higher Prelim January by 7G03wsO

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 25

									Section A

No    Question                   Response                                                          Marking Guidelines
1     State one function of      1. Essential for the formation of blood cells/prevents anaemia.   1 mark for correct
      folic acid.                2. Helps protect against neural tube defects/spina bifida (in     function
                                 unborn babies).
                                 3. Required for the release of energy from food.
                                 4. Required for the release of energy from protein.
                                 5. Essential for normal growth.
2     State the legal minimum    1. 82ºC                                                           1 mark for correct
      temperature required                                                                         temperature
      for the safe
      reheating of food.
3     State two factors that     • Lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid)                               1 mark
      may hinder                 • Non Starch Polysaccharides (NSP)/fibre (dietary)                2 x ½ mark for each
      the absorption of iron.    •Phytic acid                                                      factor
                                 • Tannin (found in tea)
                                 • Phosphates (found in some plant foods)
                                 • Oxalates
                                 • Food preservative EDTA
4     Identify one function of   1. Removal of waste products/regular bowel movements.             1 mark for function
      dietary                    2. Absorbs a lot of water ensuring that the faeces are
      fibre (NSP).               soft/bulky/easy to pass.
                                 3. Helps prevent various bowel
                                 disorders/constipation/diverticular disease/
                                 bowel cancer/haemorrhoids (piles).
                                 4. Gives a feeling of fullness to help prevent
                                 overeating/obesity.
                                 5. Lowers the risk of heart disease.
                                 6. May help lower (LDL) cholesterol.
                                 7. Maintains a healthy digestive system.
5     State two functions of     1. Improved absorption of water soluble vitamins/vitamin B        1 mark
      water in the diet.         complex/ vitamin C.
                                 2. Reduces risk of dehydration.                                   2 x ½ mark for each
                                 3. Regulates body temperature.                                    function
                                 4. Reduces risk of constipation/bowel disorder/diverticulitis.
                                 5. Improved lubrication of joints/membranes.
                                 6. Improved brain function.
                                 7. May help behaviour/concentration.
                                 8. Improved digestion of food.
                                 9. Keeps lining of mucus membranes/digestive tract/bronchial
                                 tubes moist.
                                 10. Transports nutrients round the body.
                                 11. Required for many metabolic reactions.
                                 12. Required for all body fluids (digestive juices, mucus,
                                 plasma, saliva, blood, lymph, sweat and urine).
                                 13. Helps remove waste products/toxins.
                                 14. Helps make faeces soft/bulky

6     Name the manufacturing     1. Hydrogenation                                                  1 mark
      process                                                                                      1 mark for correct
      that changes oil into                                                                        process
      solid fat.
7     State one effect of dry    1. Sugar melts.                                                   1 mark for effect
      heat on                    2. Caramelises.
      sugar.                     3. Burns.
                                 4. Forms golden colour in baked items.
8    Describe one effect of    Cakes                                                            1 mark for correct
     adding too much liquid    1. May result in a heavy doughy/dense texture.                   effect
     to a baked product.       2. Top of cake may be cracked.
                               3. Fruit will sink.                                              Headings are
                               4. Heavy fruit cannot be held evenly.                            provided to help the
                               5. Prevents rising                                               marker and are not
                               Scones                                                           required
                               1. Dough will spread causing the scone to loose shape.
                               2. Prevents rising
                               Pastry
                               1. A hard/tough shortcrust pastry will result.
                               Bread
                               1. Too much liquid will result in a coarse/grain texture.
                               Custard
                               1. The mixture will be too thin/won’t set.
9    State two advantages of   1. Breast milk contains the correct proportion of nutrients to   2 marks
     breastfeeding.            meet the needs of                                                1 mark for each
                               the growing baby/baby is less likely to become overweight        advantage given
                               2. Breast milk contains antibodies that help fight
                               infection/prevent allergies
                               3. Breast milk is clean and cannot be contaminated by lack of
                               hygiene
                               4. Breast milk cannot be prepared incorrectly
                               5. Breast milk is free
                               6. Breast milk is convenient/no equipment required
                               7. Breastfeeding helps bond the mother and child
                               8. Breastfeeding may help the mother to lose excess fat stores
                               gained during
                               pregnancy
                               9. Contains no chemicals
                               10. Always at the correct temperature
                               11. May help mother’s womb to contract and return to
                               natural position
                               12. Medical evidence suggests that women who breast-feed
                               have a lower risk of
                               developing breast cancer
                               13. Breast milk contains essential fatty acids/omega 3/omega
                               6 which assists in
                               brain development of the baby
                               14. Less risk of the baby developing asthma
10   Explain the following     Osteoporosis                                                     2 marks
     terms.                    • A bone disorder resulting in bone fracture/curvature of the    1 mark for each
     (a) Osteoporosis          spine due to a                                                   explanation
     (b) Osteomalacia          continual loss of bone mass/density
                               • A brittle bone disease/bones may break easily
                               • A bone disease resulting from poor calcium absorption
                               • Porous bones
                               Osteomalacia
                               • Adult rickets
                               • The strength of bones and teeth are not maintained due
                               usually to a lack of
                               vitamin D/too much phytic acid/too much NSP in the diet
                               • Lack of vitamin D in the diet which results in too little
                               calcium being absorbed
                               (accept lack of calcium) affecting strength of bones
11   Identify two effects on     1. Coronary heart disease/heart attack                           2 marks
     health                      2. High blood pressure/Hypertension                              1 mark for each
     which may result from       3. Stroke                                                        effect
     obesity.                    4. Certain cancers
                                 5. Diabetes (Type 2)
                                 6. Gallstones
                                 7. Joint swelling
                                 8. Depression
                                 9. Fatigue
                                 10. Reduced muscle tone/body shape
                                 11. Reduced cardiovascular function
                                 12. Varicose veins
                                 13. Strain on joint




