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     Contents
 1   Transcripts of Clips ................................................................................................. 2
 2     Amy Tan TED Talk...................................................................................................................................... 2
 3     This is My Voice (Spoken Word Poem) by Shane Koyczan ....................................................................... 7
 4     Chef José Andrés Interview on “60 Minutes” (excerpts) .......................................................................... 9
 5     Jim Carrey Interview - Inside the Actors’ Studio ..................................................................................... 11
 6     Lecture by Professor Michael Sandel ..................................................................................................... 19
 7     Commencement Speech, Stanford University 2005 by Steve Jobs ........................................................ 23
 8     The Botany of Desire (transcript of PBS broadcast) by Michael Pollan ................................................. 27

 9   Writing Tips............................................................................................................ 35
10     Essay Essential Information .................................................................................................................... 35
11     How do I organize a paragraph? ............................................................................................................. 38
12     Sentence fragments ................................................................................................................................ 39
13     Run-ons ................................................................................................................................................... 40
14     Conclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 43
15     Why read out loud? ................................................................................................................................ 43


16




     Page 1 of 44
17    Transcripts of Clips

18   Amy Tan TED Talk

19   The Value of Nothing: Out of Nothing Comes Something. That was an essay I wrote when I was 11 years
20   old and I got a B+. (Laughter) What I'm going to talk about: nothing out of something, and how we
21   create. And I'm gonna try and do that within the 18-minute time span that we were told to stay within, and
22   to follow the TED commandments: that is, actually, something that creates a near-death experience, but
23   near-death is good for creativity. (Laughter) OK.

24   So, I also want to explain, because Dave Eggers said he was going to heckle me if I said anything that
25   was a lie, or not true to universal creativity. And I've done it this way for half the audience, who is
26   scientific. When I say we, I don't mean you, necessarily; I mean me, and my right brain, my left brain and
27   the one that's in between that is the censor and tells me what I'm saying is wrong. And I'm going do that
28   also by looking at what I think is part of my creative process, which includes a number of things that
29   happened, actually -- the nothing started even earlier than the moment in which I'm creating something
30   new. And that includes nature, and nurture, and what I refer to as nightmares.

31   Now in the nature area, we look at whether or not we are innately equipped with something, perhaps in
32   our brains, some abnormal chromosome that causes this muse-like effect. And some people would say
33   that we're born with it in some other means. And others, like my mother, would say that I get my material
34   from past lives. Some people would also say that creativity may be a function of some other neurological
35   quirk -- van Gogh syndrome -- that you have a little bit of, you know, psychosis, or depression. I do have
36   to say, somebody -- I read recently that van Gogh wasn't really necessarily psychotic, that he might have
37   had temporal lobe seizures, and that might have caused his spurt of creativity, and I don't -- I suppose it
38   does something in some part of your brain. And I will mention that I actually developed temporal lobe
39   seizures a number of years ago, but it was during the time I was writing my last book, and some people
40   say that book is quite different.

41   I think that part of it also begins with a sense of identity crisis: you know, who am I, why am I this
42   particular person, why am I not black like everybody else? And sometimes you're equipped with skills,
43   but they may not be the kind of skills that enable creativity. I used to draw. I thought I would be an artist.
44   And I had a miniature poodle. And it wasn't bad, but it wasn't really creative. Because all I could really do
45   was represent in a very one-on-one way. And I have a sense that I probably copied this from a book. And
46   then, I also wasn't really shining in a certain area that I wanted to be, and you know, you look at those
47   scores, and it wasn't bad, but it was not certainly predictive that I would one day make my living out of
48   the artful arrangement of words.

49   Also, one of the principles of creativity is to have a little childhood trauma. And I had the usual kind that I
50   think a lot of people had, and that is that, you know, I had expectations placed on me. That figure right
51   there, by the way, figure right there was a toy given to me when I was but nine years old, and it was to
52   help me become a doctor from a very early age. I have some ones that were long lasting: from the age of
53   five to 15, this was supposed to be my side occupation, and it led to a sense of failure.


     Page 2 of 44
54   But actually, there was something quite real in my life that happened when I was about 14. And it was
55   discovered that my brother, in 1967, and then my father, six months later, had brain tumors. And my
56   mother believed that something had gone wrong, and she was gonna find out what it was, and she was
57   gonna fix it. My father was a Baptist minister, and he believed in miracles, and that God's will would take
58   care of that. But, of course, they ended up dying, six months apart. And after that, my mother believed
59   that it was fate, or curses -- she went looking through all the reasons in the universe why this would have
60   happened. Everything except randomness. She did not believe in randomness. There was a reason for
61   everything. And one of the reasons, she thought, was that her mother, who had died when she was very
62   young, was angry at her. And so, I had this notion of death all around me, because my mother also
63   believed that I would be next, and she would be next. And when you are faced with the prospect of death
64   very soon, you begin to think very much about everything. You become very creative, in a survival sense.

65   And this, then, led to my big questions. And they're the same ones that I have today. And they are: why
66   do things happen, and how do things happen? And the one my mother asked: how do I make things
67   happen? It's a wonderful way to look at these questions, when you write a story. Because, after all, in that
68   framework, between page one and 300, you have to answer this question of why things happen, how
69   things happen, in what order they happen. What are the influences? How do I, as the narrator, as the
70   writer, also influence that? And it's also one that, I think, many of our scientists have been asking. It's a
71   kind of cosmology, and I have to develop a cosmology of my own universe, as the creator of that
72   universe.

73   And you see, there's a lot of back and forth in trying to make that happen, trying to figure it out -- years
74   and years, oftentimes. So, when I look at creativity, I also think that it is this sense or this inability to
75   repress, my looking at associations in practically anything in life. And I got a lot of them during what's
76   been going on throughout this conference, almost everything that's been going on.

77   And so I'm going to use, as the metaphor, this association: quantum mechanics, which I really don't
78   understand, but I'm still gonna use it as the process for explaining how it is the metaphor. So, in quantum
79   mechanics, of course, you have dark energy and dark matter. And it's the same thing in looking at these
80   questions of how things happen. There's a lot of unknown, and you often don't know what it is except by
81   its absence. But when you make those associations, you want them to come together in a kind of synergy
82   in the story, and what you're finding is what matters. The meaning. And that's what I look for in my work,
83   a personal meaning.

84   There is also the uncertainty principle, which is part of quantum mechanics, as I understand it. (Laughter)
85   And this happens constantly in the writing. And there's the terrible and dreaded observer effect, in which
86   you're looking for something, and you know, things are happening simultaneously, and you're looking at
87   it in a different way, and you're trying to really look for the about-ness, or what is this story about. And if
88   you try too hard, then you will only write the about. You won't discover anything. And what you were
89   supposed to find, what you hoped to find in some serendipitous way, is no longer there. Now, I don't want
90   to ignore the other side of what happens in our universe, like many of our scientists have. And so, I am
91   going to just throw in string theory here, and just say that creative people are multidimensional, and there
92   are 11 levels, I think, of anxiety. (Laughter) And they all operate at the same time.


     Page 3 of 44
 93   There is also a big question of ambiguity. And I would link that to something called the cosmological
 94   constant. And you don't know what is operating, but something is operating there. And ambiguity, to me,
 95   is very uncomfortable in my life, and I have it. Moral ambiguity. It is constantly there. And, just as an
 96   example, this is one that recently came to me. It was something I read in an editorial by a woman who
 97   was talking about the war in Iraq. And she said, "Save a man from drowning, you are responsible to him
 98   for life." A very famous Chinese saying, she said. And that means because we went into Iraq, we should
 99   stay there until things were solved. You know, maybe even 100 years. So, there was another one that I
100   came across, and it's "saving fish from drowning." And it's what Buddhist fishermen say, because they're
101   not supposed to kill anything. And they also have to make a living, and people need to be fed. So their
102   way of rationalizing that is they are saving the fish from drowning, and unfortunately, in the process the
103   fish die.

104   Now, what's encapsulated in both these drowning metaphors -- actually, one of them is my mother's
105   interpretation, and it is a famous Chinese saying, because she said it to me: "save a man from drowning,
106   you are responsible to him for life." And it was a warning -- don't get involved in other people's business,
107   or you're going to get stuck. OK. I think if somebody really was drowning, she'd save them. But, both of
108   these sayings -- saving a fish from drowning, or saving a man from drowning -- to me they had to do with
109   intentions.

110   And all of us in life, when we see a situation, we have a response. And then we have intentions. There's
111   an ambiguity of what that should be that we should do, and then we do something. And the results of that
112   may not match what our intentions had been. Maybe things go wrong. And so, after that, what are our
113   responsibilities? What are we supposed to do? Do we stay in for life, or do we do something else and
114   justify and say, well, my intentions were good, and therefore I cannot be held responsible for all of it?
115   That is the ambiguity in my life that really disturbed me, and led me to write a book called "Saving Fish
116   From Drowning."

117   I saw examples of that. Once I identified this question, it was all over the place. I got these hints
118   everywhere. And then, in a way, I knew that they had always been there. And then writing, that's what
119   happens. I get these hints, these clues, and I realize that they've been obvious, and yet they have not been.
120   And what I need, in effect, is a focus. And when I have the question, it is a focus. And all these things that
121   seem to be flotsam and jetsam in life actually go through that question, and what happens is those
122   particular things become relevant. And it seems like it's happening all the time. You think there's a sort of
123   coincidence going on, a serendipity, in which you're getting all this help from the universe. And it may
124   also be explained that now you have a focus. And you are noticing it more often.

125   But you apply this. You begin to look at things having to do with your tensions. Your brother, who's
126   fallen in trouble, do you take care of him? Why or why not? It may be something that is perhaps more
127   serious -- as I said, human rights in Burma. I was thinking that I shouldn't go because somebody said, if I
128   did, it would show that I approved of the military regime there. And then, after a while, I had to ask
129   myself, "Why do we take on knowledge, why do we take on assumptions that other people have given
130   us?" And it was the same thing that I felt when I was growing up, and was hearing these rules of moral
131   conduct from my father, who was a Baptist minister. So I decided that I would go to Burma for my own


      Page 4 of 44
132   intentions, and still didn't know that if I went there, what the result of that would be, if I wrote a book --
133   and I just would have to face that later, when the time came.

134   We are all concerned with things that we see in the world that we are aware of. We come to this point and
135   say, what do I as an individual do? Not all of us can go to Africa, or work at hospitals, so what do we do,
136   if we have this moral response, this feeling? Also, I think one of the biggest things we are all looking at,
137   and we talked about today, is genocide. This leads to this question. When I look at all these things that are
138   morally ambiguous and uncomfortable, and I consider what my intentions should be, I realize it goes back
139   to this identity question that I had when I was a child -- and why am I here, and what is the meaning of
140   my life, and what is my place in the universe?

141   It seems so obvious, and yet it is not. We all hate moral ambiguity in some sense, and yet it is also
142   absolutely necessary. In writing a story, it is the place where I begin. Sometimes I get help from the
143   universe, it seems. My mother would say it was the ghost of my grandmother from the very first book,
144   because it seemed I knew things I was not supposed to know. Instead of writing that the grandmother died
145   accidentally, from an overdose of opium, while having too much of a good time, I actually put down in
146   the story that the woman killed herself, and that actually was the way it happened. And my mother
147   decided that that information must have come from my grandmother.

148   There are also things, quite uncanny, which bring me information that will help me in the writing of the
149   book. In this case, I was writing a story that included some kind of detail, period of history, a certain
150   location. And I needed to find something historically that would match that. And I took down this book,
151   and I -- first page that I flipped it to was exactly the setting, and the time period, and the kind of character
152   I needed -- was the Taiping rebellion, happening in the area near Guilin, outside of that, and a character
153   who thought he was the son of God.

