The nucleus

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					The Nucleus




PHY 3101
D. Acosta
Rutherford Scattering




                              Experiments by Geiger &
                              Marsden in 1909




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Rutherford Model of the Atom




  Conclusion: the atom contains
  a positive nucleus < 10 fm in
  size (1 fm = 10-15 m)


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The Neutron
   The neutron was discovered in 1932 by
    James Chadwick
     – -particles accelerated in a small
       accelerator and collided with Be nuclei
     – Neutral, very penetrating radiation
     – Found by elastic scattering off protons in
       paraffin wax




   By the way, the positron (anti-electron) also
    was discovered in 1932 by Carl Anderson in
    cosmic rays
     – Anti-matter predicted by P.A.M. Dirac in
       his relativistic version of the Schrodinger
       Equation




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The Periodic Table




   All elements composed of just electrons,
    neutrons, and protons
   Elements of the same group have nearly the
    same chemical property
   Chemical periodicity depends on the atomic
    number Z
   Any other fundamental particles? Next
    chapter…

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Nomenclature
A
ZX
   X      is the element
   A      is the atomic mass (Z+N)
   Z      is the atomic number (number of protons)
   N      is the number of neutrons

   Atoms are neutral. Number of electrons
    equals number of protons = Z
   Chemical properties depend on Z
     – Ordering of Periodic Table given by
       valence configuration of electrons

   Isotopes:
                                          4        3
     – Same Z, different A                2 He     2 He
   Isobars:
     – Same A, different Z
                                              3    3
                                              1H   2 He
   Isotones:
                                          13
     – Same N, different A                 6 C 14 N
                                                7




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Atomic Mass Units (u)
mass of 12C  12 u
   The atomic mass is the mass of an atomic
    isotope, including electrons
    1 u  1.66054  10 27 kg = 931.49 MeV / c 2
    m p  1.00727647 u       = 938.27 MeV / c 2
    mn  1.00866490 u        = 939.57 MeV / c 2
    me  5.4858  10 4 u =        0.511 MeV / c 2

   Note that mass of 12C is
    6 mp + 6mn + 6me = 12.1 u > 12.0 u

   The nucleus is bound
     – Binding energy is 0.1 u = 90 MeV
     – It takes energy to liberate all particles

   Should not think of mass as measuring the
    number of particles, only the rest energy of
    the system:
     – Mass is a measure of inertia (a = F/m)
       not contents


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Binding Energy

             a          f
B  m separate  mcombined  c2
    Take the mass of all particles individually,
     including electrons, and subtract the mass of
     the combined system

    A system is bound if the binding energy is
     positive.

    Example: Deuterium
      – Note that e- mass cancels

                b g bg b g
     B = M 1 H  M 0 n  M 2 H c2
           1
                   1
                           1

           = 1.007825u  1.008665u  2.014102u c 2
           = 0.002388u  931.5 MeV / u
           = 2.224 MeV

    If the binding energy is negative, the system
     will decay. The energy released is

                                   a
    Q  mcombined  m separate  c2   B   f
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Atomic Binding Energies
   The Coulomb potential for an electron in a
    hydrogen-like atom can be written in terms
    of the dimensionless fine structure constant
               c Z      e2      1
     V r                      
                  r        4 0 c 137
   The energy levels are given by
          1 2 2 Z2                             F1  1 I
                                             G
                                                               1
    En    c 2
          2     n                              H mJ
                                                m  e  K    N

   Hydrogen:
        me                E1  13.6 eV
   Positronium (e+e-):
          m
        e  E1  6.8 eV
           2

   These are the binding energies!
     – e.g. mass of H is less than mass of e+p

   The Bohr radii are
                   1 2
           rn         n           r1  0.53  10 10 m
                  c 


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Nuclear Binding Energies
   Consider the binding energy of the deuteron
     – proton–neutron bound state

   The binding potential is roughly similar to
    that of the Coulomb potential, but with a
    dimensionless constant characteristic of the
    Strong Nuclear Force rather than EM

     V r 
            s c
           af       af
                     s 
                            qs2
                                   01  10
                                     .
              r           4 0c
   The energy levels are given by
           1 2 2 1
     En    s c 2
           2       n
       F1  1 I  m
     G
                          1


       H mJ 2
                                    p
                                         470 MeV / c 2
        m     K p    n
           1
     E1    470 MeV0.12  2.3 MeV
           2
   Agrees with measured value of 2.2 MeV
   1 million times larger than atomic energies!
   Nuclear radius is 10,000 times smaller:
             1 2
       rn         n   r1  4.2  10 15 m
            c  s
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Nuclear Potential Well
   Rutherford concludes from Geiger and
    Marsden that the range of the Strong
    Nuclear Force is < 10-14 m
     – No deviation in the scattering rate of the
       highest-energy -particles off nuclei
       from that predicted by electromagnetic
       Coulomb scattering

   Thus, the Strong Nuclear Force is short-
    ranged, and does not extend to infinity

   To probe the size of nuclei, need higher
    energies than -particles from radioactive
    decay

   The nuclear potential well resembles a semi-
    infinite potential well



   -particles inside the nucleus must tunnel to
    escape! Higher rate for higher energy -
    particles

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Size of Nuclei
   Robert Hofstadter performs experiment at
    Stanford using a new linear accelerator for
    electrons in 1950s
   E = 100 -- 500 MeV
    = h / p = 2.5 fm
   The proton is not a point! (Deviation of
    elastic scattering rate from Rutherford
    Scattering prediction)
   Proton and nuclei have extended charge
    distributions
   Nobel prize in 1961



                        nucleus


                        0
     af
    r 
                    a f
             1  exp r  R / a
                                          4
    R  r0 A1/ 3                       V  R 3  A  # nucleons
                                          3
           r0  12  1015 m = 1.2 fm
                 .
           a  0.5 fm
8/9/2012                     PHY 3101 -- D. Acosta           12

				
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