                                 s
12   State two health            1 Reduces the risk of cancers.                                   2 marks
     benefits of a diet          2. Reduces the risk of heart disease.                            1 mark for each
     rich in the ACE vitamins.   3. Reduces risk of damage to body cells/tissues.                 health
                                 4. Maintains a healthy immune system/destroys free radicals.     benefit
                                 5. Slow down the rate of LDL cholesterol (being deposited on
                                 artery walls).
                                 6. Reduce harmful oxidation of fats in the body (to prevent
                                 cell damage).
                                 7. Vitamin A required to make vision purple for good vision in
                                 dim light.
                                 8. Vitamin A required to keep mucous membranes free from
                                 infection.
                                 9. Vitamin A required for the maintenance of healthy skin.
                                 10. Vitamin A required for normal growth of children.
                                 11. Vitamin C helps absorption of iron (preventing anaemia).
                                 12. Vitamin C is needed to make connective tissue.
                                 13. Vitamin C helps cuts/wounds heal quicker.
                                 14. Vitamin C is essential to manufacture blood/cell walls of
                                 blood vessels.
                                 15. Vitamin E is involved in maintenance of cell membranes.
                                 16. Vitamin E (as an antioxidant) helps to prevent
                                 cancers/heart disease.
13   State two advantages of    1. Identifies products already available to see if there is a need   2 marks
     using market research in   for a particular food product/to ensure they are
                                                                                                     1 mark for each
     the food industry.         manufacturing a food product which is wanted.
                                                                                                     advantage
                                2. Investigates the lifestyles of potential customers to see if
                                the new food product meets the needs/wants of the
                                consumer.

                                3. Identifies a target market/gap in the market for a particular
                                food product (to see if the new product is viable.)

                                4. Identifies market trends to see if their food product would
                                be successful/ popular (at a particular time.)

                                5. Establishes why consumers want to buy a certain food
                                product (as this will help them with any marketing/promotion
                                ideas.)

                                6. Establishes when a consumer would buy a particular food
                                product (so gives them an idea of when to introduce the food
                                product to the market.)

                                7. Collects consumer’s views on existing food products
                                (therefore ensuring their food product is bigger/better than
                                any others.)

                                8. Identifies competitors so ensures their food product will be
                                successful.

                                9. Identifies how much people are willing to pay for food
                                products (therefore ensuring their food product is
                                affordable/suitably priced.)

                                10. Establish reason for drop in sales of a food product.

                                11. Identify likes/dislikes of consumers which may be taken
                                into account

                                during food product development.
14   Explain each of the        (i) Aerobic bacteria require the presence of oxygen to enable        2 marks
     following                  multiplication to                                                    1 mark for each
     terms.                     occur.                                                               explanation
     (i) Aerobic bacteria       (ii) Anaerobic bacteria can survive without oxygen and still
     (ii) Anaerobic bacteria    allows multiplication
                                to occur
Section B

1 a) The table opposite shows a day’s nutrient content of meals eaten by a male primary
school child.
Using your knowledge of nutrition and the information provided, evaluate the suitability
of this day’s nutritional intake.

Marking Instructions:
6 x 1 mark for each point of evaluation which makes reference to the needs of a male (primary school)
child.
                                                                                                             Total – 6 marks
(EV)
1. Energy
1. This day’s meal is higher in energy than the EAR which is bad as this could lead to weight gain/obesity/diabetes in the
male primary school child (if this continues over a prolonged period of time).
2. This day’s meal is higher than the EAR for energy therefore this is bad because if the male primary school child does
not burn off this excess energy this will lead to obesity/ weight gain/CHD in later life.
3. If the high energy intake is in the form of sugar then this is bad as it could lead to tooth decay/diabetes (type 2) in the
male primary school child.
4. The energy intake is high for the male primary school child, however, if the child is very active he may use up the
excess energy during play/may not become overweight/obese.

2. Protein
1. The protein intake is lower than the RNI for the male primary school child which is bad as this may cause any
damaged cells/tissues to take longer to heal (and the boy may be prone to injuries if he is very active).
2. The protein intake for this day’s meal is lower than the RNI for the male primary school child therefore this is bad as
it may cause problems with growth in the primary school child if this shortage were to continue (over a long period of
time).
3. As protein intake is lower than the RNI the male primary school child cannot use excess protein as a secondary
source of energy which is good so there is less chance of obesity

3. Calcium
1. The calcium intake of this day’s meal is too low in comparison to the RNI this is not good/is bad because over a long
period of time a low calcium intake may lead to poor bone development/rickets in the male primary school child.
2. This day’s meal is lower in calcium than the RNI, this is bad as over a prolonged period of time if the male primary
school child breaks/damages a bone then it may take longer to heal.
3. The male primary school child’s day’s intake is lower in calcium than the RNI which is not good because if this
occurred over a long period of time the child may suffer from osteoporosis/osteomalacia in later life.
4. This day’s meal is short in calcium in comparison to the RNI this is bad because over a prolonged period of time the
male primary school child may suffer from poor dental health as calcium is required for the formation of strong teeth.

