IB Equilibrium Q

Document Sample
IB Equilibrium Q Powered By Docstoc
					1.                                    I2(g) + 3Cl2(g)          2ICl3(g)

     What is the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction above?

                    [ICl 3 ]
     A.    Kc =
                  [I 2 ][Cl 2 ]

                    2[ICl 3 ]
     B.    Kc =
                  3[I 2 ][Cl 2 ]

                      2[ICl 3 ]
     C.    Kc =
                  [I 2 ]  3[Cl 2 ]

                   2[ICl 3 ] 2
     D.    Kc =
                  [I 2 ][Cl 2 ] 3
                                                                                                     (1)




2.         2SO2(g) +O2 (g)                 2SO3(g)       ∆Hο = −200 kJ

     According to the above information, what temperature and pressure conditions produce the
     greatest amount of SO3?

                  Temperature                    Pressure
      A.                  low                        low
      B.                  low                        high
      C.                  high                       high
      D.                  high                       low
                                                                                                     (1)



3.   The table below gives information about the percentage yield of ammonia obtained in the Haber
     process under different conditions.

       Pressure/                                          Temperature/ °C
      atmosphere
                                    200                 300               400    500
            10                      50.7                14.7               3.9    1.2
           100                      81.7                52.5              25.2   10.6
           200                      89.1                66.7              38.8   18.3
           300                      89.9                71.1              47.1   24.4
           400                      94.6                79.7              55.4   31.9
           600                      95.4                84.2              65.2   42.3




                                                                                                      1
(a)   From the table, identify which combination of temperature and pressure gives the highest
      yield of ammonia.

      ……………………………………………………………………………………….
                                                                                                    (1)

(b)   The equation for the main reaction in the Haber process is

             N2(g) + 3H2(g)       2NH3(g)                 ∆H is negative

      Use this information to state and explain the effect on the yield of ammonia of increasing

      (i)    pressure: …………………………….………………………………………..

             ……………………………………………………………..………………….

             ………………………………………………………………………………..

             ………………………………………………………………………………..
                                                                                                    (2)

      (ii)   temperature: ………………………………………………………………….

             …………………………………………………………………………….….

             ………………………………………………………………………………..

             ………………………………………………………………………………..

             ………………………………………………………………………………..
                                                                                                    (2)

(c)   In practice, typical conditions used in the Haber process are a temperature of 500 °C and a
      pressure of 200 atmospheres. Explain why these conditions are used rather than those that
      give the highest yield.

      ……………………………………………………………………………………….

      ……………………………………………………………………………………….

      ……………………………………………………………………………………….

      ……………………………………………………………………………………….
                                                                                                    (2)

(d)   Write the equilibrium constant expression, Kc, for the production of ammonia.

      ……………………………………………………………………………………….

      ……………………………………………………………………………………….
                                                                                                    (1)
                                                                                        (Total 8 marks)




                                                                                                     2
4.   Which of the factors below affect the equilibrium vapour pressure of a liquid in a container?

           I. Temperature

           II. Surface of the liquid

           III. Volume of the container

     A.    I only

     B.    I and II only

     C.    II and III only

     D.    I, II and III
                                                                                                            (1)



5.   (a)   An industrial gas mixture is produced by the catalytic reforming of methane using steam.

                    CH4(g) + H2O(g)           CO(g) + 3H2(g)          H = +206 kJ

           By circling the appropriate letter(s) below, identify the change(s) that would shift the
           position of equilibrium to the right.

           A        increasing the temperature                 B      decreasing the temperature

           C        increasing the pressure                    D      adding a catalyst

           E        decreasing the pressure                    F      increasing the concentration of H2
                                                                                                            (2)

     (b)   The following graph represents the change of concentration of reactant and product during
           a reaction.

                    0.7

                    0.6

                    0.5

                    0.4                                                                    Product
     [reactant] or
     [product] / 0.3
     mol dm –3                                                                             Reactant
                    0.2

                    0.1

                    0.0
                           0           10          20            30           40          50           60
                                                               Time / s




                                                                                                             3
           (i)      Calculate the average rate of reaction over the first 15 s, stating the units.

                    ............................................................................................................................

                    ............................................................................................................................

                    ............................................................................................................................

                    ............................................................................................................................

                    ............................................................................................................................

                    ............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                        (3)

           (ii)     After 19 s the concentrations of the reactant and product do not change. State what
                    this indicates about the reaction.

                    ............................................................................................................................

                    ............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                        (1)
                                                                                                                                            (Total 6 marks)



6.   Which statement(s) is/are true for a mixture of ice and water at equilibrium?

           I.       The rates of melting and freezing are equal.

           II.      The amounts of ice and water are equal.

           III.     The same position of equilibrium can be reached by cooling water and heating ice.

     A.    I only

     B.    I and III only

     C.    II only

     D.    III only
                                                                                                                                                        (1)




                                                                                                                                                         4
7.   What will happen to the position of equilibrium and the value of the equilibrium constant when
     the temperature is increased in the following reaction?

                  Br2(g) +Cl2(g)        2BrCl(g)                  ∆H = +14 kJ

                Position of equilibrium               Value of equilibrium constant
      A.        Shifts towards the reactants          Decreases
      B.        Shifts towards the reactants          Increases
      C.        Shifts towards the products           Decreases
      D.        Shifts towards the products           Increases
                                                                                                              (1)



8.   (a)   The following equilibrium is established at 1700°C.

                  CO2(g) + H2(g)         H2O(g) CO(g)

           If only carbon dioxide gas and hydrogen gas are present initially, sketch on a graph a
           line representing rate against time for (i) the forward reaction and (ii) the reverse reaction
           until shortly after equilibrium is established. Explain the shape of each line.
                                                                                                              (7)

     (b)   Kc for the equilibrium reaction is determined at two different temperatures. At 850°C,
           Kc = 1.1 whereas at 1700°C, Kc = 4.9.