154   You wonder, are these things random chance? Well, what is random? What is chance? What is luck?
155   What are things that you get from the universe that you can't really explain? And that goes into the story,
156   too. These are the things I constantly think about from day to day. Especially when good things happen,
157   and, in particular, when bad things happen. But I do think there's a kind of serendipity, and I do want to
158   know what those elements are, so I can thank them, and also try to find them in my life. Because, again, I
159   think that when I am aware of them, more of them happen.

160   Another chance encounter is when I went to a place -- I just was with some friends, and we drove
161   randomly to a different place, and we ended up in this non-tourist location, a beautiful village, pristine.
162   And we walked three valleys beyond, and the third valley, there was something quite mysterious and
163   ominous, a discomfort I felt. And then I knew that had to be [the] setting of my book. And in writing one
164   of the scenes, it happened in that third valley. For some reason I wrote about cairns -- stacks of rocks --
165   that a man was building. And I didn't know exactly why I had it, but it was so vivid. I got stuck, and a
166   friend, when she asked if I would go for a walk with her dogs, that I said, sure. And about 45 minutes
167   later, walking along the beach, I came across this. And it was a man, a Chinese man, and he was stacking
168   these things, not with glue, not with anything. And I asked him, "How is it possible to do this?" And he
169   said, "Well, I guess with everything in life, there's a place of balance." And this was exactly the meaning
170   of my story at that point. I had so many examples -- I have so many instances like this, when I'm writing a

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171   story, and I cannot explain it. Is it because I had the filter that I have such a strong coincidence in writing
172   about these things? Or is it a kind of serendipity that we cannot explain, like the cosmological constant?

173   A big thing that I also think about is accidents. And as I said, my mother did not believe in randomness.
174   What is the nature of accidents? And how are we going to assign what the responsibility and the causes
175   are, outside of a court of law? I was able to see that in a firsthand way, when I went to beautiful Dong
176   village, in Guizhou, the poorest province of China. And I saw this beautiful place. I knew I wanted to
177   come back. And I had a chance to do that, when National Geographic asked me if I wanted to write
178   anything about China. And I said yes, about this village of singing people, singing minority. And they
179   agreed, and between the time I saw this place and the next time I went, there was a terrible accident. A
180   man, an old man, fell asleep, and his quilt dropped in a pan of fire that kept him warm. 60 homes were
181   destroyed, and 40 were damaged. Responsibility was assigned to the family. The man's sons were
182   banished to live three kilometers away, in a cowshed. And, of course, as Westerners, we say, "Well, it
183   was an accident. That's not fair. It's the son, not the father."

184   When I go on a story, I have to let go of those kinds of beliefs. It takes a while, but I have to let go of
185   them and just go there, and be there. And so I was there on three occasions, different seasons. And I
186   began to sense something different about the history, and what had happened before, and the nature of life
187   in a very poor village, and what you find as your joys, and your rituals, your traditions, your links with
188   other families. And I saw how this had a kind of justice, in its responsibility. I was able to find out also
189   about the ceremony that they were using, a ceremony they hadn't used in about 29 years. And it was to
190   send some men -- a Feng Shui master sent men down to the underworld on ghost horses. Now you, as
191   Westerners, and I, as Westerners, would say well, that's superstition. But after being there for a while, and
192   seeing the amazing things that happened, you begin to wonder whose beliefs are those that are in
193   operation in the world, determining how things happen.

194   So I remained with them, and the more I wrote that story, the more I got into those beliefs, and I think
195   that's important for me -- to take on the beliefs, because that is where the story is real, and that is where
196   I'm gonna find the answers to how I feel about certain questions that I have in life. Years go by, of course,
197   and the writing, it doesn't happen instantly, as I'm trying to convey it to you here at TED. The book comes
198   and it goes. When it arrives, it is no longer my book. It is in the hands of readers, and they interpret it
199   differently. But I go back to this question of, how do I create something out of nothing? And how do I
200   create my own life?

201   And I think it is by questioning, and saying to myself that there are no absolute truths. I believe in
202   specifics, the specifics of story, and the past, the specifics of that past, and what is happening in the story
203   at that point. I also believe that in thinking about things -- my thinking about luck, and fate, and
204   coincidences and accidents, God's will, and the synchrony of mysterious forces -- I will come to some
205   notion of what that is, how we create. I have to think of my role. Where I am in the universe, and did
206   somebody intend for me to be that way, or is it just something I came up with? And I also can find that by
207   imagining fully, and becoming what is imagined -- and yet is in that real world, the fictional world. And
208   that is how I find particles of truth, not the absolute truth, or the whole truth. And they have to be in all
209   possibilities, including those I never considered before.


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210   So, there are never complete answers. Or rather, if there is an answer, it is to remind myself that there is
211   uncertainty in everything, and that is good, because then I will discover something new. And if there is a
212   partial answer, a more complete answer from me, it is to simply imagine. And to imagine is to put myself
213   in that story, until there was only -- there is a transparency between me and the story that I am creating.

214   And that's how I've discovered that if I feel what is in the story -- in one story -- then I come the closest, I
215   think, to knowing what compassion is, to feeling that compassion. Because for everything, in that
216   question of how things happen, it has to do with the feeling. I have to become the story in order to
217   understand a lot of that. We've come to the end of the talk, and I will reveal what is in the bag, and it is
218   the muse, and it is the things that transform in our lives, that are wonderful and stay with us. There she is.
219   Thank you very much! (Applause)

220


221   This is My Voice (Spoken Word Poem) by Shane Koyczan
222

223   This is my voice, there are many like it, but this one is mine.
224   and it’s a fine line when you’re trying to define the finer points of politics
225   politics being a latin word
226   “poli” meaning many
227   “tics” meaning blood sucking butt lumps
228   you see too many live in countries where it’s bullets instead of ballots
229   where gavels fall like mallets when held in the hands of those whose judgments
230   can be bought as easily as children can be taught to covet
231   and the only ones willing to speak up are forced to live so far beneath the radar
232   that the underground is considered above it
233   this is for the Ho Ci Min’s and the Michael Collins.
234   for the Marquis de Sades and the muted gods.
235   This is my voice, there are many like it, but this one is mine.
236   Chorus: we’re not always right, but we’ve got the right to be wrong.
237   we’re not always free, so this is just a short story long.
238   this is my voice, there are many like it, but this one is mine.
239   and this time it’s for the sons and daughters
240   who watch their mothers and fathers drown in shallow waters while
241   panning for the “American dream” in the polluted creek called the mainstream.
242   This is for the homeless people sleeping on steam vents,
243   making makeshift tents out of cardboard and old trash,
244   trying to catch 40 winks in between the crash of car wrecks
245   risking their necks by surviving another day so that they can starve
246   so that famine can carve their body into a corpse before their heart stops beating
247   so that men in a boardroom meeting

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248   can make it harder for them to get welfare, health care,
249   it’s no wonder some of them pawn off their own wheelchair
250   and every time I walk ‘em by, I can’t help but feel at fault,
251   that maybe I didn’t search myself hard enough
252   for the control alt “s” so that I could save the world.
253   Or at least this little girl curled up into a ball
254   I’ve spent most of my life throwing compassion back like a fish that’s too small.
255   Gotta cash in my reality checks. drop her some spare fantasies
256   ‘cause I’ve got three separate degrees from different universities,
257   but the most valuable thing I ever learned
258   was to believe people when they say “Please.”
259   This is my voice, there are many like it, but this one is mine.
260   Chorus: We’re not always right, but we’ve got the right to be wrong.
261   We’re not always free, so this is just a short story long
262   You ever been real, been reamed out, picked on, put down, ever been ever been rowdy at the sound when
263   your own heart breaks, not to take the time, to take the time. listen.
264   ever been seen and not heard, you ever blurred the lines for those who tried to find some way to define
265   what you are, as if you were far from them, at least at the heart of them its more than a part of them.
266   you ever been told you’re too young or too old, and there’s always that line when you’re willing to walk
267   by, and you gotta receive and then beat the deadlines. so don’t try to define us cause this time we’ re fine.
268   so don’t try to define us cause this time we’re fine. so don’t try to define us cause this time we’ re fine.
269   We’re pissed and we’re loud and now you know why.
270   Chorus: We’re not always right, but we’ve got the right to be wrong.
271   We’re not always free, so this is just a short story long
272   Don’t tell me there are no heroes. This is for them, the women and the men.
273   For Helen Keller who against all odds found a voice.
274   For the choice Veronica Guerin made.
275   For Martin Luther King who stayed just long enough to share a dream with us.
276   This is for that day on the bus for sister Rosa Parks.
277   This for the Joan of Arcs who believe even in the face of sparks becoming flame.
278   The political game that Louis Riel refused to play.
279   This is for the day the Dalai Lama finally goes home.
280   For Dr. Jeffrey Wigand who alone stared down big tobacco.
281   For Nelson Mandela who continues to go the extra mile.
282   This is for the trial that finally found a man guilty of shooting Medger Evers dead.
283   This is for everything Malcolm X said,
284   remembered by athletes who left the Olympics double-fisted.
285   For Arthur Miller, blacklisted for calling a witch hunt what it was.
286   For Galileo locked up because he said the earth was round.
287   For the Two Live crew who found the sound that got them banned in the USA.
288   And imagine if we could still hear John Lennon play.
289   This is for the someone who stood up today and said, “No!”.


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290   For Edward R. Murrow who shut down McCarthy.
291   For Salmon Rushdie, Mahatma Ghandi,
292   You, me, this city, this country.
293   We will always have a choice.
294   When you stand up to be counted.
295   Tell the world, “This is my voice. There are many like it, but this one is mine”.
296   END OF POEM
297
298   As supplementary information, this is the “U. S. Military’s Rifleman’s Creed” which inspired the poet.
299
300   This is my rifle. There are many like it, but this one is mine.
301
302   My rifle is my best friend. It is my life. I must master it as I must master my life.
303
304   My rifle, without me, is useless. Without my rifle, I am useless. I must fire my rifle true. I must shoot
305   straighter than my enemy who is trying to kill me. I must shoot him before he shoots me. I will...
306
307   My rifle and myself know that what counts in this war is not the rounds we fire, the noise of our burst, or
308   the smoke we make. We know that it is the hits that count. We will hit...
309
310   My rifle is human, even as I, because it is my life. Thus, I will learn it as a brother. I will learn its
311   weaknesses, its strength, its parts, its accessories, its sights and its barrel. I will keep my rifle clean and
312   ready, even as I am clean and ready. We will become part of each other. We will...
313
314   Before God, I swear this creed. My rifle and myself are the defenders of my country. We are the masters
315   of our enemy. We are the saviors of my life.
316
317   So be it, until victory is America's and there is no enemy, but peace!


318


319   Chef José Andrés Interview on “60 Minutes” (excerpts)
320   (CBS) Jose Andres calls himself a pilgrim from Spain - a chef who arrived in the United States
321   20 years ago with just $50 in his pocket and a set of cooking knives. But these days it's hard to
322   call him anything less than an amazing American success story. He was GQ magazine's chef of
323   the year, runs restaurants on both coasts and has been nominated for outstanding chef in America
324   by the James Beard Foundation.
325
326   Andres' personality is enormous, as are his plans to charm America into changing its eating
327   habits. But it's his avant-garde approach to cooking that has really made him famous, and has his
328   diners rethinking how much fun food can be.