4. Vitamin C
1. This day’s intake is slightly higher in Vitamin C than the RNI this is good as Vitamin C is required to heal cuts/wounds
and the male primary school child may be active thereforelikely to suffer from these.
2. This child’s day’s intake of Vitamin C is higher than the RNI this is good as Vitamin C is required to make connective
tissue which the male primary school child will require as he is still growing.
3. The child’s day’s meal intake is higher in Vitamin C than the RNI this is good as Vitamin C is an antioxidant therefore
over a prolonged period of time will protect the male primary school child against Coronary Heart Disease/Cancers in
later life.
4. This day’s intake is slightly higher in Vitamin C than the RNI which is good as it will help to assist iron absorption which
is low therefore helping to prevent anaemia in the male primary school child.
5. This day’s intake of Vitamin C is slightly higher than the RNI however this is good as it willtherefore allow the male
primary school child to manufacture blood/cell walls.
5. Iron
1. This day’s intake of iron is slightly lower than the RNI this is not good for the child becausethe male primary school
child may suffer from anaemia.
2. This day’s intake of iron is lower than the RNI which is bad as the male primary school child may suffer from anaemia
which may result in tiredness (this may eventually lead to obesity due to lack of energy to participate in sports).
3. Iron content of this day’s meal is lower than the RNI which is bad as iron is required to produce haemoglobin which
transports the oxygen to release energy from carbohydrates to allow the male primary school child to exercise he may
therefore be unable to participate in activity.


6. Vitamin B1
1. This day’s intake of Vitamin B1 is slightly higher than the RNI therefore this is good for the male primary school child
as it will allow him to release energy from carbohydrates to participate in sports/activities.
2. This day’s meal is slightly higher in Vitamin B1 than the RNI this is good because this is required for the normal growth
of children and general good health so will allow the male primary school child to grow normally.
3. This day’s intake is slightly higher than the RNI for Vitamin B1 which is good as it is required for the growth/normal
functioning of the nervous system in the male primary school child.
4. This day’s intake is slightly higher than the RNI for Vitamin B1 therefore this is good as it will allow the child’s muscle
tone to be maintained and will therefore allow the male primary school child to participate in sports/activities.

7. Vitamin A
1. This day’s vitamin A intake is slightly lower than the RNI this is bad because the male primary school child could
suffer from night blindness/poor vision in dim light if this continuedas Vitamin A is required for manufacture of visual
purple.
2. This day’s vitamin A intake is slightly lower than the RNI this is bad because the male primary school child could
suffer from dryness of the eyes if this continued.
3. This day’s vitamin A intake is slightly lower than the RNI this is bad for the male primary school child who could suffer
from an increased risk of cancer/coronary heart disease in later life as Vitamin A is one of the anti oxidant vitamins.
4. This day’s vitamin A intake is slightly lower than the RNI this is bad for the male primary school child as Vitamin A is
required for mucus secretions which will help to prevent infection in eyes/lungs/throat/digestive tract.
5. This day’s vitamin A intake is slightly lower than the RNI this is bad for the male primary school child as Vitamin A is
required for normal growth in children so if this continued for a period of time his growth may be restricted.
6. This day’s vitamin A intake is slightly lower than the RNI this is bad for the male primary school child as Vitamin A
may be linked to improve brain function so if this continued over a period of time brain function may be restricted.
1 b) Evaluate the use of oily fish in the diet.
Marking Instructions:
4 x 1 mark for each evaluated point on oily fish in the diet.
                                                                                                              Total – 4 marks
(EV)
(Headings have been provided to assist marking but are not required to be provided by the candidate)
Omega oils
1. Oily fish is a good source of omega 3/fatty acids which is good as these have been shown to reduce the risk of heart
disease (therefore contribute to a healthy diet/lifestyle.)
2. Omega 3/fatty acids found in oily fish is good as it helps to make the blood less sticky allowing it to flow around the
body easier therefore reducing the risk of heart disease.
3. Omega 3/fatty acids found in oily fish are good as known to have a role to play in the maintenance of healthy
cells/the nervous system/brain development (therefore contribute to general good health/aid concentration.)
4. Omega 3/fatty acids found in fish oils are good as they can reduce inflammation/may help ease the pain of sufferers
of rheumatoid arthritis (therefore help provide relief for sufferers and contribute to their general improved health.)
5. Omega oils in oily fish are good as have been linked to improved brain function and therefore may improve ability for
children to learn.
6. Omega oils in oily fish are good as they may help prevent cancer.

Protein content
1. Oily fish is a good source of protein which is good and will therefore contribute to the growth/repair/maintenance of
body tissues so maintaining health.

Fat content
1. Oily fish is a good source of polyunsaturated fats which is good as and these are known to assist in the prevention of
heart disease/cholesterol reduction/stroke/arthritis/psoriasis (therefore contributing to good health.)
2. Oily fish is a rich source of fat which is beneficial/good as it supplies the body with a source of energy/fat soluble
vitamins/protects organs/provides warmth/to ensure good health.
3. Oily fish is high in fat/energy which may be harmful/bad as it could lead to obesity.

Vitamin Content
1. Oily fish is a good source of some B vitamins/Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B6)/Biotin/Pantothenic Acid which
is good as these vitamins are essential for the conversion of food to energy/healthy nerve tissue (therefore preventing
tiredness/ impaired nerve function.)
2. Oily fish is a good source of Vitamin A which is good as it is required for normal growth in children/enables eyes to
see in dim light/protection for surface tissues (and so prevents night blindness/gives healthy skin.)
3. Oily fish is a good source of Vitamin D which is good as it aids the absorption of calcium/is essential for the
development of strong bones/healthy teeth and so helps prevent osteoporosis.

