ural Mountains.
•   2007 – Russian bombers resume cold war flights to test international
    defenses & its crews.
•   2008 – the military is “gaining in strength & power like all Russia” – Pres
    Medvedev
•   2008 – Russia held a naval exercise off the coast of France/Spain firing
    missiles – Putin stated these were to “revive domestic & intl respect for
    Russia’s armed forces.”
 Conflicts with US foreign policy
• Against American Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI or “Star Wars”).
• Threatened Czech Republic & Poland with targeting if they host SDI
  elements.
• Russia has developed/deployed new missile that has unpredictable
  flight trajectory – wouldn’t be tracked by SDI.
• Against NATO enlargements via incorporating Partnership for
  Peace Nations (former east block nations wishing to join NATO).
  Threatens new cold war.
• Supported Saddam Hussein in Iraq – Saddam owed Russia $7
  billion.
• Sells Russian missile technology and nuclear transfers to Iran.
• 1995 - Backed out of US agreement restricting arm sales to Iran
  (has Russian subs).
            Warsaw Pact
• Old Warsaw Pact countries were USSR
  along with Albania, Bulgaria,
  Czechoslovokia, East Germany, Hungary,
  Poland, Romania
NATO today considered a threat to
            Russia
• Albania      Belgium         Bulgaria
  Canada        Croatia       Czech Rep
  Denmark       Estonia        France
  Germany         Greece        Hungary
  Iceland     Italy      Latvia
  Lithuania      Luxembourg
  Netherlands       Norway        Poland
  Portugal      Romania         Slovakia
  Slovenia      Spain        Turkey
  United Kingdom        United States
              Conflicts continued
• 2001 - Russia begun construction of a 2nd Nuke reactor at Bushehr
• 2006 - Defended Iran at the UN as having only a peaceful nuclear
  program.
• 2007 – Russia sold Iran S-300 missile system, capable of hitting
  aircraft up to 90,000 feet
• 2007/8 – Finished and resupplied Bushehr nuclear plant with
  nuclear fuel.
• Supplies anti-tank missiles to Syria
• 2006 – After the World froze financial assistance, Russia pledged
  financial support to Hamas-led Palestinian government.
• 2008 – Pres Medvedev – stated “not afraid of a new Cold War” after
  recognizing independence of South Ossetia & Abkhazia.
• Ukraine requests quick admittance into NATO & converts ex-
  Russian base to SDI
• Poland agreed to allow an SDI site built (previously unwilling)
  Russia threatens attack
Problem areas today for Russia
                                     Chechnya
•   Strategically vital to Russia.
     –   Russia fears Chechnya independence, more will break away.
     –   Access routes to both the Black Sea & Caspian Sea go through Chechnya.
     –   Russian oil/gas pipelines with Kazakstan & Azerbaijan go through Chechnya.
     –   Chechen population overwhelmingly Muslim with 5% - 10% being Wahhabi.
•   1991 – When USSR collapses, Chechnya declares independence.
•   1994-1996 – 1st Chechen War – a war for Chechen independence. Yeltsin eventually declares
    ceasefire – both sides lose big. Humiliating defeat for Russia.
•   1999 to present – 2nd Chechen War – Islamic radicals based in Chechnya launch armed
    incursions into Dagestan, to drive Russians out & build an Islamic State.
•   Chechnyan rebels kill 300+ Russians in Moscow and throughout Russia.
•   Putin responds with large scale military campaign, invades & occupies Chechnya.
•   Took city of Grozny in Feb 2000, later reclaimed mountains in south.
•   Huge international pressure to stop – Huge Russian support to continue.
•   10k Russian troops die
•   2004 – Chechen rebels kill 340 people (1/2 children) in public school, 62 hours stand-off
•   Putin - “We showed weakness, & weak people are beaten”
•   10 of 32 terrorist were Arab nationals with Al Qaeda ties trained in Afghanistan.
•   Putin - gets Israeli counter-insurgency training & exchanges intelligence w/Israel
             Georgia - 2008
• Aug 7 – Georgia sends troops into South
  Ossetia to reclaim it.
• Aug 8 – start of Olympics, Russia invades
  Georgia to free South Ossetia & Abkhazia
• US sent USS Faul & USCG Cutter Dallas to
  deliver shipments of humanitarian aid.
• Aug 28 – Putin said Dick Cheney pushed
  Georgia into war b/c upcoming US elections
• Putin warned any attempt to isolate Russia =
  “definitely harm their economic interests”

								
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