Chemistry Honors Mid-Term Exam Review Sheet

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					AP Chemistry MidTerm Exam Review                                                                 Nova High School
                                                  Exam Format
Section I:          Multiple Choice -       50%
                    - 50 questions (1 point for each correct answer)
                    - 50 minutes to complete, NO calculators permitted
                    - No point deduction for questions left blank and NO point deduction for incorrect
                      answers.

Section II :        Free-Response -          50%
                Part A - 2 calculation problems (30 pts total)
                       - 30 minutes to complete, calculators permitted
                           1 Lab-based question,
                           The other will be a gas/stoichiometry problem

                Part B - 2 short response (20 pts total)
                       - 20 minutes to complete, NO calculators permitted
                           Reaction prediction (3 reactions to predict & balance with a question on the
                              reaction)
                           Lewis structures & VSEPR Theory (1 question)
                                                     or
                           Periodic trends & Quantum Mechanical Model (1 question)

Total Exam -                            -       100%

                                    Section I – Multiple Choice Content
             *Number in parentheses indicates estimated number of multiple choice questions on that topic.

General Info/Descriptive/Lab (16)_____________________________________________________________
      Classifying Matter
           o Be able to classify as elements, compounds, mixtures
      Descriptive
           o Be able to identify descriptive colors from flame tests and ions in solution for common substances
           o Be able to identify characteristics of groups on the periodic table (including chalcogens, halogens, and
               noble gases)
           o Be able to identify metallic & non-metallic properties
      Proper Lab Technique
           o Be able to describe filtration (and other types of gravimetric analysis), chromatography, titration (along
               with indicators), distillation, decantation, and gas collection techniques.
      Lab Equipment
           o Be able to identify various lab equipment such as (but not limited to): Erlenmeyer & volumetric flasks,
               volumetric pipettes, and burets,
      Physical vs. Chemical Properties
           o Be able to identify physical and chemical changes and separation techniques for both.
                    Physical: Filtration, distillation, chromatography
                    Chemical: Combustion, electrolysis
      Reaction Classification
           o Know the 5 basic reaction types and identify if they are red-ox or not.
Atoms, Molecules, & Ions (3)_________________________________________________________________
      Atomic Structure & Sub-atomic particles
           o Be able to count protons, neutrons, and electrons from chemical symbols
      Ions & Charge
           o Know how to predict oxidation states for main group elements from the periodic table.
Mass Relations in Chemistry: Stoichiometry (13)___________                          ___ ________________________
       Mole Concept & Avogadro’s Number
            o Be able to use the mole and molar mass in conversions
       Empirical & Molecular Formula
            o Be able to use data from combustion analysis
       Percentage Composition
       Reaction Stoichiometry
            o Be able to identify limiting reactant
            o Be able to write a balanced chemical equation
Reactions in Aqueous Solution (8)_________________________                               ________________________
       Red-ox Reactions
           o Be able to assign oxidation numbers
           o Be able to identify oxidizing and reducing agents
       Double Replacement Reactions
           o Know solubility rules
           o Know how to write net ionic equations
       Acid-Base
           o Know strong acids & bases
           o Know how to write net ionic equations
           o Be able to identify electrolytes
Gases, Solids, Liquid & Solutions (5)__ ____________________                               _______________________
       Ideal Gas Law
            o Be able to use in initial & final state problems
            o Be able to use in gaseous stoichiometry
       Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
            o Be able to use to find total pressure of partial pressures
       Mole Fraction
            o Know how to find mole fraction
            o Know how to find partial pressures using mole fraction
       Solution Properties
            o Know how to determine boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and vapor pressure lowering
Electronic Structure & The Periodic Table (3)____________                              __________________________
       Quantum Numbers
            o Be able to assign
            o Be able to identify invalid sets
       Periodic Trends
            o Be able to define the three main trends
            o Be able to describe each of the three trends
Covalent Bonding & Lewis Structures_(2)_________                                       __________________________
       Lewis Structures
           o Be able to draw for various molecules
       VSEPR Theory & Molecular Geometry
           o Be able to predict geometry from Lewis Structure
       Dipole Moments & Polarity
           o Be able to define and identify on a molecule