329   "Eating has to be fun, has to be a social event, but where you have fun that you are relaxed. But
330   at the same time that you are relaxed, doesn't mean that you cannot be putting a lot of thought

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331   behind what eating, what the food means to you," Andres told correspondent Anderson
332   Cooper.
333
334   "Minibar is a window into creativity, that's all," Andres added, laughing.
335
336   Jose Andres' "minibar" is a kind of culinary laboratory in Washington D.C. where Cooper was
337   lucky enough to skip a month-long waiting list for one of just six seats.
338
339   He got the first course and the first surprise: a temperature layered cocktail.
340
341   "This is what we call the drink by the chef," Andres explained. "A cocktail can be made by the
342   bartender. But the cocktail also can be made by the chef."
343
344   "It's great. It's hot but it's cold. There's cold underneath it," Cooper observed.
345
346   "Already your taste buds are already being excited because they are asking themselves, 'What's
347   happening here?'" Andres said.
348
349   What's happening here is "molecular gastronomy" - a cooking technique that embraces science
350   and technology. Andres says his 30-course menu is as much about the brain and the eye as the
351   tongue and stomach.
352
353   Listen to his explanation of "the air" floating on top of caviar brioche: "It's like if you are
354   walking in Fifth Avenue and you could open your mouth and right there in the middle of Fifth
355   Avenue you would have that flavor in your mouth, that's what air is all about."
356
357   Then there was what appeared to be a miniature ice cream cone, with salmon roe "bubbling" out.
358
359   "Bagel and lox. Inside has cream cheese and instead of the smoke salmon has salmon roe,"
360   Andres explained.
361
362   Dishes are a bite or two with some complicated combinations. For example, Cooper wondered
363   why there was cotton candy wrapped around seafood.
364
365   "Cotton candy is the most amazing form of caramelization ever invented by man. You're gonna
366   love it. It's going to be sweet and the smokiness of the eel," Andres explained.
367
368   Andres dishes are cutting edge, so what he thinks about ingredients may surprise you.
369
370   "I believe the future is vegetables and fruits. They are so much more sexier than a piece of
371   chicken," Andres said.
372
373   "You find vegetables and fruits sexy?" Cooper asked.
374


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375   "Unbelievably sexy," Andres replied, laughing. "Come on, think about it for a second, okay?
376   Let's compare a chicken breast, the best chicken breast from the best farm with a beautiful
377   pineapple. Cut the pineapple, already the aromas are inundating the entire kitchen. Acidity. Sour
378   after notes, touches of passion fruit."
379
380   "All right. You're makin' me excited," Cooper said.
381
382   The chef told Cooper he thinks meat is overrated. "Well, meat to me, it's slightly boring. Hold
383   on, I love meat too but only once in a while. You get a piece of meat and you put it in your
384   mouth, you chew, the first five seconds, all the juices flow around your mouth, they're gone, and
385   then you are 20 more seconds chewing something that is tasteless at this point. Something like
386   this doesn't happen with a pineapple, an asparagus, or a green pea," he explained.

387   Jim Carrey Interview - Inside the Actors’ Studio
388
389   (Transcribed and edited)
390
391   James Lipton explained that it is a very significant anniversary, as he has been asking Jim Carrey to join
392   him on Inside The Actor’s Studio for the past 17 years.
393
394   After the intro, Carrey raced out and proceeded to race around the stage, disappearing for several
395   moments and then reappearing in the rafters.
396
397   After seating himself to the right of Lipton, Carrey took a sip from his own tall glass, filled with a golden
398   substance. The first words of Jim Carrey on Inside The Actor’s Studio:
399
400   “I drink my own urine, constituted of my own energy source!”
401
402   Carrey discussed his reasons for not coming on the show. He explained that it wasn’t some difficult actor
403   move as some had speculated, but rather was greatly in part to his shyness.
404
405   STANDUP:
406
407   After being forced to work late-night factory shifts as a teen to help support his family, Carrey left school
408   on his 16th birthday.
409
410   “I went immediately to Yuk Yuks. The experience did not go well. Anyone that has a devastating
411   experience, and people tell you it’s over…[he becomes emotional and very firm] it is never true.”
412
413   He didn’t go back to doing standup for two years, and then:
414
415   “The same thing happened to me at The Comedy Store. [impersonating nay-sayers] ‘Career’s over!’”
416
417   “Two years after that, I returned and hit it big.”
418


      Page 11 of 44
419   The subject was brought up about making it as a successful Canadian comic within Canada, and what
420   happened next in his career as a result. Lipton raised the question of what exactly happens when a
421   Canadian reaches the top in his or her homeland.
422
423   Carrey discussed the “triumph of Canadian comedy”. In a commanding voice, Carrey pointed and
424   declared, “Go to the Americas!” He began to riff, portraying some Canadian Comics disguised as tourists,
425   but attempting to sneak in. “We’re [just] going to see the falls!” as he made shifty eyes.
426
427   Lipton commented on the tremendous amount of talented comedians that have come from Canada. Carrey
428   responded, “There’s talent EVERYWHERE! Borders have nothing to do with it. [applause] We’re one
429   big country club…it’s one big house.”
430
431   His dual citizenship was discussed. Carrey joked about how he’s spreading himself around the world:
432
433   “…women everywhere…babies…cuz it’s just too much money to leave to one person – she’d go
434   CRAZY!”
435
436   Carrey discussed a six-month period when he was in Vegas. He decided to not repeat any of his material,
437   and go onstage without preparation, as a means of toughening himself up artistically:
438
439   “I called it ‘performance art’ ‘cause it just wasn’t funny yet! I drove out half of the audience every night!”
440
441   With a laugh, Carrey recalled Rodney Dangerfield coming up to him after one performance during this
442   period.
443
444   [as Dangerfield] “MAN! They’re lookin’ at you like you’re from another fuckin’ PLANET!”
445
446   During this period, Carrey said his performances were so bad, that audiences actually got into fights with
447   him onstage.
448
449   Before so many shows, “I’d be staring up at a light bulb, sweating, saying, ‘What am I doing?’ I never
450   wanted to repeat my material. Comics would come up to me saying, ‘I’ll take it [your old material] if
451   you’re not going to use it!’ Chairs would fly at me.”
452
453   He was up there feeling, “this is uncomfortable for me!” but he stuck to it. “In Living Color came from
454   that experimentation.”
455
456   IN LIVING COLOR:
457
458   “Damon Wayans added me to the auditions. I was in a hallway with 400 people. The first time I met
459   Keenan Ivory Wayans, I mocked an assassination attempt on his life. He loved it.” [Carrey did the same
460   “assassination attempt” impression as he does during the ‘Hollywood Bowl’ scene in the film Yes Man.]
461
462   On a sketch that didn’t make the cut:
463
464   “There was one with an anti-abortionist ventriloquist and a fetus puppet, doing a back and forth… a
465   struggle for life!
466


      Page 12 of 44
467   [Ventriloquist] ‘Well you don’t LOOK human!’
468
469   [Puppet] ‘Give me a couple months!’
470
471   Then the ventriloquist gets out a hanger and the puppet freaks out. Then the ventriloquist goes, ‘HEY!
472   I’m just hanging my coat up!’”
473
474   ACE VENTURA:
475
476   While filming:
477
478   “Tom Shadyac and I thought, ‘We’re going to end our careers! But what a great time we’re having!’”
479
480   “It was a lot of improvisation. Trying to make fun of the guy that has all the answers, the leading man…I
481   like to make fun of ego”
482
483   After the success:
484
485   Carrey had dinner with Anthony Hopkins [since people would “take his calls”, after his becoming
486   famous].
487
488   “During that conversation, I learned that Anthony Hopkins’s [characterization] method was the same for
489   Hannibal Lecter as it had been for me with Ace. Ace was based on a bird [bird walk, even the hairstyle
490   was based on a cockatoo]. Hannibal was based on a tarantula.”
491
492   THE MASK:
493
494   JL: Is Stanley Ipkiss based on anyone?
495
496   JC: Not really. [After some thought, Carrey suggested that Stanley] “was me, without the flamboyant”
497   characters he typically plays.
498
499   “For Stanley, I was in a good place to play the role. I struggle with trying to fit any one [acting] method
500   into all situations. The choices you make….things don’t have to be real! It just has to be art. Picasso
501   turned things upside down. If the effect is real, it’s real. How can I make this abstract? Learn as much as
502   you can learn and use all of that stuff. Don’t have a thought director. It’s fun to experiment with that.
503   There’s a bajillion ways to do things.”
504
505   DUMB AND DUMBER:
506
507   On the Farrelly Brothers:
508
509   “It’s like they’re going from school [on the set]. You laugh your guts out. It’s really fun.”
510
511   On Jeff Daniels:
512
513   “Jeff Daniels was an essential part of the movie. He gave it credibility. We were auditioning comedians
514   that were trying more to ‘score’ than to ‘commit’. He was alive and a real person.”


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515
516   THE TRUMAN SHOW:
517
518   “It was one of the first scripts that was the answer to my affirmations. I didn’t live [the themes in the film]
519   until years later. The lesson of Truman came back to me. It really has come to be [intense public scrutiny
520   with the paparazzi, reality shows, etc.]. To risk popularity and people’s acceptance to do something that’s
521   meaningful, you have to divorce yourself from what others expect for you and it’s always worthwhile
522   making that journey.
523
524   “‘Good Afternoon, Good Evening and Goodnight’ was inspired by something my dad would always say.
525   My dad was deaf in one ear and he would always say things before he left, to make sure everyone was
526   going to be alright.”
527
528   MAN ON THE MOON:
529
530   JL: Did you ever take a break from the Andy character during the filming of Man on the Moon?
531
532   JC: I would be him all day through bedtime, with the only exception being the weekends when I’d be
533   with my daughter.
534
535   On the origins and experience of his Andy Kaufman character development:
536
537   “I was [in Malibu] having coffee, asking myself: Where would he be? Who would he be? If he was alive
538   – where is he NOW? Then the answer/thought came to me: Speaking telepathically. And at that exact
539   moment, thirty dolphins surfaced.”
540
541   Carrey followed this experience by only “talking telepathically to people”. It was “a fascinating
542   thing…they [the cast and crew] didn’t know what to do with themselves!”
543
544   Carrey recalled that at one point a man was brought in to prepare him for an upcoming shoot with a conga
545   lesson, during this “telepathic” stage. The teacher inquired how Carrey would like to play a tune with
546   Carrey’s response being, of course, strictly telepathic. He demonstrated his intense gaze in response to the
547   instructor to the audience.
548
549   His telepathic experimentation both on and off the set, “made people focus on me, made us close, it was
550   amazing.”
551
552   He commented that people listened better as they had no choice and were more trusting of their instincts
553   and intuition, etc.
554
555   Carrey has documentary footage from this experience that he hopes to release one day
556
557   JL: Was there a REAL Andy Kaufman?
558
559   JC: Of course! He couldn’t get his father to accept him. To do Latka, he wore his father’s sport coat to try
560   to get someone to love him. His father loved his brother more…I looked at that first. I went to his grave
561   site with his sister, Carol.
562


      Page 14 of 44
563   ETERNAL SUNSHINE OF THE SPOTLESS MIND:
564
565   “I was going through a terribly broken heart at the time.”
566
567   Carrey did an impression of ESOTSM director Michel Gondry commenting on Carrey’s emotional state
568   at the time.
569
570   “[With a thick French accent]: OH! You are MAGNIFICENT! You are TOTALLY destroyed! This is
571   beautiful!”
572
573   Carrey added that Gondry directed him to try to find a pocket of misery and hide in it.
574
575   “I chose to hide from the camera…[as if] to not be seen.”
576
577   “For Eternal Sunshine, I opened up the wound. Michel Gondry was casting people in the film to look like
578   my ex-girlfriend. Ellen Pompeo was cut out of the film. She looked like my ex.”
579
580   Carrey comments that he was very sorry to see Pompeo’s scenes cut, but was very happy for her when she
581   got her big break shortly after.
582
583   BRUCE ALMIGHTY:
584
585   On working with Morgan Freeman:
586
587   “I never take for granted working with good people. They bring you to life”
588
589   Carrey adds that working with Freeman created a “creative, fun atmosphere”.
590
591   THE NUMBER 23:
592
593   “The Fingerling character was so much fun, to be that guy. The tattoo – girls like ‘em!”
594
595   I LOVE YOU PHILLIP MORRIS:
596
597   “I didn’t know what to make of the character…. What struck me was the relentlessness when it comes to
598   love.”
599
600   On his approach for ILYPM and a suggestion he offers the acting students:
601
602   He cited the Anagrams book as being good for offering perspective [possibly referring to ANAGRAMS
603   by Lorrie Moore], as it zeroes in on where different character types are incorporated from. We all start out
604   with a false belief about ourselves, and whatever your mistaken belief about yourself is, you form a
605   personality based on that. Essentially, believing that “I have to be this, to get that” and you form a
606   character around that.”
607
608   On the subject of his exploration of love and relationships for the film, including the film’s theme of
609   abandonment:
610