           On the basis of these Kc values explain whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic.
                                                                                                              (3)
                                                                                                 (Total 10 marks)



9.   The rate of a reversible reaction is altered by the addition of a heterogeneous catalyst.
     Which statement correctly describes the role of the catalyst?

     A.    It alters the enthalpy change of the reaction.

     B.    It decreases the activation energy of the forward reaction.

     C.    It increases the activation energy of the reverse reaction.

     D.    It increases the rate of the forward reaction but decreases the rate of the reverse reaction.
                                                                                                              (1)




                                                                                                               5
10.   A liquid and its vapour are at equilibrium inside a sealed container. Which change would alter
      the equilibrium vapour pressure of the liquid in the container?

      A.    Adding more liquid

      B.    Adding more vapour

      C.    Decreasing the volume of the container

      D.    Decreasing the temperature
                                                                                                       (1)



11.   Which statement concerning a chemical reaction at equilibrium is not correct?

      A.    The concentrations of reactants and products remain constant.

      B.    Equilibrium can be approached from both directions.

      C.    The rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.

      D.    All reaction stops.
                                                                                                       (1)



12.   In the reaction below

                     N2(g) + 3H2(g)       2NH3(g)         ∆H = −92 kJ

      which of the following changes will increase the amount of ammonia at equilibrium?

            I.       Increasing the pressure

            II.      Increasing the temperature

            III.     Adding a catalyst

      A.    I only

      B.    II only

      C.    I and II only

      D.    II and III only
                                                                                                       (1)




                                                                                                        6
13.   Consider the following equilibrium reaction.

                      2SO2(g) + O2(g)                      2SO3(g)                  ∆H = −198kJ

      Using Le Chatelier’s Principle, state and explain what will happen to the position of
      equilibrium if

      (a)   the temperature increases.

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                           (2)

      (b)   the pressure increases.

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                           (2)
                                                                                                                                               (Total 4 marks)



14.   For the reaction below

                      H2(g) + I2(g)                  2HI(g)

      at a certain temperature, the equilibrium concentrations are (in mol dm–3)

                      [H2] = 0.30, [I2] = 0.30, [HI] = 3.0

      What is the value of K?

      A.    5.0

      B.    10

      C.    15

      D.    100
                                                                                                                                                           (1)




                                                                                                                                                            7
15.   The equilibrium between nitrogen dioxide (dark brown) and dinitrogen tetroxide (colourless) is
      represented by the following equation.

                      2NO2(g)                 N2O4(g)                   ∆H = negative Kc = 1 at 328K

      (a)   Write the equilibrium constant expression, Kc.

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                           (1)

      (b)   State and explain the effect of an increase in temperature on the value of Kc.

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                           (2)

      (c)   State and explain the visible change that takes place as a result of a decrease in pressure,
            after equilibrium is re-established.

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                           (2)

      (d)   Two moles of NO2(g) and two moles of N2O4(g) were placed in an empty 1 dm3
            container and allowed to come to equilibrium at 328 K. Predict, with reference to
            the value of, Kc whether the equilibrium mixture would contain more or less than two
            moles of NO2(g).

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                           (2)
                                                                                                                                               (Total 7 marks)




                                                                                                                                                            8
16.   In the Haber process for the synthesis of ammonia, what effects does the catalyst have?

                       Rate of formation of NH3(g)        Amount of formed NH3(g)
           A.                    Increases                       Increases
           B.                    Increases                      Decreases
           C.                    Increases                      No change
           D.                   No change                        Increases
                                                                                                (1)



17.   What will happen if CO2(g) is allowed to escape from the following reaction mixture at
      equilibrium?

                       CO2(g) + H2O(l)           H+(aq) + HCO – (aq)
                                                              3


      A.        The pH will decrease.

      B.        The pH will increase.

      C.        The pH will remain constant.

      D.        The pH will become zero.
                                                                                                (1)



18.   The value of the equilibrium constant for the reaction

                       2HI(g)          H2(g) + I2(g)

      is 0.25 at 440°C. What would the value of the equilibrium constant be for the following
      reaction at the same temperature?

                       H2(g) + I2(g)         2HI(g)

      A.        0.25

      B.        0.50

      C.        2.0

      D.        4.0
                                                                                                (1)



19.   Which statements are correct for a reaction at equilibrium?

                I.     The forward and reverse reactions both continue.

                II.    The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.

                III.   The concentrations of reactants and products are equal.




                                                                                                 9
      A.    I and II only

      B.    I and III only

      C.    II and III only

      D.    I, II and III
                                                                                                          (1)



20.   The manufacture of sulfur trioxide can be represented by the equation below.

                   2SO2(g) + O2(g)        2SO3(g)          ∆Hο = −197 kJ mol−1

      What happens when a catalyst is added to an equilibrium mixture from this reaction?

      A.    The rate of the forward reaction increases and that of the reverse reaction decreases.

      B.    The rates of both forward and reverse reactions increase.

      C.    The value of ∆Hο increases.

      D.    The yield of sulfur trioxide increases.
                                                                                                          (1)



21.   A sealed container at room temperature is half full of water. The temperature of the container is
      increased and left for equilibrium to re-establish. Which statement is correct when the
      equilibrium is re-established at the higher temperature?

      A.    The rate of vaporization is greater than the rate of condensation.

      B.    The amount of water vapour is greater than the amount of liquid water.

      C.    The amount of water vapour is greater than it is at the lower temperature.

      D.    The rate of condensation is greater than the rate of vaporization.
                                                                                                          (1)




                                                                                                          10

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:159
posted:8/9/2012
language:English
pages:10