                                            Section II - FRQ Practice
Part A – Calculator Permitted (these 3 problem should take no more 55 minutes)
1. Water is added to 4.267 grams of UF6. The only products are 3.730 grams of a solid containing only uranium, oxygen
and fluorine and 0.970 gram of a gas. The gas is 95.0% fluorine, and the remainder is hydrogen.
(a) From these data, determine the empirical formula of the gas.
(b) What fraction of the fluorine of the original compound is in the solid and what fraction in the gas after the reaction?
(c) What is the formula of the solid product?
(d) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between UF6 and H2O. Assume that the empirical formula of the gas is the
     true formula.
2. A sample of dolomitic limestone containing only CaCO3 and MgCO3 was analyzed.
(a) When a 0.2800 gram sample of this limestone was decomposed by heating, 75.0 milliliters of CO2 at 750 mm Hg and
     20oC were evolved. How many grams of CO2 were produced.
(b) Write equations for the decomposition of both carbonates described above.
(c) It was also determined that the initial sample contained 0.0448 gram of calcium. What percent of the limestone by
     mass was CaCO3?
(d) How many grams of the magnesium-containing product were present in the sample in (a) after it had been heated?

3. Answer the following questions about acetylsalicylic acid, the active ingredient in aspirin.
(a) The amount of acetylsalicylic acid in a single aspirin tablet is 325 mg, yet the tablet has a mass of 2.00 g. Calculate
     the mass percent of acetylsalicylic acid in the tablet.
(b) The elements contained in acetylsalicylic acid are hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. The combustion of 3.000 g of the
     pure compound yields 1.200 g of water and 3.72 L of dry carbon dioxide, measured at 750. mm Hg and 25C.
     Calculate the mass, in g, of each element in the 3.000 g sample.
(c) A student dissolved 1.625 g of pure acetylsalicylic acid in distilled water and titrated the resulting solution to the
     equivalence point using 88.43 mL of 0.102 M NaOH(aq). Assuming that acetylsalicylic acid has only one ionizable
     hydrogen, calculate the molar mass of the acid.

Part B – No Calculator (these 3 problems should take no more than 40 minutes)
4. Write a balacned net ionic equation for the following reactions.
(a) A solution of ammonia is added to a dilute solution of acetic acid.
(b) Carbon disulfide vapor is burned in excess oxygen.
(c) Hydrogen sulfide gas is bubbled through excess potassium hydroxide solution.
(d) Sulfur dioxide gas is bubbled into an excess of a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.
(e) A piece of lithium metal is dropped into a container of nitrogen gas.
(f) A solution of hydrogen peroxide is decomposed catalytically.

5. Use principles of atomic structure and/or chemical bonding to answer each of the following using the table below.

                          Ionization Energy
                                (kJ/mol)
                          First       Second
                  K     419         3,050
                  Ca 590            1,140
(a)   The radius of the Ca atom is 0.197 nanometer; the radius of the Ca 2+ ion is 0.099 nanometer. Account for this
      difference.
(b)   The lattice energy of CaO(s) is -3,460 kilojoules per mole; the lattice energy for K2O(s) is -2,240 kilojoules per mole.
      Account for this difference.
(c)   Explain the difference between Ca and K in regard to
      (i) their first ionization energies,
      (ii) their second ionization energies.
(d)   The first ionization energy of Mg is 738 kilojoules per mole and that of Al is 578 kilojoules per mole. Account for
      this difference.

6. Using principles of chemical bonding and/or intermolecular forces, explain each of the following.
(a) Xenon has a higher boiling point than neon has.
(b) Solid copper is an excellent conductor of electricity, but solid copper chloride is not.
(c) SiO2 melts at a very high temperature, while CO2 is a gas at room temperature, even though Si and C are in the same
    chemical family.
(d) Molecules of NF3 are polar, but those of BF3 are not.

				
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