      Page 15 of 44
611   “A person wants to make themselves magical…some way [to become attractive and to attract]. Love
612   becomes intense when you have no sense of self.”
613
614   His reaction when Ewan McGregor signed on to play Phillip Morris:
615
616   “Thank you! Thank you! Thank you!”
617
618   “Great lay, by the way! [begins to riff on this]…He changed my WHOLE world!…I’m a Scorpio, he’s a
619   Scorpio…”
620
621   On getting to the place he needed to be to embody his character’s feelings for McGregor’s character/for
622   the romantic relationship:
623
624   “This is an energy that I need…someone I want to protect…someone I want to make feel safe.”
625
626   JL: What did you want to be when you grew up?
627
628   JC: Like most every Catholic boy, I wanted to be Jesus…
629
630   JL: And now?
631
632   JC: Kanye West is already doing that.
633
634   He also pointed out that having such a goal is all about achieving “authenticity” which unfortunately
635   “comes with DEATH”! So that also changed his mind about this early aspiration.
636
637
638   On what gives him the courage to take risks:
639
640   JC: My father. He was a saxophone player. He gave up his dream for a ‘safe job’. I’ve been fueled by this
641   knowledge that there is no safe job, no safe anything. The only thing to regret [in life] is ‘I didn’t take the
642   risk.’ Fail at something you LOVE!
643
644
645   JL: Is your gift genetic?
646
647   JC: I remembered seeing my father thinking – That’s the way to operate in the world!
648
649
650   “We all have an amazing magic inside of all of us, and the difference [between those whose gifts develop
651   and those that don’t] are those of us that believe in that [gift], recognize it, that think about and [tap into]
652   that energy.”
653
654
655   For each film, his approach to developing his character varies. Carrey illustrates his approach to Man on
656   the Moon and how his “transformation” was a gradual process. In the months leading up to shooting, he
657   gives this example:
658


      Page 16 of 44
659   “Right before Man on the Moon, when I was hanging out with Nicholas Cage, he was like, ‘What’s going
660   on with your eyes, man? You look different.’”
661
662
663   Carrey discusses the aspect of himself being shy, and how creating outrageous characters such as Ace
664   Ventura has offered him the opportunity to step out of his naturally quiet and introspective self. Acting
665   can often be an expression “to be something you’re trying to be in real life.”
666
667   He illustrates this, giving an example of something we’ve all experiences at one time or another: a bully
668   says something horrible to you and then you beat yourself up for hours because you didn’t have an
669   incredible comeback. Far worse, when you finally come up with that perfect comeback in your mind, it’s
670   too late. Acting gives an artist all the ingredients to live out their wildest fantasies. You get “…all of the
671   comebacks in the world! [You get] to live vicariously through these characters.”
672
673
674   He discusses the importance of commitment to character, to make “conflict as real as possible, so our
675   physical being will react organically.” He discusses the philosophy of “There is no self – that thoughts
676   aren’t real” in reference to Eckhart Tolle’s teachings applied to this aspect of creating his characters.
677
678   He makes reference to Eckhart Tolle and his teachings throughout he interview.
679
680   [Ed. Note: For more of Carrey’s thoughts on Tolle, this video is a good start. ]
681
682
683   On the subject of certain roles being expected of him and of people trying to label him:
684
685   ”I’ve always done everything I could not to be known completely.”
686
687
688   On what’s at the heart of all of the work he engages in:
689
690   The greatest jobs in the world stem from service and always come back to that every time and again –
691   “How can I be of service?”
692
693
694   He recounts the story about when Paramount Pictures got created an anniversary photo with their biggest
695   stars, where Tom Cruise jokingly turned up to him during the shoot and said “How’d YOU get here?” and
696   Carrey replied, “I had a sick mom”.
697
698
699   Carrey then discussed how his childhood revolved around ways to try and make his mom and family
700   happy through laughter. He would sit in his room pondering life’s deep questions and how he could
701   alleviate the suffering in his world. Pondering how he could be of service “on a more massive level” only
702   grew as he aged.
703
704
705   Carrey studied The Meisner Technique with Jeff Goldblum. Carrey does an impression of Goldblum, and
706   then recalls a time when Goldblum was teaching in the valley and invited Carrey and Damon Wayans to


      Page 17 of 44
707   take one of his courses. “Damon got kicked out after two days because he was laughing at people’s pain!”
708   Carrey explained that Wayans grew up in a tough neighborhood where people didn’t share their feelings,
709   cry, etc.
710
711
712   Carrey was very strong in his stance on the cookie-cutter nature of films today and the fear by the
713   industry to take risks:
714
715   “STOP SHAVING THE EDGES OFF! The edges are what makes them interesting!”
716
717   Carrey used an analogy to the effect of that the same people that look at car accident wreckage are the
718   same ones that say that they are uncomfortable watching certain film scenes – as if they’d never looked at
719   a gruesome sight in their life, as if they didn’t have that very human quality of having curiosity. He points
720   out that one of the whole points of art is to “express life truthfully”. “We go to the movies to see the edges
721   we can’t see in real life. It’s important NOT to take the rough stuff away.”
722
723
724   On the variety of his choices and the types of films he pursues:
725
726   JC: I feel lucky. I enjoy throwing the hounds off the trail. I feel that it’s the same way that I paint. I want
727   to tell a wide range of stories. I still haven’t done what I need/want to do.
728
729   JL: What do you want to do?
730
731   JC: Explode into a ball of light!
732
733
734   On what he needs in scenes when he is performing comedy:
735
736   There’s an importance for people around me to be really real. There has to be a HUGE smile behind your
737   character. Every part is different. Get frustrated with the idea [about what your character is going to be,
738   and give it time].
739
740
741   On what he needs from a director:
742
743   “Tight, open collaboration. Someone coming with ideas and knowing what they do. Never someone who
744   doesn’t collaborate and also [jokes] KEEP TELLING ME THAT I’M AMAZING!!!”
745
746   Carrey discussed the fun psychology game/exercise he created and would play with his three close friends
747   (he’s discussed this in previous interviews). He would “take away everyone’s main mode of operating”,
748   and the four would try to follow these rules during their duration of hanging out together:
749
750   -The friend that always solved the problems “couldn’t have all of the answers”
751
752   -The director friend “couldn’t direct”
753
754   -The famous actor “couldn’t talk about himself”


      Page 18 of 44
755
756
757   “My shyness makes me uncomfortable. It’s hard to be THIS watched.”
758
759
760   Carrey added that he makes a point of it to challenge his shyness by continuously to put himself out there.
761   He gave recent examples, such as doing this Actor’s Studio interview and hosting Saturday Night Live on
762   Jan. 8.
763
764
765   On facing his nerves:
766
767   “I’m not ever sure where the energy’s going to come from…I have to do so without thinking…say
768   “YES!” and it will all turn out alright.”
769
770   He mentions that there are “certain people he’d be thrilled to meet”, including Al Pacino “I’m still a fan”.
771   He comments that he would love to work with him one day.
772
773   On how he balances his spirituality with his work:
774
775   “If I find peace, will I still be motivated to create? There is a certain aspect to being an artist where you
776   are forced to create from desperation. You really have to love creating ‘cause you suffer for it. Spirituality
777   comes from having compassion for who you play. It’s been an urge to do something transcendent…
778   extraordinary while you’re here. Spirituality is the same kind of thing. I have surrendered to the fact to
779   believe in my thoughts and feelings.”
780
781   On what he focuses on during discouraging times?
782
783   JC: I have an insane belief in my own ability to manifest things. I believe every moment and everything
784   you go through you can turn your life like THAT by deciding how it’s going to be…and it HAPPENS
785   IMMEDIATELY. And the only time it goes awry is when I forget… depression, [etc.]. Explore being
786   conscious and conscious awareness…the study of consciousness. The idea that it’s a garden of ice
787   sculptures [we’re each other’s reflection]… we’re all connected… you are feeling what I’m feeling and
788   we know things we don’t even know we know.


789


790   Lecture by Professor Michael Sandel
791   This is a course about Justice and we begin with a story suppose you're the driver of a trolley car,
792   and your trolley car is hurdling down the track at sixty miles an hour and at the end of the track
793   you notice five workers working on the track you tried to stop but you can't your brakes don't
794   work you feel desperate because you know that if you crash into these five workers they will all
795   die. Let's assume you know that for sure and so you feel helpless until you notice that there is off
796   to the right a side track at the end of that track there's one worker working on track you're
797   steering wheel works so you can turn the trolley car if you want to onto this side track killing the
798   one but sparing the five. Here's our first question, "What's the right thing to do?" What would


      Page 19 of 44
799   you do? Let's take a poll, how many would turn the trolley car onto the side track? How many
800   wouldn't? How many would go straight ahead? Keep your hands up, those of you who'd go
801   straight ahead. A handful of people would, the vast majority would turn. Let's hear first now we
802   need to begin to investigate the reasons why you think it's the right thing to do. Let's begin with
803   those in the majority, who would turn to go onto side track? Why would you do it, what would
804   be your reason? Who's willing to volunteer a reason? Go ahead, stand up.

805   Because it can't be right to kill five people when you can only kill one person instead. It wouldn't
806   be right to kill five if you could kill one person instead. That's a good reason. That's a good
807   reason. Who else? Does everybody agree with that reason? Go ahead. Well I was thinking it was
808   the same reason it was on 9/11 we regard the people who flew the plane who flew the plane into
809   the Pennsylvania field as heroes because they chose to kill the people on the plane and not kill
810   more people in big buildings. So the principle there was the same on 9/11 it's tragic
811   circumstance, but better to kill one so that five can live is that the reason most of you have, those
812   of you who would turn, yes? Let's hear now from those in the minority those who wouldn't turn.

813   Well I think that same type of mentality that justifies genocide and totalitarianism in order to
814   save one type of race you wipe out the other. so what would you do in this case? You would to
815   avoid the horrors of genocide you would crash into the five and kill them? Presumably yes. Okay
816   who else? That's a brave answer, thank you. Let's consider another trolley car case and see
817   whether those of you in the majority want to adhere to the principle, better that one should die so
818   that five should live.

819   This time you're not the driver of the trolley car, you're an onlooker standing on a bridge
820   overlooking a trolley car track and down the track comes a trolley car at the end of the track are
821   five workers the brakes don't work the trolley car is about to careen into the five and kill them
822   and now you're not the driver you really feel helpless until you notice standing next to you
823   leaning over the bridge is it very fat man. And you could give him a shove he would fall over the
824   bridge onto the track right in the way of the trolley car he would die but he would spare the five.
825   Now, how many would push the fat man over the bridge? Raise your hand. How many wouldn't?
826   Most people wouldn't. Here's the obvious question, what became of the principle better to save
827   five lives even if it means sacrificing one? What became of the principle that almost everyone
828   endorsed in the first case? I need to hear from someone who was in the majority in both cases is
829   how do you explain the difference between the two?

830   The second one, I guess, involves an active choice of pushing a person and down which I guess
831   that that person himself would otherwise not have been involved in the situation at all and so to
832   choose on his behalf I guess to involve him in something that he otherwise would have this
833   escaped is I guess more than what you have in the first case where the three parties, the driver
834   and the two sets of workers are already, I guess, in this situation. But the guy working, the one
835   on the track off to the side he didn't choose to sacrifice his life any more than the fat guy did, did
836   he? That's true, but he was on the tracks. This guy was on the bridge. Go ahead, you can come
837   back if you want. Alright, it's a hard question but you did well you did very well it's a hard



      Page 20 of 44
838   question. Who else can find a way of reconciling the reaction of the majority in these two cases?
839   Yes?