Calcium content
1. If the bones of the oily fish are eaten which is good as this would contribute to calcium consumption therefore
assisting in the maintenance of strong bones/healthy teeth/ prevention of osteoporosis/brittle bone disease.

Iron content
1. Oily fish tends to be high in iron which is good as it is required for the formation/ production of red blood cells
therefore helping to prevent anaemia/tiredness/exhaustion (and so contributes to good health.)

Sodium content
1. Sodium/salt content of some oily fish is high which is bad as may lead to CHD/ hypertension/strokes.

Dietary targets
1. Increasing oily fish in the diet is a dietary target and this is good as oily fish consumption assists in providing a healthy
diet.
2. Oily fish contain only a small amount of carbohydrate which is poor as it does not help contribute to the ‘eat more
total complex carbohydrates’ dietary target.
3. Some oily fish are high in sodium/salt which is bad as it may not meet dietary target for a reduction in sodium/salt
intake (to no more than 6g per day).

Cooking time
1. Oily fish can be quick and easy to cook which is good as therefore saving time for the consumer.
Convenience forms
1. Oily fish is available in a variety of forms/tinned/fresh/frozen/smoked which is good as makes it versatile/convenient
for the consumer.
2. A wide range of ready to eat oily fish dishes are available which is good as it may help increase consumption by the
consumer.

Toxins
1. Some types of oily fish have been shown to contain dioxins/heavy metals (eg mercury) which is bad as these may be
harmful in high quantities (and so can pose health risks.)

Likes/dislikes
1. Many (Scottish) consumers do not like oily fish/are not eating the recommended intake per week which is bad and so
the contribution of oily fish to their diet may be limited.
2. Many consumers are put off by the strong smell of oily fish which is bad as they may not choose it.

Cost
1. Some oily fish (salmon/trout) are expensive which is bad as it is only affordable to high income groups.
2. Some oily fish (tuna/sardines/pilchards) are inexpensive which is good as it can provide low income groups with a
cheap source of protein/fat/omega3/B group vitamins/calcium/iron/vitamin A/D.



1 c) Explain the inter-relationship between each of the following.

(i) NSP and water

(ii) Carbohydrates and vitamin B complex

Marking Instructions:

1 mark for each explanation about inter-relationships.

Minimum of 1 mark for each area.

Total: 4 Marks (KU)

NSP and Water
1. NSP soaks up the water in the food, allowing it to swell, creating a feeling of fullness which reduces
desire to snack/helps prevent obesity.
2. Both water and NSP are required to create soft faeces which are capable of being flushed out, ridding the
body of poisonous toxins/prevents constipation/bowel diseases.
Carbohydrates and vitamin B complex
1. The B vitamin group acts as a link in a complex chain of chemical reactions when releasing energy from
carbohydrates.
2. The B vitamins release energy to the body from carbohydrates.
3. Thiamine/vitamin B1 helps release energy from glucose.
4. The B complex plays a part in the release of energy from food/utilisation of energy/oxidation of food.
5. Riboflavin and Niacin help release energy from carbohydrate.
6. Release of energy from carbohydrate requires adequate supplies of vitamin B (Krebs Cycle).
1 d) Identify and explain three factors which may contribute to a deficiency in iron.
Marking Instructions:
3 x 1 mark for each factor
3 x 1 mark for explanation which identifies how the factor contributes to the deficiency of iron.
Factor must be identified before mark can be awarded for explanation. Where the factor is
incorporated in the explanation this can be credited.
                                                                                                          Total – 6 marks
(KU)


Factor                                  Explanation
1. Low iron intake/                     1. If there is insufficient iron which is a vital part of haemoglobin
low intake of red                       (the pigment in red blood cells to bind with oxygen) this will lead
meat                                    to deficiency in iron.
2. Low Vitamin C                        1. If the diet is lacking in vitamin C then the body will be unable to
Intake                                  absorb (non-haem) iron leading to a deficiency.
3. High NSP intake                      1. If too much (indigestible) NSP is consumed then this may bind
                                        withiron to prevent iron being absorbed leading to a deficiency.
4. High phytates                        1. Phytates/Phytic acid binds with iron to prevent absorption leading
intake/High phytic                      to a deficiency.
acid intake
5. Genetic factors                      1. Some inherited conditions (sickle cell anaemia) result in poor iron
                                        absorption leading to a deficiency.
6. Intestinal diseases/                 1. Some intestinal diseases/Crohn’s disease/Coeliac’s disease make it
internal bleeding/                      difficult for the body to absorb iron leading to a deficiency.
heavy menstruation                      2. Internal bleeding linked to a health problem/ulcer/cancer could
                                        mean the body is losing iron which may lead to anaemia.
7. Vegetarian/vegan                     1. Vegetarian/vegan diets tend to be high in NSP/Phytates/Phytic acid
diet                                    which inhibit iron absorption.
                                        2. Vegetarian/Vegan diets are often low in (haem) iron leading to a
                                        deficiency.
8. Drugs/substance                      1. Certain prescription/illegal drugs may inhibit iron absorption
misuse/prescription                     leading to a deficiency.
drugs
9. State of health/                     1. People with an eating disorder/anorexia/bulimia nervosa could lead
surgery/                                to poor intake of iron leading to a deficiency.
pregnancy/                              2. If blood is lost from the body due to child birth/surgery this could
child birth                             lead to deficiency of iron.
                                        3. There may be an increased demand for iron during pregnancy
10. Excessive exercise                  1. Iron appears to be depleted in people who exercise excessively so
                                        leading to a deficiency
2 a) Name and explain two sensory tests that could be used to evaluate the suitability of this fish

product.

