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					The Color of Chemistry
Introduction:

Many substances that are soluble in water produce insoluble compounds when they are mixed.
In this lab, you will react 12 nitrate compounds with 8 sodium compounds. You will record your
results in a data table, and write solubility rules, which can be observed from your data.

Purpose:

The purpose of this lab is to observe different chemical reactions and write your own solubility
rules based on your observations.

Materials/Equipment:
    Cassette boxes (set of 3)                  0.1 M sodium phosphate, Na3PO4
    0.1 M silver nitrate, AgNO3                0.1 M sodium iodide, NaI
    0.1 M cobalt (II) nitrate, Co(NO3)2        0.1 M sodium sulfate, Na2SO4
    0.1 M iron (III) nitrate, Fe(NO3)3         0.1 M sodium carbonate, Na2CO3
    0.1 M nickel (II) nitrate, Ni(NO3)2        0.1 M sodium meta-silicate, Na2SiO3
    0.1 M copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2        0.1 M sodium hydroxide, NaOH
    0.1 M manganese (II) nitrate, Mn(NO3)2     0.1 M sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3
    0.1 M barium nitrate, BaNO3)2              0.1 M sodium chloride, NaCl
    0.1 M copper (I) chloride, CuCl            0.1 M sodium bromide, NaBr
                                               0.1 M potassium Ferricyanide, K3Fe(CN)6
                                               0.1 M sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4
                                               0.1 M sodium sulfite, Na2SO3

Safety Considerations:
        Caution: Many of these solutions are moderately toxic by ingestion. Wash your hands
         thoroughly after lab.
        Never eat or drink in the lab.
        Silver nitrate can stain skin and clothing if the solution touches them.
        Wear chemical splash goggles, gloves, and apron while doing this lab.




ASIM The Color of Chemistry                                                             p. 1
Revised: 2/06
Procedure:

        ROWS (adding drops left to right)
1. Place 1 drop of silver nitrate on the center of each X on the first row of the well plate.
2. Repeat step 1. for each of the other nitrate salt solutions (Co+2, Fe+3, Ni+2, Cu+2, Mn+2, Ba+2
   and Cu+1)

        COLUMNS (adding drops from top to bottom)

3. Place 1 drop of sodium phosphate in the 8 vertical wells under the left most column.
4. Repeat step 3 for each of the other sodium and potassium salt solutions (I-1, SO4-2, SO4-2,
   CO3-2, SiO3-2, OH-1, HCO3-1, Cl-1, Br-1, Fe(CN)6-3, C2O4-2 and SO3-2)
5. Record your results in the spaces provided on your data table. If you do not observe a
   change, record NR or No Reaction. But if a change is observed, report both the color and the
   results of each of the reactions. At this point there are two choices: the mixture is either
   clear or opaque. An opaque mixture does not let light pass through and is the result of the
   formation of a precipitate or an “insoluble” solid product. If the reaction produces a clear,
   but yellow solution, record “clear and yellow”. If the reaction produces a red precipitate,
   record “red precipitate (ppt)”. Sometimes an opaque product is initially formed but
   decomposes by reacting with the water. An example of a decomposition reaction would be a
   cloudy solution which clears upon standing or a change in the color of a precipitate. Record
   any obvious decomposition reactions. After studying the reaction plates and recording your
   results, answer the questions related to your observations.




                                                             Name _________________________


ASIM The Color of Chemistry                                                              p. 2
Revised: 2/06
                                                     Partner’s Name(s) _________________________
                                                                   Period ______Date_______________

  Data Table:

        PO43-     I1-     SO42-   CO3-2   SiO32-   OH1-   HCO31-    Cl1-   Br1-   Fe(CN)63-   C2O42-   SO32-




Ag+1

Co+2

Fe+3

Ni+2

Cu+2

Mn+2

Ba+2

Cu+1




  Questions:
  1. Take a look at your observations and determine what if any generalizations you can make
     about any of the horizontal or vertical rows. For example: In the sodium nitrate row, a
     typical observation might be this statement: “All nitrates are soluble.”



  2. Define the term “solubility product”. Give an example, using one of the precipitates from the
     data table and the concentrations. Show how you know that this substance should form a
     precipitate. Write net ionic equations for all the reactions that resulted in a gas or precipitate.




  ASIM The Color of Chemistry                                                                  p. 3
  Revised: 2/06
    SO32-
    C2O42-
                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
    Fe(CN)63-




                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
    Br1-




                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
    Cl1-
    HCO31-




                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
    OH1-




                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
    SiO32-




                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
    CO3-2




                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
    SO42-




                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
    I1-
    PO43-




                X             X      X      X      X      X      X      X
                                                          Mn+2
                                                   Cu+2




                                                                        Cu+1
                Ag+1



                              Co+2




                                                                 Ba+2
                                     Fe+3



                                            Ni+2




ASIM The Color of Chemistry                                               p. 4
Revised: 2/06

				
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