840   Well I guess in the first case where you have the one worker and the five it's a choice between
841   those two, and you have to make a certain choice and people are going to die because of the
842   trolley car not necessarily because of your direct actions. The trolley car is a runway, thing and
843   you need to make in a split second choice whereas pushing the fat man over is an actual act of
844   murder on your part you have control over that whereas you may not have control over the
845   trolley car. So I think that it's a slightly different situation. Alright who has a reply? Is that, who
846   has a reply to that? No. That was good, who has a way who wants to reply? Is that a way out of
847   this? I don't think that's a very good reason because you choose either way you have to choose
848   who dies because you either choose to turn and kill a person which is an act of conscious thought
849   to turn, or you choose to push the fat man over which is also an active conscious action so either
850   way you're making a choice. Do you want to reply? Well I'm not really sure that that's the case, it
851   just still seems kind of different, the act of actually pushing someone over onto the tracks and
852   killing them, you are actually killing him yourself, you're pushing him with your own hands
853   you're pushing and that's different than steering something that is going to cause death into
854   another...you know it doesn't really sound right saying it now when I'm up here. No that's good,
855   what's your name? Andrew. Andrew and let me ask you this question Andrew, suppose standing
856   on the bridge next to the fat man I didn't have to push him, suppose he was standing over a trap
857   door that I could open by turning a steering wheel like that would you turn it?

858   For some reason that still just seems more more wrong. I mean maybe if you just accidentally
859   like leaned into this steering wheel or something like that or but, or say that the car is hurdling
860   towards a switch that will drop the trap then I could agree with that. Fair enough, it still seems
861   wrong in a way that it doesn't seem wrong in the first case to turn, you say An in another way, I
862   mean in the first situation you're involved directly with the situation in the second one you're an
863   onlooker as well. So you have the choice of becoming involved or not by pushing the fat man.
864   Let's forget for the moment about this case.

865   That's good, but let's imagine a different case. This time your doctor in an emergency room and
866   six patients come to you they've been in a terrible trolley car wreck five of them sustained
867   moderate injuries one is severely injured you could spend all day caring for the one severely
868   injured victim, but in that time the five would die, or you could look after the five, restore them
869   to health, but during that time the one severely injured person would die. How many would save
870   the five now as the doctor? ow many would save the one? Very few people, just a handful of
871   people. Same reason I assume, one life versus five. Now consider another doctor case this time
872   you're a transplant surgeon and you have five patients each in desperate need of an organ
873   transplant in order to survive on needs a heart one a lung, one a kidney, one a liver and the fifth a
874   pancreas. And you have no organ donors you are about to see you them die and then it occurs to
875   you that in the next room here's a healthy guy who came in for a checkup. and he is

876   you like that and he's taking a nap you could go in very quietly yank out the five organs, that
877   person would die but you can save the five. How many would do it? Anyone? How many? Put


      Page 21 of 44
878   your hands up if you would do it. Anyone in the balcony? You would? Be careful don't lean over
879   too much. How many wouldn't? All right. What do you say, speak up in the balcony, you who
880   would yank out the organs, why? I'd actually like to explore slightly alternate possibility of just
881   taking the one of the five he needs an organ who dies first and using their four healthy organs to
882   save the other four. That's a pretty good idea. That's a great idea except for the fact that you just
883   wrecked the philosophical point.

884   Let's step back from these stories and these arguments to notice a couple of things about the way
885   the arguments have began to unfold. Certain moral principles have already begun to emerge from
886   the discussions we've had and let's consider what those moral principles look like. The first
887   moral principle that emerged from the discussion said that the right thing to do the moral thing to
888   do depends on the consequences that will result from your action. At the end of the day better
889   that five should live even if one must die. That's an example of consequentialist moral reasoning.
890   Consequentialist moral reasoning locates morality in the consequences of an act. In the state of
891   the world that will result from the thing you do but then we went a little further, we considered
892   those other cases and people weren't so sure about consequentialist moral reasoning when people
893   hesitated to push the fat man over the bridge or to yank out the organs of the innocent patient
894   people gestured towards reasons having to do with the intrinsic quality of the act itself.
895   Consequences be what they may. People were reluctant people thought it was just wrong
896   categorically wrong to kill a person an innocent person even for the sake of saving five lives, at
897   least these people thought that in the second version of each story we reconsidered.

898   So this points a second categorical way of thinking about moral reasoning categorical moral
899   reasoning locates morality in certain absolute moral requirements in certain categorical duties
900   and rights regardless of the consequences. We're going to explore in the days and weeks to come
901   the contrast between consequentialist and categorical moral principles. The most influential
902   example of

903   consequential moral reasoning is utilitarianism, a doctrine invented by Jeremy Bentham, the
904   eighteenth century English political philosopher. The most important philosopher of categorical
905   moral reasoning is the eighteenth century German philosopher Emmanuel Kant. So we will look
906   at those two different modes of moral reasoning assess them and also consider others.

907   If you look at the syllabus, you'll notice that we read a number of great and famous books. Books
908   by Aristotle John Locke Emanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, and others. You'll notice too from the
909   syllabus that we don't only read these books, we also all take up contemporary political and legal
910   controversies that raise philosophical questions. We will debate equality and inequality,
911   affirmative action, free speech versus hate speech, same sex marriage, military conscription, a
912   range of practical questions, why not just to enliven these abstract and distant books but to make
913   clear to bring out what's at stake in our everyday lives including our political lives, for
914   philosophy. So we will read these books and we will debate these issues and we'll see how each
915   informs and illuminates the other. This may sound appealing enough but here I have to issue a
916   warning, and the warning is this to read these books in this way, as an exercise in self-
917   knowledge, to read them in this way carry certain risks; risks that are both personal and political,


      Page 22 of 44
918   risks that every student of political philosophy has known. These risks spring from that fact that
919   philosophy teaches us and unsettles us by confronting us with what we already know.

920   There's an irony. The difficulty of this course consists in the fact that it teaches what you already
921   know. It works by taking what we know from familiar unquestioned settings, and making it
922   strange. That's how those examples worked worked the hypotheticals with which we began with
923   their mix of playfulness and sobriety. it's also how these philosophical books work. Philosophy
924   estranges us from the familiar not by supplying new information but by inviting and provoking a
925   new way of seeing but, and here's the risk, once the familiar turns strange, it's never quite the
926   same again. Self-knowledge is like lost innocence, however unsettling you find it, it can never be
927   unthought or unknown. What makes this enterprise difficult but also riveting, is that moral and
928   political philosophy is a story and you don't know where this story will lead but what you do
929   know is that the story is about you.

930   Those are the personal risks, now what of the political risks. one way of introducing of course
931   like this would be to promise you that by reading these books and debating these issues you will
932   become a better more responsible citizen. You will examine the presuppositions of public policy,
933   you will hone your political judgment you'll become a more effective participant in public affairs
934   but this would be a partial and misleading promise political philosophy for the most part hasn't
935   worked that way. You have to allow for the possibility that political philosophy may make you a
936   worse citizen rather than a better one or at least a worse citizen before it makes you a better one
937   and that's because philosophy is a distancing even debilitating activity

938

939


940   Commencement Speech, Stanford University 2005 by Steve
941   Jobs
942

943   I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in
944   the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I've ever gotten to a
945   college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That's it. No big deal. Just
946   three stories.

947   The first story is about connecting the dots.

948   I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for
949   another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?

950   It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student,
951   and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by

      Page 23 of 44
952   college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his
953   wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl.
954   So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: "We have
955   an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?" They said: "Of course." My biological mother later
956   found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never
957   graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a
958   few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.

959   And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive
960   as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents' savings were being spent on my college tuition.
961   After six months, I couldn't see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and
962   no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the
963   money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all
964   work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I
965   ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn't interest
966   me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.

967   It wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends' rooms, I
968   returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across
969   town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it.
970   And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be
971   priceless later on. Let me give you one example:

972   Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country.
973   Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand
974   calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn't have to take the normal classes, I decided to
975   take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces,
976   about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great
977   typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can't
978   capture, and I found it fascinating.

979   None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we
980   were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into
981   the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that
982   single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally
983   spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, it's likely that no personal computer
984   would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy
985   class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course
986   it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very,
987   very clear looking backwards ten years later.

988   Again, you can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking
989   backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to



      Page 24 of 44
 990   trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me
 991   down, and it has made all the difference in my life.

 992   My second story is about love and loss.

 993   I was lucky — I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents
 994   garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us
 995   in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest
 996   creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired. How
 997   can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I
 998   thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went
 999   well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out.
1000   When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out.
1001   What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.

1002   I really didn't know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of
1003   entrepreneurs down - that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David
1004   Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public
1005   failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to
1006   dawn on me — I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit.
1007   I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.

1008   I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could
1009   have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of
1010   being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative
1011   periods of my life.

1012   During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar,
1013   and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the
1014   worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation
1015   studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and
1016   the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple's current renaissance. And
1017   Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.

1018   I'm pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn't been fired from Apple. It was awful
1019   tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a
1020   brick. Don't lose faith. I'm convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what
1021   I did. You've got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers.
1022   Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do
1023   what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you
1024   haven't found it yet, keep looking. Don't settle. As with all matters of the heart, you'll know when
1025   you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So
1026   keep looking until you find it. Don't settle.



       Page 25 of 44
1027   My third story is about death.

1028   When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: "If you live each day as if it was your
1029   last, someday you'll most certainly be right." It made an impression on me, and since then, for
1030   the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: "If today were the
1031   last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?" And whenever the answer
1032   has been "No" for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.

1033   Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help me
1034   make the big choices in life. Because almost everything — all external expectations, all pride, all
1035   fear of embarrassment or failure - these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only
1036   what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid
1037   the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to
1038   follow your heart.

1039   About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly
1040   showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me
1041   this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no
1042   longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order,
1043   which is doctor's code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought
1044   you'd have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything
1045   is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your
1046   goodbyes.

1047   I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an
1048   endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my
1049   pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me
1050   that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned
1051   out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and
1052   I'm fine now.

1053   This was the closest I've been to facing death, and I hope it's the closest I get for a few more
1054   decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when
1055   death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:

1056   No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And
1057   yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be,
1058   because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears
1059   out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from
1060   now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is
1061   quite true.

1062   Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't be trapped by dogma —
1063   which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't let the noise of others' opinions


       Page 26 of 44
1064   drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and
1065   intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is
1066   secondary.

1067   When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which
1068   was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far
1069   from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late
1070   1960's, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters,
1071   scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before
1072   Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.

1073   Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had
1074   run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back
1075   cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might
1076   find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: "Stay
1077   Hungry. Stay Foolish." It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay
1078   Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I
1079   wish that for you.

1080   Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.

