Production of Activated Carbon from some Agricultural Wastes by

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					National Journal of Chemistry, 2005, Volume 17,138-142                           ‫المجلة القطرية للكيمياء-2005-المجلد السابع عشر‬



  Production of Activated Carbon from some Agricultural Wastes by
                         Chemical Tretment

                                        Khalid A. Aweed
                       Chem. Dept., College of Education, Mosul University



                                                          (NJC)

    (Received on 25/ 9 /2004)                                (Accepted for publication on 23/3/2005)




Abstract
        In this work activated carbon of good quality prepared by using different types
of Agricultural residues (Sunflower Shell, Coconut Shell, Peanut Shell, Harvest Hay
and Dates Stones) by using excess amount from NaOH [(1:2) (raw materials: NaOH)
at 55025C for 3hrs. After the carbonization was completed. The reaction mixture
was subjected to purification by treatment with 10% HCl and distilled water till it give
neutral test to the litmus paper.
        The samples were dried at 110-120C for 24hrs and its physical properties
were determined.
                                                                                                                        ‫الخالصة‬
 ‫يتضمن البحث تحضير كاربون منشط من مخلفات نباتية (قشوور وووا الدنوقش قشوور اوتق الحوو ش نوو‬
                                                                                                           ‫ا ر‬
‫التم وورش قش ووور شو و م الش وومحش مخلف ووات الح وواق) ع وون طري ووق مفاعل ووة ش وومع المخلف ووات م ووي اي وواقم م وون شيقروكا وويق‬
‫م لمقم 3 ااعاتش الماقم الكاربونية الناتووة يوتم‬ 52  550 ‫)] عنق‬NaOH :‫ال وقيوم [)1:2( (مخلفات نباتية‬
  ‫الديوقروكلوري‬      ‫تنويتدا عن طريق الغا بالماء الموطر لحين التعاق ومن ثوم المعاملوة موي محلوو 00% حوام‬
                                                                                           ‫ار‬
‫وبااووتخقام عمليووة الت ووعيق الح ور ا لمووقم اوواعة ثووم ترشوون الموواقم الكاربونيووة الناتوووة وتغا و بالموواء الموطوور لحووين‬
                                                                                                                            . ‫التعاق‬
‫م لمووقم 25 اوواعةش يلووع مل و عمليووة تحقيووق موا ووفات الكوواربون المنشووط‬ 050-000 ‫عنووق‬                    ‫ثووم توف و‬
                               .B.D.H. ‫ا من انتاج شركة‬‫المحضر بموارنتدا مي كاربون منشط توار‬
Introduction                                 pollutants from drinking water and as
        Activated carbon is a highly         well as catalyst support(1).
porous      material   has     various                The raw materials most
applications in adsorption of both           commonly used to crate the carbon are
gases and solutes from aqueous               coal, peat, lignite, wood and nutshells,
solution. It has been well-established       none of these raw materials is pure
the fact activated carbons have over         carbon, although anthracite coal comes
many years been widely used for the          close, they contain unwanted hydrogen
separation of gases, the recovery of         and oxygen as well, those components
solvents, the removal of organic             are driven off by heating the raw
                                             material in the absence extremely hot


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National Journal of Chemistry, 2005, Volume 17,138-142     ‫المجلة القطرية للكيمياء-2005-المجلد السابع عشر‬


gas, usually steam at about 1200 C,                excess amount from NaOH and KOH
which etches tiny passage way through               at 550C for 3 hrs.
each carbon particle.                                       Guo et al. (6) production
        The literature contains many                activated carbon from rice husks by
research work concerning activated                  using KOH has the activating agent.
carbon, which may include source of                 The effects of preparation parameters
the feed stock, and the nature of                   on the properties of the active carbon
carbonization    process,    type    of             were studied and its structure was
activation carbon which is given as                 characterized.
follow.                                                     Activated carbon were prepared
        Al-Channam et. Al(3) prepared               by Ahmad bour and Do(7) from
activated carbon from (Mours Nigra)                 nutshell by chemical activation with
by using different a mount from                     KOH and zinc chloride.
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and heated                          Jeyasselan(8) prepared activated
the mixture at 50025C.                            carbon from coconut husk and
        Hu and Srinvasan(4) prepared                digestied     sewage     sludge.    The
activated    carbon     by    chemical              carbonization was conducted by ZnCl2
activation of coconut shell with KOH                as activator. The products was purified
as active agent. The influence of                   by 3M HCL solution, washed with
activation parameters on the final                  deionized water and dried at 130 C
products was studied by varying the                 for 24 hrs. The activated carbon
KOH to shell ratio, activation                      obtained was tested by application to
temperature and pre-heat temperature.               the adsorption of phenols from
The samples were characterize by                    aqueous media.
nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K.                       Ceren and Meral(9) prepared
        Yamagushi and Sato(5) prepared              activated carbon as given below:
activated carbon from thio lignine with