Marking Instructions:

2 x ½ mark for identification of test.

2 x 1 mark for each explanation linked to the fish product.

Test must be identified before mark can be awarded for explanation.

Total: 3 marks (KU)

Sensory test                  Explanation
Preference Test/Ranking       1. Tasters are asked to rank in order of preference the range of fish products.
                              2. Tasters rank samples of the fish products in order for specific characteristics.
Rating Test                   1. Fish products are scored on a 5/7/9-point scale according to the products
                              palatability appeal.
                              2. Samples of the fish products can be scored to evaluate specific characteristics
                              (taste/colour/aroma/quality/overall acceptability).
Difference Test/Paired        1. Tasters are asked to compare 2 samples of the fish products for a specific food
Comparison Test               characteristic (taste/aroma/colour etc) and state which of the two samples they
                              prefer.
Duo – Trio Test               1. Out of 3 samples of the fish products, tasters are told which the control is and are
                              asked to identify the sample that differs from the control.
Triangle                      1. Tasters are presented with 3 samples of a fish product, 2 of which are identical,
                              and are asked to identify the odd one out.
Star Profile Test/            1. Characteristics of the fish product are profiled and compared with other
Profiling                     samples/competitor samples.
Discrimination Test           1. Samples of the fish product are compared to establish if there are any detectable
                              differences between them.


2 b) Identify and explain two cooking methods which may improve the health of school children.
Marking Instructions:
2 x ½ mark for identifying a cooking method.
2 x 1 mark for each explanation linked to improving the health of school children.
Cooking method must be identified before mark can be awarded for explanation. Where the cooking method is
incorporated in the explanation this can be credited.
                                                                                                              Total – 3 marks
(KU)
Cooking Method                   Explanation linked to improve the health of school children
    1. Grilling                  1. By grilling foods, fat melts and drips off (by further draining on absorbent paper) the
                                 total fat consumed is less for school children, preventing obesity/Coronary Heart
                                 Disease (CHD) in later life.
                                 2. No additional fatty coatings need to be applied so the total fat consumed is less for
                                 school children, preventing obesity/CHD in later life.
                                 3. A variety of lean foods can be grilled; therefore less total fat is consumed preventing
                                 obesity/CHD in later life for the school children.
                                 4. A variety of fruit/vegetables can be grilled, so increasing non starch polysaccharides
                                 (NSP) content which may help prevent constipation/ bowel disorders in school children.
    2. Baking                    1. By baking foods directly in an oven the fat melts through the trivet and drips off (by
                                 further draining on absorbent paper), the total fat consumed is less for schoolchildren,
                                 preventing obesity/CHD in later life.
                                 2. No additional fatty coatings need to be applied so the total fat consumed is less for
                 schoolchildren, preventing obesity/CHD in later life.
                 3. Fruit can be baked (with dried fruit fillings), increasing NSP content which may help
                 prevent constipation/bowel disorders in school children.
                 4. Some baked foods eg bread look/smell/taste good, making them more appetising for
                 school children to consume, which help the school children feel full for longer due to
                 the slow release energy.
                 5. Some baked foods eg bread look/smell/taste good, making them more appetising for
                 school children to consume, which helps the school children by preventing them
                 snacking on fatty/salty/sugary foods.
3. Stir-frying   1. Little oil is used during stir-frying, so the total fat consumed is less for school
                 children, preventing obesity/CHD in later life.
                 2. As the vegetables/fruits are stir fried for minimum time and in minimum liquid there
                 is little loss of water soluble vitamins/B group/C, which are essential to general good
                 health in schoolchildren.
                 3. The additions of large quantities of high NSP fruit/vegetables in stir-fry recipes help
                 prevent constipation/bowel disorders in school children.
                 4. High amounts of complex carbohydrates can be served along with stir-frying which
                 increases the NSP content of the meal and helps prevent constipation/bowel disorders
                 in school children.
                 5. High amounts of complex carbohydrates can be served along with stir-frying which
                 help the school children feel full for longer due to the slow release energy, preventing
                 them snacking on fatty/salty/sugary foods.
                 6. Large varieties of vegetables/fruit are crisp when stir-fried/well flavoured so
                 encourage consumption, preventing constipation/bowel disorders in school children.
                 7. Good quality lean meats/poultry/fish can be used in stir fries therefore less total fat is
                 consumed preventing obesity/CHD in later life of school children.
4. Steaming      1. No fat is used during steaming, so no fat is consumed by school children, preventing
                 obesity/CHD in later life.
                 2. As the food is cooked in steam (no liquid) there is little loss of water soluble
                 vitamins/B group/C, which are essential to good health in school children.
                 3. No additional fatty coatings need to be applied after steaming, so the total fat
                 consumed is less for school children, preventing obesity/CHD in later life.
                 4. Due to the full flavour achieved from steaming, school children may find the taste of
                 fruit/vegetables appetising, so increase consumption, preventing constipation/bowel
                 disorders in school children.
5. Microwave     1. As the vegetables/fruits are cooked for minimum time/in minimum liquid there is
                 little loss of water soluble vitamins/B group/C, which are essential to general good
                 health in school children.
                 2. Fat does not always need to be used during microwaving so the total fat consumed is
                 less for school children, preventing obesity/CHD in later life in school children.
                 3. A variety of fruit and vegetables can be microwaved, so increasing consumption of
                 NSP preventing constipation/bowel disorders in school children.
                 4. Good quality lean meats/poultry/fish can be used during microwaving; therefore less
                 total fat is consumed preventing obesity/CHD in later life for the school children.
                 5. As fish cooks quickly/easily by microwaving, this may increase consumption of
                 polyunsaturated fat/omega 3 fatty acids leading to less (total) saturated fat, (helping to
                 lower blood cholesterol) in the schoolchildren/preventing CHD in later life.
                 6. As fish cooks quickly/easily during microwaving, this may increase consumption of
                 white fish, total fat consumed is less for schoolchildren/preventing obesity/CHD in later
                 life.
6. Poaching      1. Minimum liquid can be used during poaching to prevent loss of water soluble
                 vitamins/B group/C, which are essential for general health in schoolchildren.
                 2. If liquid from poaching the foods is used to make a sauce then there is no loss of
                 water soluble vitamins/B group/C, which are essential to general good health in school
                 children.
                 3. No fat is used during poaching, so no fat is consumed by school children, preventing
                 obesity/CHD in later life.
                 4. As oily fish cooks quickly/easily when poached, this may increase consumption of
                               polyunsaturated fats/increase omega 3 fatty acids leading to less total saturated fat,
                               helping to lower blood cholesterol in the school children/prevent CHD in later life.5. As
                               white fish cooks quickly/easily during poaching, this may reduce consumption of total
                               fat which may be less for school children, preventing obesity/CHD in later life.
                               6. Good quality lean meats/poultry/fish can be poached; therefore less fat is consumed
                               preventing obesity/CHD in later life for the school children.
   7. Pressure Cooking         1. Good quality lean meats/poultry can be used within the pressure cooker; therefore
                               less fat is consumed preventing obesity/CHD in later life for the school children.
                               2. Vegetable consumption may increase within stews/soups when cooked by a pressure
                               cooker as there is space for additional vegetables, so increasing consumption of NSP,
                               preventing constipation/bowel disorders in school children.
                               3. Lower fat products may be used eg pressure cooked puddings; therefore less fat is
                               consumed preventing obesity/CHD in later life for the school children.