1081   Thank you all very much.

1082


1083   The Botany of Desire (transcript of PBS broadcast) by
1084   Michael Pollan
1085
1086   Narrator: THEY ARE FOUR OF THE MOST COMMON PLANTS WE KNOW. WE’VE
1087   ALWAYS THOUGHT THAT WE CONTROLLED THEM. BUT WHAT IF, IN FACT, THEY
1088   HAVE BEEN SHAPING US?
1089
1090   Michael Pollan We don't give nearly enough credit to plants. They've been working on us,
1091   they've been using us for their own purposes.
1092
1093   Narrator: FOUR PLANTS THAT HAVE TRAVELED THE ROAD TO SUCCESS…BY
1094   SATISFYING HUMAN DESIRES.
1095
1096   Michael Pollan: The tulip, by gratifying our desire for a certain kind of beauty, has gotten us to
1097   take it from its origins in Central Asia and disperse it around the world. Marijuana, by gratifying


       Page 27 of 44
1098   our desire to change consciousness, has gotten people to risk their lives, their freedom, in order
1099   to grow more of it and plant more of it. The potato, by gratifying our desire for control, control
1100   over nature so that we can feed ourselves has gotten itself out of South America and expanded its
1101   range far beyond where it was 500 years ago. And the apple, by gratifying our desire for
1102   sweetness begins in the forests of Kazakhstan and is now the universal fruit. These are great
1103   winners in the dance of domestication.
1104
1105   Narrator: A LOOK AT NATURE THE WAY YOU’VE NEVER SEEN IT BEFORE – WITH
1106   BEST-SELLING AUTHOR MICHAEL POLLAN.
1107
1108   Michael Pollan vo: This relationship, of the plants learning how to gratify our desires and our
1109   working for them in exchange for this, is what I call the Botany of Desire.
1110
1111   Michael Pollan: It was that very special week in May when the apple trees are in spectacular
1112   bloom and they're just vibrating with the attention of bees. And I was planting potatoes. Making
1113   my little rows and putting in my chunks. and the bees were working above me. and it occurred to
1114   me. You know, what did I have in common with those bees? And when you think about it, um,
1115   quite a bit. The bee assumes it's getting the best of this deal with the apple blossom. It's breaking
1116   in, it's getting the, getting the nectar, and has no idea that it's picked up this pollen on its, on the
1117   hairs of its thighs and it's transporting it to another tree, in the garden or down the street or
1118   halfway around the world. So for the bee to think it's in charge of this relationship is, is really
1119   just a failure of bee imagination. And I realized I had the same failure of imagination - I was
1120   working for these potatoes, in some sense. I was planting them; I was giving them a little bit
1121   more habitat than they had before. And yet I thought that I was kind of calling the shots. So that's
1122   when I had this thought that, wouldn't it be interesting to look at our relationship to domesticated
1123   plants from the plant's point of view.
1124
1125   Of course, plants don’t have consciousness or intention but the act of using our consciousness to
1126   put ourselves in their roots or shoes or whatever, helps us to see things from their vantage point.
1127   And when you do that, nature suddenly looks very different. We realize we're in the web of
1128   nature, not standing outside it. These plants are mirrors in which we can see ourselves in a
1129   slightly different way. And as much as this is a story about plants, it's a story about human
1130   desire.
1131
1132   Brian: Good morning. My name is Brian. Welcome to Poverty Lane Orchards. First thing we’re
1133   gonna do is we’re gonna head up into the orchard and when we get up there I want to tell you a
1134   little bit about the apples and the trees and how to pick apples…
1135



       Page 28 of 44
1136   Narrator: FOR CHILDREN IN NEW ENGLAND, IT’S AN AUTUMN RITUAL-- AN APPLE
1137   PICKING EXPEDITION TO THE LOCAL ORCHARD.
1138
1139   Brian off-screen: OK when you guys are picking the apples, you want to pick out nice ripe
1140   apples, and the way to tell the ripe ones is they’re red… BUT THESE CHILDREN MIGHT
1141   NEVER HAVE HAD A CHANCE TO TASTE APPLES, HAD THE APPLE NOT FOUND A
1142   WAY TO GET US TO DO ITS BIDDING. THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO, THE APPLE
1143   PUT US TO WORK – TRANSPORTING ITS GENES FROM ITS NATIVE GROUND IN
1144   CENTRAL ASIA TO THE FAR CORNERS OF THE EARTH.
1145
1146   Michael Pollan: For a plant to do that, it has to be awfully enterprising, willing to adapt to a
1147   great many different environments, willing to experiment with a great many different forms and
1148   flavors.
1149
1150   Mom in scene: Is there a really good red one up there? What do you see?
1151
1152   Michael Pollan vo: Today it’s a fruit iconic and beloved and used in a great many different
1153   ways.
1154
1155   Narrator: BUT THE APPLE HAS NOT ALWAYS BEEN REGARDED AS THE
1156   WHOLESOME FRUIT WE THINK OF TODAY.
1157
1158   Michael Pollan: The apple tree was the great evil plant because people took these apples and
1159   made hard cider, which was the main source of alcohol in rural America for many, many years.
1160   The strategy, the evolutionary strategy, that got it from there to here involved producing ever
1161   more sweetness.
1162
1163   Sarah: Here’s cup four, here you go. If you think it tastes bad or yucky, I want you to give it to
1164   Oscar the Grouch. Oscar, OK. Here’s cup two. And if it tastes good, I want you to give it to Big
1165   Bird, because he likes things that taste good.
1166
1167   Narrator: THESE CHILDREN ARE DOING TASTE TESTS - PART OF RESEARCH BEING
1168   DONE ON SWEETNESS AT THE MONELL CHEMICAL SENSES CENTER IN
1169   PHILADELPHIA. IT SPECIALIZES IN THE STUDY OF TASTE AND SMELL.
1170
1171   Sarah: Good job, doing Great, all right. I’m going to give you another one.
1172




       Page 29 of 44
1173   Gary Beauchamp: Some of the fundamental things we've discovered are the desire for
1174   sweetness is hardwired in human beings. It’s built-in, it's innate. It's not because we feed babies
1175   high levels of sweet when they're young. It's part of their biology.
1176
1177   Presumably our response to sweet evolved when sweet things were rare in the environment.
1178   They were there in small amounts. And our biggest problem was to make sure we got enough
1179   calories and didn’t starve to death. If a plant was sweet that meant it wasn’t bitter and poison, it
1180   meant it was reasonably high in calories because sugars are calorie-rich and so sweetness is the
1181   signal for something that's good for us.
1182
1183   Michael Pollan: Sweetness in nature is very rare, very special. It's really limited to ripe fruit
1184   and, honey if you're willing to risk, going to a beehive. And apples are a particularly big,
1185   portable, long-lasting vessel for sweetness.
1186
1187   Narrator: IT WAS HERE, IN THE ANCIENT FORESTS OF CENTRAL ASIA THAT OUR
1188   OWN PURSUIT OF SWEETNESS FIRST BROUGHT US INTO CONTACT WITH THE
1189   APPLE. THIS -- SCIENTISTS SAY -- IS THE APPLE’S GENETIC HOME – THE PLACE
1190   WHERE IT ORIGINATED. THESE HIGH FORESTS, IN WHAT IS NOW THE NATION OF
1191   KAZAKHSTAN, GAVE RISE TO THOUSANDS OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES – MANY OF
1192   WHICH STILL GROW HERE TODAY
1193
1194   Frank Browning: You land in Almaty, the capital of Kazakhstan, and there are apple seedlings
1195   pushing up through the broken pavement. If you go up into the hills and there are thousands of
1196   different kinds of apples. Great, big, red apples that looked like large McIntosh, and you'd find
1197   these sort of knotty little green things that even a rat wouldn’t eat.
1198
1199   Michael Pollan: To see these wild apples in all their diversity, is to realize that in these forests,
1200   this is, you know, these are God's first drafts of what an apple could be.
1201
1202   Narrator: ONE WAY THE APPLE COULD SECURE ITS FUTURE WAS BY EXPANDING
1203   ITS HABITAT. BUT THAT’S A HARD THING TO DO IF YOU’RE A PLANT.
1204
1205   Michael Pollan: You know the apple has the same existential predicament of any plant. It's
1206   stuck in place. It's, uh, rooted down. So you had the apple beginning its life in these Kazakh
1207   forests in Central Asia, but they would be stuck there, if not for mammals, that they evolved to
1208   appeal to. If you're a bear in a forest and you're hungry, you don't pick the little blueberry sized
1209   apples. You pick the biggest ones you can get. If you find a particularly sweet one, you're gonna
1210   eat more of that one than a sour one. And in their case they eat the whole apple and excrete the
1211   seeds and that's how apples spread their genes. And sweetness was the ticket out of that forest.

       Page 30 of 44
1212
1213   Narrator: BUT TO MOVE FARTHER THAN BEARS COULD TAKE IT, THE APPLE
1214   WOULD NEED A NEW ALLY – AND FOUND ONE IN US.
1215
1216   Michael Pollan: Part of the apple's genius has been to insinuate itself into our culture and art and
1217   religion as well. It’s kind of a botanical Zelig. I mean, it just kind of shows up everywhere, even
1218   when it wasn't, uh, wasn’t really there.
1219
1220   Narrator: ONE OF THE BEST KNOWN IMAGES OF PEOPLE AND APPLES TOGETHER
1221   COMES FROM THE STORY OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN.
1222
1223   Michael Pollan vo: Though the Bible doesn't specify what the fruit is we have always imagined
1224   it to be apples. And that's because the Northern Renaissance painters, when they thought of a
1225   fruit, a desirable fruit that you would put in a garden, they immediately thought apple, but it
1226   wasn't an apple. It probably was a pomegranate, because apples don't do very well in the lands
1227   where the Bible is thought to have taken place.
1228
1229   Narrator: ONE PLACE WHERE APPLES DID GROW WAS ANCIENT CHINA. THEY'D
1230   BEEN BROUGHT THERE FROM CENTRAL ASIA ON THE TRADE ROUTE CALLED
1231   THE SILK ROAD. THE APPLE ALSO TRAVELED WEST…REACHING EUROPE, AND
1232   EVENTUALLY, THE NEW WORLD. IN AMERICA, THE APPLE FOUND A PARTNER –
1233   SOMEONE WHOSE LOVE FOR IT WOULD BECOME THE STUFF OF LEGEND:
1234   JOHNNY APPLESEED.
1235
1236   Animated Johnny Appleseed: The Lord is good to me And so I thank the Lord
1237
1238   Joyce Chaplin: Behind Johnny Appleseed the myth there is a real person, John Chapman. But
1239   the myth is so powerful, so compelling, so fascinating that it has completely obscured the real
1240   person who’s behind it.
1241
1242   Narrator: JOHN CHAPMAN WAS BORN IN 1774, IN MASSACHUSETTS. IN HIS EARLY
1243   TWENTIES, HE HEADED WEST. HE TRAVELED THROUGH THE OHIO RIVER
1244   VALLEY, WHICH WAS THEN THE AMERICAN FRONTIER, PLANTING AND SELLING
1245   APPLE TREES.
1246
1247   Michael Pollan: He is said to have likened himself to a bee, um, that he had some sense that he
1248   like a bee was spreading these plants around.
1249



       Page 31 of 44
1250   Frank Browning: Johnny Appleseed was, not to make a terrible pun, a pretty seedy fellow, you
1251   know, traveling around often barefoot, you know in a burlap sack sometimes, sleeping in barns,
1252   but terribly engaging. People took him in and he planted the orchards, and he told them how to
1253   prune. But he was, um, he's a bum.
1254
1255   Joyce Chaplin: This is doubly odd, uh, because he was actually fairly well off.
1256
1257   Narrator: CHAPMAN COULD EASILY HAVE AFFORDED MUCH BETTER CLOTHES.
1258   ALL THOSE APPLE TREES HE PLANTED MADE HIM A PROSPEROUS MAN.
1259
1260   Michael Pollan: He wasn't just sprinkling apple seeds wherever he went. He was a nurseryman.
1261   He understood that wherever the next wave of settlers would land, they would want apple trees.
1262   By law, you were required to plant some fruit., because that was a symbol you were going to stay
1263   put. So he would find a piece of land, he would clear it and he would plant apples from seeds and
1264   start a nursery a few years before the settlers got there. So by the time they showed up he had
1265   saplings for sale for a few cents apiece. It was a very good business. But when I started learning
1266   about the botany of apples suddenly there was a problem with his story. Why would he be
1267   planting them from seed?
1268
1269   Narrator: THE MYSTERY STEMS FROM A CURIOUS FACT OF THE APPLE’S OWN
1270   BIOLOGY: ITS TASTE, AND EVEN ITS APPEARANCE, ARE RARELY PASSED ON
1271   THROUGH ITS SEEDS.
1272
1273   Michael Pollan vo: In every apple you will find a few little seeds, each in their little chamber.
1274   Well, every one of those seeds, if planted, will produce a completely different apple, looking
1275   very little, if at all, like its parent. They tend to be sour, bitter, all these other different flavors.
1276
1277   Narrator: THAT’S BECAUSE EACH APPLE SEED CARRIES GENES FOR A WIDE
1278   VARIETY OF TRAITS. AND THERE’S NO TELLING WHICH OF THOSE GENES WILL
1279   BE TURNED OUT WHEN THE SEED STARTS TO GROW. THERE IS, HOWEVER, A
1280   VERY SIMPLE WAY TO PERPETUATE THE TRAITS OF AN APPLE. AN ANCIENT
1281   TECHNIQUE CALLED GRAFTING. YOU TAKE A BUD FROM A TREE THAT
1282   PRODUCED FRUIT THAT YOU LIKED, AND INSERT IT INTO A YOUNG DEVELOPING
1283   TREE. THE RESULT: AN EXACT COPY – OR CLONE – OF THE APPLE YOU STARTED
1284   WITH. MANY AMERICAN SETTLERS GREW THEIR APPLES EXACTLY THAT WAY.
1285   BUT NOT JOHNNY APPLESEED.
1286
1287   Joyce Chaplin: He tended to grow seedlings, and then just let them grow wild. He might have
1288   done this, we think, because of his religious beliefs. He was a Swedenborgian.

