To be discussed
• Changing frameworks
• HAI and implications of HAI
• Standard Precautions
• C. difficile
Changing frameworks: 1980s
Alert: new disease AIDS
No significant resistant
Average stay 5-7
Changing frameworks: 1990scoliforms
HIV, HCV, HBV, etc., etc.,
Average stay 1-2
We got Gram negatives
resistant to everything.
Changing frameworks: 2000s We got VRSA.
And the public know we
don’t do hand
HSE QIS EHO
Average stay 1-2
Not present or incubating on admission.
10 % of all patients admitted to hospital
will develop a healthcare acquired
Standard precautions is the
minimal level of infection
control precautions that apply to
all patients at all times in all
There are 9 elements to
Standard Precautions Clinical
Preventing linen Patient care
Body fluid spills
Cover any cuts or abrasions with waterproof
Vaccinate against Hep B
Who is responsible for
We all are.
All Employees must follow
If patient has diarrhoea send a sample
Clostridium and isolate. Clearance criteria 48 hours of
difficile no symptoms.
Some strains produce toxins.
Can cause mild diarrhoea or
severe disease, e.g. toxic
mega colon leading to death. Hands implicated
Relapses/reinfections Follow careplan and give patient
are common (20-30%). Information leaflets.
Faeces has a characteristic odour
(horse manure) blood, mucous or
watery green diarrhoea. Can survive normal cleaning
and chemical disinfection because it forms
spores. Cleaning is therefore vital.
Staphylococcus aureus and
Spreads via direct contact e.g. hands, indirect contact
e.g. equipment, airborne e.g during
bed-making & dressing changes
as skin scales are dispersed
through the air.
Can survive in dry
30-50% of humans conditions for
carry S. aureus in months.
Causes a variety of
infections e.g.wound Standard disinfection
and chest infections. satisfactory.
Follow MRSA policy, use careplan
and MRSA leaflets.
We are here to help and support
all staff, so please use us!
If you suspect there is something
wrong with a patient or a procedure,
don’t wait, tell us so that we can help
you to prevent further problems.
One last thing
What have you just done?
What are you about to do?
Remember your hand hygiene!