2 c) Evaluate the use of market research in product development

Marking Instructions:

4 x 1 mark for each point, which evaluates the market research within product development.

Total – 4 marks

(Headings have been provided to assist marking but are not required by the candidate)

Target market
• Market research in product development can be used to establish what would influence consumers
to buy a new product, therefore establishing requirements for a target market.
• Market research in product development can be used to establish if there is a need for a certain
product, which can then be investigated further to, find out what that need entails and therefore
establish if the product has potential.
• Market research in product development can evaluate existing products already available and
would therefore enable developer to establish strengths that should be incorporated in the new
product.
• Market research in product development allows checking of what is already on the market so that
they can develop a new or make changes to an existing item.
• Market research in product development is used to assess the possible competition for a product
andtherefore establish whether it is viable to continue.
• Market research in product development allows establishment of market trends, therefore finding
out what product the consumer wants to buy.
• Market research in product development can narrow down when a product is bought which
enables the developer to establish a specific need.
• Market research in product development establishes where the product is bought, so that
developers can target correct market place.
• Market research in product development identifies the target market that would be interested in
buying the product so that an appropriate product can be developed.
• Market research in product development offers the design team the models available which allow
them to develop and change existing ideas.
• Market research in product development establishes what would influence consumers to buy a
new product, therefore establishing requirements for a target market so company is more likely to
produce a successful product.
• Market research in product development is used to establish if there is a need for a certain
productso can increase product choice for consumers.
• Market research in product development can evaluate existing food products already available so
can help the developer establish the product’s strengths/weaknesses and alter accordingly.
• Market research in product development is used to assess the possible competition for a new
product, therefore developer can decide whether it is viable to continue.
• Market research in product development is used to establish market trends, therefore finding out
what the consumer wants to buy so can increase sales.
• Market research in product development establishes where/when a product is bought to enable the
developer to market the product accordingly so saving time/money/increasing sales.
• Market research in product development is used to provide regular feedback so manufacturer can
re-think/re-adapt the marketing approach.
• Market research in product development provides manufacturers with valuable consumer
information ie likes and dislikes of product which could be used to influence development/
modification of the product.
Price
• Market research in product development is used to gain public opinion on cost of product so the
manufacturer/customer can assess if they think the product is value for money/economical/viable
to produce.
• Market research in product development offers price comparison which allows the manufacturers/
retailers to make a decision regarding a suitable price.
• Market research in product development can gain public opinion on correct costing of product, so
can increase sales in final production stage.
Sensory tests
• Market research in product development enables manufacturers to conduct sensory tests which
help to determine opinion on appearance/texture/smell of a potential product.
• Market research in product development (eg sensory testing) enables manufactures to gain public
opinion on overall product acceptability/quality/preference, which helps to determine a product
leader.
• Market research in product development offers knowledge on the quality of the items within a
price range thus allowing the developer to make alterations in this area.
• Market research in product development can be a lengthy process which would not offer an
immediate product to sell therefore may add extra time/cost to product development process.
• Market research in product development enables manufacturers to conduct sensory tests so as to
determine opinion on new products’ acceptability before full scale production thus saving money.
Packaging
• Market research in product development could consider suitable types of packaging which the
consumer would prefer for the product and therefore help the design process.
• Market research in product development helps to consider suitable types of packaging, so as to
determine consumers’ preference for the new product/protect product from contamination/safer for
consumer.
• Market research in product development is used to gain public opinion on suitable methods of
cooking and/or reheating for the product, therefore predicting criteria for product labelling and/or
packaging so more acceptable product for consumer/to help increase sales of final product.
Costs
• Market research in product development can be a costly process which would cut down on any
profit for the company as professional fees would have to be paid.