Charconl                 Crushing                 Activated with ZuCl2(24hrs, R.T)




Purification         Cooling           Carbonization           Drying(150C)
    By                                                   At
                                                  500, 600 and 700C
1- 10% HCl                                                 for
2- D. W                                                    1hr
3- 0.5 N HCl
4- HOT D.W
5- Cold D.W              Drying (105C)                  Cirnding(0.125-0.250 mm)


                                                                   Sieving

Experimental                                        (10)gm from Agricultural Residues
1. Carbonization and Activation for                 mixed with (20)gm from NaOH and
Raw Materials                                       heated at 55025C for 3hrs.




                                              139
National Journal of Chemistry, 2005, Volume 17,138-142     ‫المجلة القطرية للكيمياء-2005-المجلد السابع عشر‬


2. Purification of Activated Carbon                 The procedure was carried out for the
       The resultant carbonization                  different types of the prepared samples
materials were washed after cooling                 for comparison purposes. The final
with distilled water till neutral litmus            concentration of methylene blue value
paper. The carbon obtained was treated              for each activated carbon sample was
with 10% HCl under refluxed for 2hr.                calculated as the number at milligrams
The mixture was filtereted washed                   of methylene blue adsorbed by one
with distilled water and dried at 110-              gram of carbon(13).
120C for 24 hr.
                                                    E- Determination of Carbon Activity
3. Activated Carbon Measurements:                   by Iodine Adsorption Method
A- Measurement of Density                                   The iodine number (In), which
        The density of the prepared                 is the amount (in milligrams) of iodine
activated carbon were determined by                 adsorbed from its aqueous solution by
weighing       10 cm3 of the carbon                 one gram of activated carbon. The
sample using graduated cylinder(10).                method involves:
                                                         1- One gram of the dried activated
B- Determination of Ash Content                             carbon transferred to 250 ml
       The ash content was measured                         Erlenmeyer flask.
by heating burning one gram of the                       2- To the flask, add 10 ml of 5%
prepared activated carbon sample in a                       HCl and swirl until the carbon
porcelain crucible using an electrical                      is wetted.
furnace for five hours at temperature of                 3- Place the flask on hot plate,
1000-1100C. the remained residue                           bring the contents to a boil and
was considered as the ash content(11).                      allow to boil for exactly 30
                                                            minute.
C- Measurement of Humidity                               4- Allowing the flask and contents
        One gram (exactly weighed) of                       to cool to room temperature
the activated carbon was heated in an                       add 100ml of standardized 0.1
oven at 150C for 3hr. The difference                       N iodine solution to the flask.
in weight before and after heating                       5- Immediately stopper flask and
operation was calculated as H2O                             shake the contents vigorously
vapour in the sample(12).                                   for 30 minute.
                                                         6- Filter by gravity immediately
D- Determination of Carbon Activity                         after the 30 minute shaking
by Methylene Blue Adsorption                                period through filter paper.
Method                                                   7- Mix the filtrate in the beaker
       An exactly weight (0.1 gm) of                        with a stirring rod and pipette
the prepared activated carbon sample                        50 ml of the filtrate into 250 ml
was added to an aqueous solution of 20                      Erlenmeyer flask.
ppm methylene blue pigment in a                          8- Titrate the 50 ml sample with
conical flask. The solution was                             standardized 0.1N sodium
shacked by an electrical shaker for 24                      thiosulfate solution until the
hr at a temperature of 25C till                            yellow color has almost
adsorption of methylene blue from its                       disappeared. Add about 1ml of
aqueous solution was completed a state                      starch solution and continue
of equilibrium was reached. The                             titration until the blue indicator
absorbance of the solution was                              color just disappears. Record
determined      using     (UV-Visible                       the     volume      of     sodium
Spectrophotometer) at λmax 665 nm.                          thiosulfate solution used(14).