       Page 32 of 44
1289
1290   Narrator: THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY CHRISTIAN THEOLOGIAN EMANUEL
1291   SWEDENBORG, PREACHED THAT THE NATURAL WORLD IS IMBUED WITH GOD’S
1292   SPIRIT.
1293
1294   Joyce Chaplin: Swedenborg had taught that everything that was here on earth that you could
1295   see, feel, taste, touch, had a counterpart in the spiritual world beyond. For Chapman, this seemed
1296   to indicate that he should not tamper with, all of the natural things that he could see in the world
1297   around him. And this seems to be one reason why he grows apples from their seeds and not from
1298   grafting.
1299
1300   Narrator: WHATEVER HIS REASONS, CHAPMAN’S BOTANICAL PRACTICES GAVE
1301   THE APPLE A GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY TO ADAPT TO A NEW ENVIRONMENT.
1302
1303   Michael Pollan: by going back to seed, you are going back to the biodiversity of your genes. So
1304   all of those apple seeds produced hundreds of different kinds of apples with very different
1305   qualities. And so the apple, just like the Englishmen who came over, remade itself as Americans.
1306
1307   Narrator: MOST OF THESE NEW VARIETIES – BECAUSE THEY WERE GROWN FROM
1308   SEED – TURNED OUT TO BE BITTER. BUT THE SETTLERS HAD A VERY GOOD USE
1309   FOR THEM: CIDER. HARD CIDER.
1310
1311   Michael Pollan: Now when we use the word cider we picture something very sweet but, of
1312   course, it only stays sweet if you have refrigeration. So all the cider they made went into barrels
1313   and fermented and became what we call hard cider, alcoholic cider. So Johnny Appleseed, who
1314   we think of as the most benign, wholesome kind of character, it turns out was bringing hard
1315   drink to the, to the Frontier.
1316
1317   Frank Browning: That's what people drank. Colonial America was terrified of water. They
1318   knew about all the diseases of water in, uh, in, in Europe, and so they didn’t drink it.
1319
1320   Joyce Chaplin: Cider, however because it had been fermented, had killed, in the process
1321   anything that might make you ill.
1322
1323   Michael Pollan: That was the beer of its time, the wine of its time. That's what everybody drank,
1324   and I mean everybody.
1325




       Page 33 of 44
1326   Narrator: EVERYONE FROM PAUPERS TO PRESIDENTS CONSUMED CIDER. JOHN
1327   ADAMS LIKED TO DRINK IT FOR BREAKFAST. BUT OVER TIME, CIDER, AND THE
1328   APPLE, BECAME VICTIMS OF THEIR OWN SUCCESS.
1329
1330   Joyce Chaplin: Alcohol consumption started to rise in about the 1830s. And there's some public
1331   outrage over that that people seemed to be too interested in drinking or are drunk. So, all forms
1332   of alcoholic beverage begin to be criticized, um, and cider is among them.
1333
1334   Michael Pollan: People went after apple trees. Suddenly the apple, uh, which had been
1335   celebrated for much of American history, is vilified as the evil fruit. Um, it's back in the Garden
1336   Of Eden in a sense. The hatchet wielded by the famous Prohibitionist, Carrie Nation, was not just
1337   about breaking down saloon doors, it was also about chopping down this evil tree that was
1338   getting Americans drunk.
1339
1340   Narrator: BUT THE APPLE WOULD BE RESCUED FROM INFAMY, BY THE SWEETER
1341   SIDE OF ITS NATURE.
1342
1343   Michael Pollan: Even though cider was what happened to most apples, apples were also eaten as
1344   a food, and, uh, whenever you were lucky enough to find a sweet one, that's what you did with it.
1345
1346   Narrator: SO WITH CIDER IN DISREPUTE, THE RACE TO FIND SWEET NEW
1347   VARIETIES INTENSIFIED.
1348
1349   Michael Pollan: Everyone who had a cider orchard had his eye out for that one good edible
1350   apple. It was really well understood that one of the tickets to great success and great wealth in
1351   America was to find a good edible apple. And all the famous apples that we know - the
1352   Delicious, the McIntosh, the Baldwin, the Northern Spy, these had all begun in cider orchards.
1353   They were the stars. Before 1900, the fate of like 99% of apples was to be drunk. After 1900 it
1354   becomes the fruit that we now know. IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, APPLES BECAME A
1355   SYMBOL OF WHOLESOMENESS.
1356
1357   Michael Pollan: The apple growers came up with this campaign, an apple a day keeps the doctor
1358   away, and essentially re-branded the apple as a health food.
1359




       Page 34 of 44
1360


1361   Writing Tips

1362   Essay Essential Information
1363

1364   Introduction:

1365   Introductory Paragraph

1366   The introductory paragraph should also include the thesis statement, a kind of mini-outline for the paper:
1367   it tells the reader what the essay is about. The last sentence of this paragraph must also contain a
1368   transitional "hook" which moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper.

1369   Body:

1370   Body — First paragraph:

1371            The first paragraph of the body should contain the strongest argument, most significant example,
1372   cleverest illustration, or an obvious beginning point. The first sentence of this paragraph should include
1373   the "reverse hook" which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. The
1374   topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis
1375   statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional
1376   hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body.

1377

1378   Body — Second paragraph:

1379            The second paragraph of the body should contain the second strongest argument, second most
1380   significant example, second cleverest illustration, or an obvious follow up the first paragraph in the body.
1381   The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional
1382   hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or
1383   second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last
1384   sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body.

1385

1386   Body — Third paragraph:

1387             The third paragraph of the body should contain the weakest argument, weakest example, weakest
1388   illustration, or an obvious follow up to the second paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this


       Page 35 of 44
1389   paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the second
1390   paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate
1391   to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a
1392   transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this
1393   paper. This hook also leads into the last, or concluding, paragraph.

1394

1395   Conclusion:

1396   Concluding paragraph:

1397   This paragraph should include the following:

1398            a reference to the pattern used in the introductory paragraph,
1399            a restatement of the thesis statement, using some of the original language or language that
1400             "echoes" the original language. (The restatement, however, must not be a duplicate thesis
1401             statement.)
1402            a summary of the three main points from the body of the paper.
1403            a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. (This final
1404             statement may be a "call to action" in a persuasive paper.)
       1
        Stephen King, creator of such stories as Carrie and Pet              The introductory paragraph includes a paraphrase of something
       Sematary, stated that the Edgar Allan Poe stories he read as a        said by a famous person in order to get the reader's attention. The
       child gave him the inspiration and instruction he needed to           second sentence leads up to the thesis statement which is the third
       become the writer that he is. 2Poe, as does Stephen King, fills       sentence. The thesis statement (sentence 3) presents topic of the
       the reader's imagination with the images that he wishes the           paper to the reader and provides a mini- outline. The topic is Poe's
       reader to see, hear, and feel. 3His use of vivid, concrete visual     use of visual imagery. The mini- outline tells the reader that this
       imagery to present both static and dynamic settings and to            paper will present Poe's use of imagery in three places in his
       describe people is part of his technique. 4Poe's short story "The     writing: (1) description of static setting; (2) description of
       Tell-Tale Heart" is a story about a young man who kills an old        dynamic setting; and (3) description of a person. The last sentence
       man who cares for him, dismembers the corpse, then goes mad           of the paragraph uses the words "manipulation" and "senses" as
       when he thinks he hears the old man's heart beating beneath the       transitional hooks.
       floor boards under his feet as he sits and discusses the old man's
       absence with the police. 5In "The Tell-Tale Heart," a careful
       reader can observe Poe's skillful manipulation of the senses.


       1
        The sense of sight, the primary sense, is particularly susceptible   In the first sentence of the second paragraph (first paragraph of
       to manipulation. 2In "The Tell-Tale Heart," Poe uses the              the body) the words "sense" and "manipulation" are used to hook
       following image to describe a static scene: "His room was as          into the end of the introductory paragraph. The first part of the
       black as pitch with the thick darkness . . ." Poe used the words      second sentence provides the topic for this paragraph--imagery in
       "black," "pitch," and "thick darkness" not only to show the           a static scene. Then a quotation from "The Tell-Tale Heart" is
       reader the condition of the old man's room, but also to make the      presented and briefly discussed. The last sentence of this
       reader feel the darkness." 3"Thick" is a word that is not usually     paragraph uses the expressions "sense of feeling" and "sense of
       associated with color (darkness), yet in using it, Poe stimulates     sight" as hooks for leading into the third paragraph.
       the reader's sense of feeling as well as his sense of sight.




       Page 36 of 44
       1
        Further on in the story, Poe uses a couple of words that cross          The first sentence of the third paragraph (second paragraph of
       not only the sense of sight but also the sense of feeling to             the body) uses the words "sense of sight" and "sense of feeling" to
       describe a dynamic scene. 2The youth in the story has been               hook back into the previous paragraph. Note that in the second
       standing in the open doorway of the old man's room for a long            paragraph "feeling" came first, and in this paragraph "sight"
       time, waiting for just the right moment to reveal himself to the         comes first. The first sentence also includes the topic for this
       old man in order to frighten him. 3Poe writes: "So I opened it           paragraph--imagery in a dynamic scene. Again, a quotation is
       [the lantern opening]--you cannot imagine how stealthily,                taken from the story, and it is briefly discussed. The last sentence
       stealthily--until, at length, a single dim ray, like the thread of the   uses the words "one blind eye" which was in the quotation. This
       spider, shot from out the crevice and fell full upon the vulture         expression provides the transitional hook for the last paragraph in
       eye." 4By using the metaphor of the thread of the spider (which          the body of the paper.
       we all know is a creepy creature) and the word "shot," Poe
       almost makes the reader gasp, as surely did the old man whose
       one blind eye the young man describes as "the vulture eye."


       1
        The reader does not know much about what the old man in this            In the first sentence of the fourth paragraph (third paragraph in
       story looks like except that he has one blind eye. 2In the second        the body), "one blind eye" is used that hooks into the previous
       paragraph of "The Tell-Tale Heart," Poe establishes the young            paragraph. This first sentence also lets the reader know that this
       man's obsession with that blind eye when he writes: "He had the          paragraph will deal with descriptions of people: ". . . what the old
       eye of the vulture--a pale blue eye, with a film over it." 3This         man looks like . . .." Once again Poe is quoted and discussed. The
       "vulture eye" is evoked over and over again in the story until the       last sentence uses the word "image" which hooks into the last
       reader becomes as obsessed with it as does the young man. 4His           paragraph. (It is less important that this paragraph has a hook
       use of the vivid, concrete word "vulture" establishes a specific         since the last paragraph is going to include a summary of the body
       image in the mind of the reader that is inescapable.                     of the paper.)