2 d) A food manufacturer plans to develop a cereal bar.
Identify and explain three stages in the development of this snack.
Marking Instructions:
3 x 1 mark for the identification of each stage
3 x 1 mark for each explanation linked to the development of the cereal bar.
Stage must be identified before mark can be awarded for explanation. Where the stage is incorporated
in the explanation this can be credited.
                                                                                                             Total – 6 marks
(KU)
Stage                              Explanation
1. Concept                         1. This is when the company will develop ideas for the new cereal
Generation                         bar.
                                   2. This is the thinking stage/thinking up new ideas for the cereal bar.
                       3. The development of ideas from market research, for a new cereal
                       bar.
2. Concept Screening   1. All ideas for the cereal bar are considered – some are kept and
                       some are discarded.
                       2. A specification is compiled for the cereal bar.
                       3. The specification allows the manufacturer to discard ideas that do
                       not meet the specification for the cereal bar.
3. Prototype           1. The prototype/example/sample cereal bar is developed.
Production             2. The prototype/example/sample cereal bar is measured against the
                       specification.
                       3. The prototype/example/sample cereal bar is tested for appeal and
                       may be further modified/rejected.
4. Product Testing     1. A range of cereal bars are tested by target market/various ages/
                       tasting panels so opinions can be obtained.
                       2. Sensory testing of the cereal bar allows for refining/improvements/
                       modifications of the recipe as a result of consumer opinion.
                       3. A final prototype of the cereal bar is trialled.
5. Information and     1. Food labels in compliance with food labelling regulations will be
advertising            designed for the cereal bar.
materials designed     2. Suitable packaging will be developed/investigated/costed and
for packaging          produced for the cereal bar.
                       3. The legal and advertising team will begin to develop materials/plan
                       for selling the cereal bar.
                       4. Allows the advertising team to cost the advertising programme and
                       the packaging for the cereal bar (as this will affect the selling
                       price of the bar).
6. First production    1. The new cereal bar will be produced in bulk in a factory.
run                    2. Quality assurance will be carried out to ensure the cereal bar is an
                       acceptable standard for sale.
7. Marketing plan      1. The marketing team meet to decide about the pricing of the cereal
                       bar (eg low cost to attract interest, medium to high cost to imply
                       luxury).
                       2. An advertising plan is created to help launch the cereal bar.
                       3. The marketing team meet to decide a range of ways to promote the
                       cereal bar (where the product will be sold – supermarket/corner
                       shop/position in the supermarket).
8. Launch              1. Depending on the budget available will affect how they choose to
                       launch the cereal bar.
                       2. Food exhibitions/store launch/press release may be selected as the
                       most suitable method to launch the cereal bar.
                       3. Market research will be carried out to check sales figures of the
                       cereal bar.
3 a) Identify one cause and two control measures for each of the following bacteria.
(i) Salmonella
(ii) Campylobacter
Marking Instructions:
2 x 1 mark for cause of each bacteria.
2 x 1 mark for each control measure to total 3 marks linked to salmonella and campylobacter.
Cause must be identified before mark can be awarded. If cause is identified within explanation of
control measure mark can be awarded.
Total – 6 marks (KU)
Cause of salmonella                        Control measures
1. Food of animal origin/                  1. Wash hands thoroughly before and after handling animal
eggs/meat/poultry                          foods/raw meat/poultry/eggs as these are likely sources of
                                           salmonella.
                                           2. Use different preparation areas/equipment for animal foods to
                                           prevent cross-contamination of salmonella.
                                           3. Clean all surfaces/equipment thoroughly after preparing
                                           animal foods to prevent cross-contamination of salmonella.
2. Contamination from                      1. Wash hands after handling animals/pets as these may carry
domestic animals/cats/                     salmonella.
dogs/pets                                  2. Do not allow animals/pets access to food preparation areas to
                                           prevent spread of salmonella.
3. Poor personal hygiene                   1. Ensure that all staff are trained to follow good personal
from food handlers                         hygiene rules to prevent the spread of salmonella.
                                           2. Separate hand washing facilities must be provided in food
                                           premises to prevent salmonella spreading from food handlers
                                           to food.
4. Undercooked eggs/meat/                  1. Cook eggs/meat/poultry thoroughly/75ºC to ensure salmonella
poultry                                    are killed by heat/reheat to 82°C
                                           2. Ensure meat joints/poultry is cooked thoroughly in the centre
                                           to prevent salmonella multiplying.
5. Incorrect thawing of                    1. Thaw frozen meat/poultry thoroughly before cooking to prevent
frozen meats/poultry                       salmonellamultiplying.
                                           2. Thaw frozen meat/poultry in a refrigerator overnight to prevent
                                           salmonellamultiplying.
                                           3. Do not defrost frozen meat/poultry at room temperature to
                                           preventsalmonella multiplying.
6. Poor food storage of                    1. Store meats/poultry at the correct temperature/in a refrigerator/
raw meats/poultry                          below 5°C to prevent salmonella multiplying.
                                           2. Ensure meats/poultry are stored covered in the refrigerator to
                                           prevent the spread of salmonella.
                                           3. Store raw meats/poultry below cooked foods in the refrigerator
                                           to prevent drips from raw meats/poultry contaminating others
                                           withsalmonella.
7. Poor kitchen hygiene                    1. Ensure thorough cleaning of all equipment used for raw eggs/
                                           meat/poultry to kill off salmonella.
                                           2. Use separate chopping boards/knives for raw meat/poultry and
                                           cooked food to prevent the spread of salmonella.
                                           3. Ensure meats/poultry are stored covered in the refrigerator to
                                           prevent the spread of salmonella.
                                           4. Store raw meats/poultry below cooked foods in the refrigerator
                                           to prevent drips from raw foods contaminating cooked foods