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  National Journal of Chemistry, 2005, Volume 17,138-142        ‫المجلة القطرية للكيمياء-2005-المجلد السابع عشر‬


                                                              The production from the
                             X                        industrial point of view available to the
      Iodine number =                D                consumer will be protected by secrets
                             m                        and patents owned to some chemical
                                                      companies in the world.
  Where:                                                      In this work we aimed to
  m= is the weoght of the activated                   produce activated carbon of good
  carbon in grams                                     quality by carbonizing the materials
  X= A- [2.2 Bx ml of thiosulfate                     with excess a mount of (NaOH) at
  solution used]                                      55025C for 3hrs and the results of
  A= N1 x 1269.0                                      the study are given in the table below.
  B= N2 x 126.93                                              From the table coconut shell
  N1= normality of iodine solution.                   (Cocus Nucifera) give the best results
  N2= normality of sodium thiosulfate                 due to its high carbon content
  solution.                                           compared with the other feedstock.
  D= correction factor.
                                                      About sodium hydroxide:
  Results and Discussion                                      Hydroxide ion make etching in
           Active carbon is a very                    the structure of the raw materials and
   important industrial product due to its            development the porous structure for
   uses in various aspect of modern                   the raw materials while sodium ion
   civilization. It's manly produced from             determine the size of the porous(15).
   highly content carbon feedstock.
                           Table: Properties of Activated Carbon
      Sample           Density     Ash    Humidity      Iodine   Methylene                          Activated
                                                       number      Blue                              Carbon
                              3
                       gm/cm       %          %         mg/gm     mg/gm                                %
Sunflower shell         0.498     1.017     0.691         100       10                                  5
Coconut shell           0.312     1.123     2.251         950      115                                 28
Peanut shell            0.371     1.521     1.512         350       30                                 17
Harvest hay             0.372     1.793     1.302         325       24                                 20
Dates stones            0.374     1.823     1.622         300       25                                 15
Commercial from         0.345     3.200     0.800         908       90
B. D. H


  References                                                    Journal of Chemistry, 2004,
      1. Carcia, A. et. Al., Department                         Accepted, 6,
         of Engeretic Engineering and                      4.   Hu, Z. H. and Srinivasan, M.,
         Environmental         Control,                         Microporous,      Mesoporous
         Estrada do Paco do Lumiar,                             Materials, 1999, 27(1), 11.
         2003, 22, Ed if, J, 1649-038,                     5.   Yamagushi, T., and Sato, Y.,
         Lisbon, Portugal.                                      Kagaku Kaishi, 1993, 3, 271.
      2. Stranghan, B., from the                           6.   Guo, Y. et. Al., Chemical
         Calypso fish & Aquaria Club,                           Journal       of       Chinese
         London, England Aquarticles,                           University-Chinese,       2000,
         2003.                                                  21(3), 335.
      3. Al-Ghannam, A. Aweed, A.                          7.   Ahmadpour, A. and Do. D.,
         and Hamdon, A., National                               Carbon., 1997, 35(12), 1723.



                                                141
National Journal of Chemistry, 2005, Volume 17,138-142   ‫المجلة القطرية للكيمياء-2005-المجلد السابع عشر‬


    8. Jeyaseelan, S. and Chen, X. G.,
        CSE Research Bulletin, 2000,
        13, Jan, 1.
    9. Ceren, K., and Meral, E., Eye
        University Institute of Nuclear
        Sciences, 35100, Bornova,
        Izmir Turky, 2003.
    10. ASTM D2854, 70 Standard
        Test Method for Apparent
        Density of Activated Carbon.
    11. ASTM D2866-70 "Total Ash
        Content of Activated Carbon",
        Extracts Were Reprinted With
        Permission from Annual Book
        of ASTM Standard Copyright
        ASTM Race Street, 1916.
    12. ISO,                 5.62-1981,
        "Determination of Volatile
        Matter Content of Hard Coal
        and Coke", The Full Text Can
        be Obtained from ISO Central
        Secretarial Cose Postable 5G,
        CH-1211: Genera 20 or from
        any ISO Member.
    13. Test Methods for Activated
        Carbon       Rasterbau      Int.
        Engineering GMBM, W.
    14. AWWA Standard for Gronular
        Activated Carbon; B604-74,
        Sec. Approved by J., 1974, The
        American      Water      Works
        Association Board of Directors
        on Jan. 28.
    15. Teng, H. S. and Weng, T. S., J.
        Microporous        Mesoporous
        Mat, 2001, 50(1), 53.




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