       1
         "Thick darkness," "thread of the spider," and "vulture eye" are        The first sentence of the concluding paragraph uses the principal
       three images that Poe used in "The Tell-Tale Heart" to stimulate         words from the quotations from each paragraph of the body of the
       a reader's senses. 2Poe wanted the reader to see and feel real life.     paper. This summarizes those three paragraph. The second and
       3
         He used concrete imagery rather than vague abstract words to           third sentences provide observations which can also be considered
       describe settings and people. 4If Edgar Allan Poe was one of             a summary, not only of the content of the paper, but also offers
       Stephen King's teachers, then readers of King owe a debt of              personal opinion which was logically drawn as the result of this
       gratitude to that nineteenth-century creator of horror stories.          study. The last sentence returns to the Edgar Allan Poe-Stephen
                                                                                King relationship which began this paper. This sentence also
                                                                                provides a "wrap-up" and gives the paper a sense of finality.



1405




       Page 37 of 44
1406

1407


1408   How do I organize a paragraph?
1409   There are many different ways to organize a paragraph. The organization you choose will depend
1410   on the controlling idea of the paragraph. Below are a few possibilities for organization, with brief
1411   examples.

1412         Narration: Tell a story. Go chronologically, from start to finish.
1413         Description: Provide specific details about what something looks, smells, tastes, sounds,
1414          or feels like. Organize spatially, in order of appearance, or by topic
1415         Process: Explain how something works, step by step. Perhaps follow a sequence—first,
1416          second, third.
1417         Classification: Separate into groups or explain the various parts of a topic.
1418         Illustration: Give examples and explain how those examples prove your point.

1419

1420   What is a complete sentence? A complete sentence is not merely a group of words with a
1421   capital letter at the beginning and a period or question mark at the end. A complete sentence has
1422   three components:

1423              1. a subject (the actor in the sentence)
1424              2. a predicate (the verb or action), and
1425              3. a complete thought (it can stand alone and make sense—it's independent).

1426   Some sentences can be very short, with only two or three words expressing a complete thought,
1427   like this:

1428   John waited.
1429   This sentence has a subject (John) and a verb (waited), and it expresses a complete thought. We
1430   can understand the idea completely with just those two words, so again, it's independent—an
1431   independent clause. But independent clauses (i.e., complete sentences) can be expanded to
1432   contain a lot more information, like this:

1433   John waited for the bus all morning.

1434   John waited for the bus all morning in the rain last Tuesday.

1435   Wishing he'd brought his umbrella, John waited for the bus all morning in the rain last Tuesday.


       Page 38 of 44
1436   Wishing he'd brought his umbrella and dreaming of his nice warm bed, John waited for the bus
1437   all morning in the rain last Tuesday because his car was in the shop.

1438   As your sentences grow more complicated, it gets harder to spot and stay focused on the basic
1439   elements of a complete sentence, but if you look carefully at the examples above, you'll see that
1440   the main thought is still that John waited—one main subject and one main verb. No matter how
1441   long or short the other sentence parts are, none of them can stand alone and make sense.
1442   Being able to find the main subject, the main verb, and the complete thought is the first trick to
1443   learn for identifying fragments and run-ons.

1444


1445   Sentence fragments
1446   A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. Some fragments are incomplete because they
1447   lack either a subject or a verb, or both. The fragments that most students have trouble with,
1448   however, are dependent clauses—they have a subject and a verb, so they look like complete
1449   sentences, but they don't express a complete thought. They're called "dependent" because they
1450   can't stand on their own (just like some people you might know who are SO dependent!). Look at
1451   these dependent clauses. They're just begging for more information to make the thoughts
1452   complete:

1453   Because his car was in the shop (What did he do?)

1454   After the rain stops (What then?)

1455   When you finally take the test (What will happen?)

1456   Since you asked (Will you get the answer?)

1457   If you want to go with me (What should you do?)

1458   Does each of these examples have a subject? Yes. Does each have a verb? Yes. So what makes
1459   the thought incomplete?? It's the first word (Because, After, When, Since, If). These words
1460   belong to a special class of words called subordinators or subordinating conjunctions. If you
1461   know something about subordinating conjunctions, you can probably eliminate 90% of your
1462   fragments.

1463   First, you need to know that subordinating conjunctions do three things:

1464      1. join two sentences together
1465      2. make one of the sentences dependent on the other for a complete thought (make one a
1466         dependent clause)
1467      3. indicate a logical relationship

       Page 39 of 44
1468   Second, you need to recognize the subordinators when you see them. Here is a list of common
1469   subordinating conjunctions and the relationships they indicate:

1470   Cause / Effect: because, since, so that

1471   Comparison / Contrast: although, even though, though, whereas, while

1472   Place & Manner: how, however, where, wherever

1473   Possibility / Conditions: if, whether, unless

1474   Relation: that, which, who

1475   Time: after, as, before, since, when, whenever, while, until

1476   Third, you need to know that the subordinator (and the whole dependent clause) doesn't have to
1477   be at the beginning of the sentence. The dependent clause and the independent clause can switch
1478   places, but the whole clause moves as one big chunk. Look at how these clauses switched places
1479   in the sentence:

1480   Because his car was in the shop, John took the bus.

1481   John took the bus because his car was in the shop.

1482   Finally, you need to know that every dependent clause needs to be attached to an independent
1483   clause (remember, the independent clause can stand on its own).

1484   How do you find and fix your fragments? Remember the basics: subject, verb, and complete
1485   thought. If you can recognize those things, you're halfway there. Then, scan your sentences for
1486   subordinating conjunctions. If you find one, first identify the whole chunk of the dependent
1487   clause (the subject and verb that go with the subordinator), and then make sure they're attached
1488   to an independent clause.

1489   John took the bus. (independent clause) Because his car was in the shop. (Dependent clause all
1490   by itself. Uh oh! Fragment!)

1491   John took the bus because his car was in the shop. (Hooray! It's fixed!)

1492


1493   Run-ons


       Page 40 of 44
1494   These are also called fused sentences. You are making a run-on when you put two complete
1495   sentences (a subject and its predicate and another subject and its predicate) together in one
1496   sentence without separating them properly. Here's an example of a run-on:

1497   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus it is very garlicky.
1498   This one sentence actually contains two complete sentences. But in the rush to get that idea out, I
1499   made it into one incorrect sentence. Luckily, there are many ways to correct this run-on sentence.

1500   You could use a semicolon:

1501   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus; it is very garlicky.

1502   You could use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so):

1503   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus, for it is very garlicky. -OR- My favorite
1504   Mediterranean spread is hummus, and it is very garlicky.

1505   You could use a subordinating conjunction (see above):

1506   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus because it is very garlicky. -OR- Because it is so
1507   garlicky, my favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus.

1508   You could make it into two separate sentences with a period in between:

1509   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus. It is very garlicky.

1510   You could use an em-dash (a long dash) for emphasis:

1511   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus—it is very garlicky.

1512   You CANNOT simply add a comma between the two sentences, or you'll end up with what's
1513   called a "comma splice." Here's an example of a comma splice:

1514   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus, it is very garlicky.

1515   You can fix a comma splice the same way you fix a run-on—either change the punctuation or
1516   add a conjunction. The good news is that writers tend to be either comma splicers or run-on
1517   artists, but almost never both. Which one are you?

1518    As you can see, fixing run-ons is pretty easy once you see them—but how do you find out if a
1519   sentence is a run-on if you aren't sure? Rei R. Noguchi, in his book Grammar and the Teaching
1520   of Writing, suggests that you test your sentences with two methods:

1521      1. Turn them into yes/no questions.

       Page 41 of 44
1522       2. Turn them into tag questions (sentences that end with a questioning phrase at the very
1523          end—look at our examples below).

1524   These are two things that nearly everyone can do easily if the sentence is not a run-on, but they
1525   become next to impossible if it is.

1526   Look at the following sentence:

1527   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus.

1528   If you turn it into a question that someone could answer with a yes or no, it looks like this:

1529   Is my favorite Mediterranean spread hummus?

1530   If you turn it into a tag question, it looks like this:

1531   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus, isn't it?

1532   The first sentence is complete and not a run-on, because our test worked. Now, try the test with
1533   the original run-on sentence:

1534   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus it is very garlicky.

1535   The yes/no question can only be made with each separate thought, not the sentence as a whole:

1536   Is my favorite Mediterranean spread hummus? Is it very garlicky?

1537   But not:

1538   Is my favorite Mediterranean spread hummus is it very garlicky?

1539   The tag question can also only be made with each separate thought, rather than the whole:

1540   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus, isn't it? It's very garlicky, isn't it?

1541   But never:

1542   My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus it is very garlicky, isn't it?

1543   Neither test works for you, does it? That's because when you try, you immediately see that you
1544   have more than one complete concept in that sentence, and you can't make the whole thing turn
1545   into one question. Make sure you try both tests with each of your problem sentences, because
1546   you may trick yourself by just putting a tag on the last part and not noticing that it doesn't work
1547   on the first. Some people might not notice that "My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus it

       Page 42 of 44
1548   is very garlicky isn't it?" is wrong, but most people will spot the yes/no question problem right
1549   away.

1550   Every once in a while, you or your instructor will see a really long sentence and think it's a run-
1551   on when it isn't. Really long sentences can be tiring but not necessarily wrong—just make sure
1552   that yours aren't wrong by using the tests above.

1553   Conclusions
1554   Introductions and conclusions can be the most difficult parts of papers to write. While the body
1555   is often easier to write, it needs a frame around it. An introduction and conclusion frame your
1556   thoughts and bridge your ideas for the reader.

1557   Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into
1558   the "place" of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the
1559   transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis
1560   and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

1561   Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you
1562   to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to summarize your thoughts, to
1563   demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject.
1564   It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

1565   Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond
1566   the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections,
1567   and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

1568   Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives
1569   your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your
1570   topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest
1571   your reader, but also enrich your reader's life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

1572   Why read out loud?
1573   If you come to the Writing Center for a tutoring session, you will probably hear your tutor say,
1574   "We always read papers out loud—would you like to read yours, or would you like to hear me
1575   read it?" Reading aloud has many benefits that we want to share with writers. Most people have
1576   far more experience listening to and speaking English than they do reading and editing it on the
1577   printed page. When you read your draft out loud or listen to someone else read it, your brain gets
1578   the information in a new way, and you may notice things that you didn't see before:

1579         As listeners, we need the order of ideas in a paper to make sense. We can't flip back and
1580          forth from page to page to try to figure out what is going on or find information we need.


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1581          When you hear your paper read out loud, you may recognize that you need to re-order the
1582          information in it or realize that there are gaps in your explanation.
1583         Listeners also need transitions to help us get from one main idea to the next. When you
1584          hear your paper, you may recognize places where you have moved from one topic to
1585          another too abruptly.
1586         We all make errors in our sentences. Sometimes we leave out a word, mess things up as
1587          we copy and paste text, or make a grammatical mistake. These kinds of errors can be hard
1588          to see on the page, but sentences that contain them are very likely to sound wrong. For
1589          native speakers of English (and some non-native speakers, too), reading out loud is one of
1590          the most powerful proofreading techniques around.
1591         Sometimes sentences aren't grammatically incorrect, but they are still awkward in some
1592          way—too long, too convoluted, too repetitive. Problems like these are often easily heard.
1593         Hearing your paper can also help you get a sense of whether the tone is right. Does it
1594          sound too formal? Too chatty or casual? What kind of impression will your voice in this
1595          paper make on a reader? Sometimes hearing your words helps you get a more objective
1596          sense of the impression you are creating—listening puts in you in something more like
1597          the position your reader will be in as he/she moves through your text.

1598

1599




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