Organic Chemistry Unit - PowerPoint by 1wb4rf04

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									  Organic
 Chemistry
Introduction
              Intro to Organic Chemistry
               At the conclusion of our time
             together, you should be able to:



1. Define organic chemistry
2. List 5 unique qualities of carbon
3. Define an isomer and give examples of structural
     isomers and geometric isomers
4. List a general use of alkanes from one carbon to
      40.
•Things my moTher TaughT me…




 •TIME TRAVEL.
 •
   "If you don't straighten up, I'm going to
 knock you into the middle of next week!"
 What is Organic Chemistry?


    The study of
 carbon-containing
     compounds
     made up of
non-metal elements
  (covalent bonds)
             Organic Compound?
                  Yes or No

   Na2CO3            No

    C2H6             Yes!


C4H6Br2F2             Yes!
                 Why Carbon??

   Found in Nature ( ranked 17th in crust)
        Element

        Compound

   Found in all living matter
   Found in body tissue
   Found in food
   Found in fuels (coal, wood, petroleum)
           Murphy's Laws
                 of
       Science and Technology



•You can never tell which way the train went by
             looking at the tracks
                   Forms of Carbon
   Term = Allotrope
        Same element

        Different bonding pattern

        Different arrangement



•Carbon exists in 3 solid forms
    • Diamond
    • Graphite
     • Fullerene
                         Diamond


   Tetrahedrally oriented

   Hardest material known

   Most dense form of Carbon

   High melting point

   Conducts heat

   Does not conduct electricity
Graphite

        Layers of hexagonal
         plates
        Soft
        Feels greasy
        Crumbles easily
        High melting point
        Conducts electricity
                 Fullerene
   Discovered in mid 1980s
   Found in soot
   Spherical cages of
    carbon
   Hexagons and pentagons
   Most stable is C60
   C60 =
    Buckminsterfullerene
              or
           Buckyball
   No known uses
•Another Why - Maxine




        •If a pig loses its voice,
        •is it disgruntled?
        Diversity of Organic Chemistry

   Due to uniqueness of Carbon

     • Can bond to itself covalently
          • Forms chains and rings
                               • Cyclohexane, ball and stick model

          • Term = Catenation




                                          Figure 3.1x5
           Carbon bonds to elements

   Carbon readily         Hydrocarbons
    bonds to :              – Simplest organic
     –H                       compounds
     –O                     – Only contain
     –N                       Carbon and
     –S
                              Hydrogen
     – Halogens
                                (CxHy)
         Cl, Br, F,I
               Formulas

  Written representations of a compound
  using letters (and sometimes numbers)


Molecular Formula

Indicates
 # of atoms               Example:
 Types of atoms               C8H18
             Structural Formula

Indicates
•   # of atoms
•   Type of atoms
•   Bonding Arrangement
   Structural formulas  Condensed
    show all bonds in     structural formulas
    compound              only show bonds
                          between carbon
                          atoms



                           CH3CHCH3
                                  
                                  CH3
         Arrangement of Atoms

Compounds that      As # of carbon atoms
  have:              goes up
– Same molecular    # of isomers goes up
  formula             – C8  18 isomers
– Different           – C9  35 isomers
  structure or        – C10  75 isomers
  arrangement
                      – C40 
– Called
  ISOMERS               69,491,178,805,831
              Example of Isomers

Structural Isomers: same formula but atoms
are bonded in a different order
     C4H10
            Geometric Isomers

Order of atoms is the same but the
arrangement in space is different

Typically need a rigid bond (double or triple
bond). Don’t see this with single bonds!
        15 Helpful Hints On The Lab Report from
             Mr. T’s Vast Lab Experience!!!




Hint #8. Do not believe in miracles –
  rely on them.
          We are going to study:



   Alkanes               Ethers
   Alkenes               Esters
   Alkynes               Aldehydes
   Aromatics             Ketones
   Alcohols              Amines
Some Simple Alkanes
    (CnH2n+2)




                      •2-methyl-
                      propane
     The Scientific Method
           begins with
Questions about the World Around
              You.
      Ever Wonder Why?...


   phonetic isn't spelled like it sounds?
                               The n-Alkanes
CH4      •home heating                 methane
C2H6     •alcohol production            ethane    •kerosene ~ 12
C 3H 8   •gas grills
                                       propane    C11H24 undecane
C4H10 •flick your bic                   butane    C12H26 dodecane
C5H12                                   pentane   C13H28 tridecane
         •dry cleaners 5-6
C6H14                                   hexane    C14H30 tetradecane
C7H16                                   heptane   C15H32 pentadecane
C8H18 •gasoline 7-9                      octane    •motor oil ~ 16

C9H20                                   nonane     •petroleum jelly 20
                                                   •tar ~ 25
C10H22                                  decane
                                                   •wax ~ 40
Boiling Points
•Another Why - Maxine




        •If 4 out of 5 people SUFFER
        from diarrhea...
        •does that mean that one out of
        five enjoys it?
              Intro to Organic Chemistry
                    Let’s see if you can:




1. Define organic chemistry
2. List 5 unique qualities of carbon
3. Define an isomer and give examples of structural
     isomers and geometric isomers
4. List a general use of alkanes from one carbon to
      40.
 What is Organic Chemistry?


    The study of
 carbon-containing
     compounds
     made up of
non-metal elements
  (covalent bonds)
        Diversity of Organic Chemistry

   Due to uniqueness of Carbon

     • Can bond to itself covalently
          • Forms chains and rings
                               • Cyclohexane, ball and stick model

          • Term = Catenation




                                          Figure 3.1x5
              Example of Isomers

Structural Isomers: same formula but atoms
are bonded in a different order
     C4H10
            Geometric Isomers

Order of atoms is the same but the
arrangement in space is different

Typically need a rigid bond (double or triple
bond). Don’t see this with single bonds!
                               The n-Alkanes
CH4      •home heating                 methane
C2H6     •alcohol production            ethane    •kerosene ~ 12
C 3H 8   •gas grills
                                       propane    C11H24 undecane
C4H10 •flick your bic                   butane    C12H26 dodecane
C5H12                                   pentane   C13H28 tridecane
         •dry cleaners 5-6
C6H14                                   hexane    C14H30 tetradecane
C7H16                                   heptane   C15H32 pentadecane
C8H18 •gasoline 7-9                      octane    •motor oil ~ 16

C9H20                                   nonane     •petroleum jelly 20
                                                   •tar ~ 25
C10H22                                  decane
                                                   •wax ~ 40
Redneck Wedding: They have some
       different traditions…

								
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