PHYSICAL SCIENCE 1st QUARTER REVIEW

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```					                   PHYSICAL SCIENCE 1st SEMESTER REVIEW

Topics Covered in Sequential Order:
Chapter 1: Science Skills
Section 1.2 Using a Scientific Approach
o Six steps of the Scientific Method
o Hypotheses, constants, theories, and laws
o Experimentation and sample experiments
o Independent (manipulated) variable, dependent (responding) variable
o Drawing a conclusion based on data collected
Section 1.3 Measurement
o Standards of measurement: metric system and SI units
o Tables on pages 16 and 17
o Using unit equalities to convert from one metric unit to another
o Measuring temperature
K = oC + 273
Section 1.4 Presenting Scientific Data
o Data tables
o Graphs: line, bar, and circle

Chapter 2: Properties of Matter
Section 2.1 Classifying Matter
o Classification of matter: pure substances and mixtures
o Pure substances: compounds and elements
o Mixtures: heterogeneous and homogeneous (solutions)
Section 2.2 Physical Properties
o Physical changes
o Define and identify
o Viscosity, conductivity, malleability, hardness, melting and boiling points, density
Section 2.3 Chemical Properties
o Chemical changes
o Define and identify
o Flammability, reactivity

Chapter 3: States of Matter
Section 3.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases
o Four states of matter: solids, liquids, gases
o Relate strength of attraction between particles and energy of particles to the
states of matter
Section 3.2 The Gas Laws
o Pressure
o Factors that affect gas pressure: temperature, volume, number of particles
o Gas laws: Boyle’s and Charles’
o Boyle’s law: decrease volume, increase pressure
o Charles’ law: volume increases with increasing temp.
Section 3.3 Phase Changes
o Changes of state
o Relationship between temperature of a substance and phase changes
o Heating / cooling curves
Chapter 4: Atomic Structure
Section 4.1 Studying Atoms
o Models of atoms
o Dalton’s model of the atom
Section 4.2 The Structure of an Atom
o Subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons)
o Atomic number, mass number, isotopes
Section 4.3 Modern Atomic Theory
o Structure of the atom, electron cloud model
o Valence electrons

Chapter 5: The Periodic Table
Section 5.2 The Modern Periodic Table
o Organizing the Table: groups or families and periods
o Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
o Trends in the Periodic Table (atomic size, Octet rule)
o Reactivity in the periodic table
o Ions and numbers of protons & electrons in ions
o Cations and anions
o Electron (Lewis) dot diagrams
Section 5.3 Representative Groups
o Valence electrons

Chapter 6: Chemical Bonds
Section 6.1 Ionic Bonding
o “All atoms in Periodic Table want to be like the Noble Gases”
o Ionic bonds: transfer of electrons
Section 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas
o Naming binary compounds with fixed charges
o Practice problems 1 and 4 on page 174

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions
Section 7.1 Describing Reactions
o Chemical equations: reactants and products
o Law of Conservation of Mass

Chapter 8: Solutions, Acids, and Bases
Section 8.1 Formation of Solutions
o Dissolving
o Properties of solutions
o Factors affecting rates of dissolving for solids and gases: surface area, stirring,
and temperature
Section 8.2 Solubility and Concentration
o Solutions: solutes and solvents
Section 8.3 Properties of Acids and Bases
o Acids produce hydronium ions and are proton donors
o Bases produce hydroxide ions and are proton acceptors
o Properties of acids and bases
Section 8.4 Strengths of Acids and Bases
o pH scale
o general pH of common household items (juices, cleaners, water)
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Chapter 11: Motion
Section 11.1 Distance and Displacement
o Frame of reference
o Distance versus displacement
Section 11.2 Speed and Velocity
o Speed: rate of motion
o Types of speed
o Calculating speed:
v = d/t
o Graphing speed (distance-time graph)
o Velocity
o Practice problems 1 and 2 on page 333, and problems 8 and 9 on page 337
Section 11.3 Acceleration
o Acceleration: changes in speed, direction, or both
o Calculating acceleration:
a = (vf – vi) / t = v / t
o Practice problems 1 through 4 on page 346, and problems 8 and 9 on page 348

Chapter 12: Forces and Motion
Section 12.1 Forces
o Describe the path of a projectile and identify the forces that produce projectile
motion.
Section 12.2 Newton’s first and second laws of motion
o Describe Newton’s first law of motion and its relation to inertia
o Describe Newton’s second law of motion and use it to calculate acceleration,
force, and mass values
o Relate the mass of an object to its weight
o Weight = mass x acceleration due to gravity (g)
o Vocabulary: Inertia, mass, weight
Section 12.3 Newton’s third law of motion and momentum
o Explain how action and reaction forces are related according to Newton’s third
law of motion
o Momentum = mass x velocity
o Vocabulary: momentum, law of conservation of momentum
Section 12.4 Universal forces
o Define Newton’s law of universal gravitation and describe the factors affecting
gravitational force

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