Aquarium Ecosystem Lab by MO8kc34A

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									  Aquarium
    Lab
Setting up and maintaining
    a healthy aquarium
        ecosystem
                      Safety
   Electrocution!!!!!!!!! Need Drip Loops on plugs

   Glass aquariums can break

   Slipping on water on the floor

   Cleanliness
                    Cleaning
 Siphon out the water and remove contents
 Do not use chemicals to clean in or outside-
  residues can remain in scratches (NO windex
  near tanks!)
 Rinse anything you clean with and place in
  net soak to avoid tank contamination
 Maintaining Cleanliness
       Don’t overfeed your fish!
       Make a 25% water change once a month
       Vacuum gravel periodically
                    Tank Set-up
   Situate tank where it will stay before adding anything!

   Add in gravel, water, decor, then fish

   Use natural or aquarium decor- simulate habitat

   ALWAYS add water condition to remove chlorine &
    chloramine from tap water
                    Light
 Natural   lighting is best for fish

 Florescent/UV     lights are also acceptable

 Black   lights can be harmful
                   Hood/Cover
   Aquariums must be covered so that fish don’t
    leap out

   A hood can also house the lighting

   Be careful not to get light in the
    water….electrocution!!!
                     Air
 Aquatic   organisms breathe dissolved
  oxygen

 Air must be pumped in with a compressor
  or can be put in with a powered filter

 Airstones increase surface area of
  bubbles & O2 content
                 Temperature
   Most fish can live at a range of 72-80 F (22-27 C)

   An aquarium heater can be placed in tanks that
    need higher temperatures (tropicals)
            3 types of Filtration
 Biological     filtration
     Created by bacteria in gravel and on fish
     Beneficial bacteria breaks down waste
      products in the nitrogen cycle

  Fish food (protein N) Ammonia/ fish waste
    (NH3)Nitrite (NO2)Nitrate (NO3)H20
    change

     Use an under gravel filter to facilitate bacterial
      growth
                 Filtration
 Mechanical    filtration
     Removes accumulated solids (mulm)
      from aquarium

     Usually accomplished with mesh in an
      electric pump

     Can also be manually removed with a
      gravel vacuum
                      Filtration
 Chemical       filtration
     Purifies water using activated carbon-dissolved
      impurities are absorbed by holes in carbon

     Activated carbon must be replaced

     Minimize use of chemical/medicines to rid tank of
      problems
               Water tests
 pH
   Measures acidity or alkalinity of water




     Range
       • FW 6.6-7.6
       • SW 7.8-8.4


     A buffer can be added in to maintain a pH or
      make a 25% water change
                   Water tests
   AmmoniaNitriteNitrate-
     Released from gills of fish and decaying

      wastes

       Range should be 0 ppm

       Change 25% of water or replace carbon to
        lower level
          Conditioning period
   A conditioning (waiting) period of 1 week should
    be allowed for new tank without a natural
    bacteria population established

   Seed with old gravel
                    Saltwater
   Saltwater can be obtained from the ocean (risky)
    or from a salt mix

   Concentration: 32 ppt or .022 specific gravity

   Freshwater- add 1 tsp /5-10 gallons for health
                Water level
   Add water to within 1’’ of top

   Water must be added every so often due to
    evaporation

   Don’t forget water conditioner!
Aquatic Organisms
                  How to buy
   Find a reputable fish dealer and establish a
    buyer relationship

   Never buy from a tank with dead or sick-looking
    fish

   Be sure to ask questions- these guys are
    experts!
               How many?
 General    rule- 1 inch of fish/gallon
     Ex. A 30 gal tank can have:
          1- 30 inch fish
          2-15 inch fish

          3-10 inch fish

          30-1 inch fish
                               What to get?
   Freshwater:
        Plecostamus (sucker fish)
        Tetra
        Platties
                                          Helpful Websites
        Guppies
                                          http://freshaquarium.about.com/od/fishspecies/tp/fish
        Mollies
        Beta
                                          profiles.htm
        Gouramis
        Danios                           http://www.saltwaterfish.com/Saltwater-
        Tiger Barbs                      Fish_c_15.html
        Bala & Red Tail Sharks
        Catfish                          http://fishprofiles.com/
        Angel fish
        NO CICHLIDS!!!!
   Saltwater:
        Damsels
        Tangs
        Wrasse
        Puffers (brackish-low salt)
        Snow Flake Eels
   Try to utilize all the areas in your tank by adding fish that live in different parts of the water column
        Ex. a bottom feeder (scavenger), a mid-water swimmer, a top feeder
                       How to add?
   Dumping fish in your tank from a bag can shock them

   Float the bag for 15-20 minutes to gradually adjust the temperature

   Then, pour out half of the water in the bag and add in water from
    your tank

   After 15-20 more minutes the fish should be acclimated to your tank

   Also, feed the resident organisms in the tank as you are releasing
    new fish from a bag, to keep them preoccupied

   This allows the new fish to enter gently, without being harassed by
    current resident “bullies”
              How much to feed?


   Feed fish only what they will consume in 5 minutes,
    twice a day (once for us)-cover food!

   Remove excess food, so as not to pollute the tank

   One day of fasting is recommended (feed 6 out of 7
    days)

   ASK what the fish eats when buying them!
                     Sickness

   If an organism appears sick, it should be
    removed from the tank so as not to contaminate
    the rest of the organisms

   A separate “hospital” tank can be set up to help
    or medicate a fish
                      Plants?
   Just like land plants, aquatic plant need natural
    light to survive, as well as minerals from a
    substrate

   Aquatic plants are often hard to maintain without
    adequate lighting and can deteriorate in your
    tank

   My advise……. Go plastic!
                   Remember!!
   **SAFETY!!**

   NO AQUARIUM WATER DOWN the Sink!
    Dump it outside in the drain.

   Don’t let the sink run continuously.

   No rocks/gravel in the sink.

   Clean up after yourself.
                            Set Up Day 1
   *Safety!!!!*
   Pull out all décor clean/rinse, and put on table
   Wash and rinse out the empty aquarium. Do not allow any gravel to go down the drain!
   Wipe off the lid. Plug it in and make sure the light works.
   Wash the filter. Remove as much algae as possible.
   Wash any gravel you want to use thoroughly before you put it in your aquarium. Do not
    allow any gravel to go down the drain!
   Put the gravel in the aquarium.
   Fill the aquarium with water.
   Attach the filter to the side of the aquarium. Prime it (put water in it). Plug is in to see if it
    works.
   Wash and rinse any and all toys you plan on putting in your aquarium.
   Place them in the aquarium. Remember, fish like “structure” so that they can hide and play!
   Get an air compressor, hose and air stone from me. Use only hose to allow you to put the
    air stone on the bottom where you want it. Plug in the air compressor.
   Put the lid on your aquarium and allow to set up.
   If you have a marine aquarium, add 2 boxes of salt and check the level daily. Use a
    hydrometer to measure the salt levels. The recommended specific gravity is 1.020 to 1.024.
   If you have a fresh water aquarium, you may add fish after the filter and air compressor has
    been running for 4 days.
   In observations, record your filtration type and describe how your air is supplied (where is it
    running from?)
   Must bring in at least one of the following: towels, fish, décor, gravel, rocks
                    Day 2
 Drain   50%, refill, water conditioner, C

								
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