                                           withsalmonella.
Cause of campylobacter                     Control measures
1. Food of animal origin/                  1. Good personal hygiene/wash hands thoroughly after handling
meat/poultry                               raw meats/poultry to prevent the spread of campylobacter.
                                           2. Ensure good personal hygiene rules are followed after
                                           touching animals to prevent the spread of campylobacter
2. Contamination from        1. Ensure good personal hygiene rules are followed after touching
domestic animals/cats/       animals as these may carry campylobacter.
dogs/pets                    2. Do not allow animals into kitchen/food preparation areas to
                             prevent the spread of campylobacter.
3. Poor personal hygiene     1. Ensure that all staff are trained to follow good personal
from food handlers           hygiene rules to prevent the spread of campylobacter.
                             2. Separate hand washing facilities must be provided in food
                             premises to prevent spread of campylobacter.
4. Poor food storage of      1. Store meats/poultry at the correct temperature/in a refrigerator/
raw meats/poultry            below 5°C to prevent campylobacter multiplying.
                             2. Ensure meats/poultry are stored covered in the refrigerator to
                             prevent the spread of campylobacter.
                             3. Store raw meats/poultry below cooked foods in the refrigerator
                             to prevent drips from raw foods contaminating others with
                             campylobacter.
5. Incorrect thawing of      1. Thaw frozen animal foods thoroughly before cooking to
frozen meats/poultry         preventcampylobacter multiplying.
                             2. Thaw frozen meat/poultry in a refrigerator overnight to prevent
                             campylobactermultiplying.
                             3. Do not thaw/defrost frozen meat/poultry at room temperature
                             to prevent campylobacter multiplying.
6. Undercooked meat/         1. Good personal hygiene/wash hands thoroughly after handling
poultry                      raw meats/poultry to prevent the spread of campylobacter.
                             2. Store meats/poultry at the correct temperature/in a refrigerator/
                             below 5°C to prevent campylobacter multiplying.
                             3. Cook meat/poultry thoroughly to ensure campylobacter are
                             killed by heat.
                             4. Separate raw meat/poultry and cooked foods to prevent
                             crosscontamination
                             fromcampylobacter.
7. Poor kitchen hygiene      1. Ensure thorough cleaning of all equipment used for raw meat/
                             poultry as these may contain campylobacter.
                             2. Use separate chopping boards/knives for raw meat/poultry and
                             cooked food to prevent the spread of campylobacter.
                             3. Ensure meats/poultry are stored covered in the refrigerator to
                             prevent the spread of campylobacter.
                             4. Store raw meats/poultry below cooked foods in the refrigerator
                             to prevent drips from raw foods contaminating cooked food
                             withcampylobacter.
8. Raw/unpasteurised milk    1. Ensure that only pasteurised milk is used/consumed as this
                             may contain campylobacter.
                             2. Avoid buying/using unpasteurised milk from local farms as it
                             may contain campylobacter.
                             3. Do not drink milk from bottles which have been pecked by
                             birds as this milk may contain campylobacter.
9. Untreated natural water   1. Avoid use of such water and only use treated water as this may
                             be a source of campylobacter.
                             2. Avoid drinking water from lakes/streams/rivers as this may be
                             contaminated by campylobacter.
3 b) Identify and explain four different control measures which may help prevent cross contamination.
Marking Instructions:
4 x ½ mark for each measure identified.
4 x 1 mark for each detailed explanation (linked to bacteria).
Control measure must be identified before mark can be awarded for explanation. Where the control measure is
incorporated in the explanation this can be credited.
                                                                                                              Total – 6 marks
(KU)
1.
Good Personal Hygiene
Control measures                                               Explanation
    (a) Ensure food handler has a high standard of             1. Hands must be kept clean at all times as they are in
        personal hygiene                                       direct contact with food, and so are the main route of
                                                               transferring bacteria.
                                                               2. Food handlers should follow a thorough hand washing
                                                               procedure (and dry hands on disposable paper towels)
                                                               especially after visiting the toilet/on entering the food
                                                               room/ before handling any food/equipment/after touching
                                                               their hair/ after eating/coughing/blowing their nose/after
                                                               handling waste food/refuse or cleaning materials to
                                                               prevent bacterial contamination.
                                                               3. Food handlers should have suitable protective
                                                               clothing/hair tied back, remove jewellery/have short clean
                                                               nails free from nail varnish to prevent bacterial
                                                               contamination when preparing/serving high risk food
                                                               products.
                                                               4. Smoking is not permitted whilst handling food because:
                                                               - cigarette ends and ash may contaminate the high risk
                                                               food/- food handlers may touch their lips whilst smoking
                                                               and then transfer harmful bacteria to high risk food/ -
                                                               smoking encourages coughing which produces droplets of
                                                               infection over high risk foods/ - cigarettes ends placed on
                                                               worktops may be contaminated with saliva which is then
                                                               passed to high risk food stuffs.
    (b) Wash hands thoroughly after handling high risk         1. Hands should be washed after handling high risk foods
        food                                                   (eg raw meat/poultry/eggs) to prevent the spread of
                                                               bacteria from raw/high risk foods to cooked foods.
    (c) Ensure food handlers are in good health                1. As handlers with colds, spread droplet infection from
                                                               coughing/sneezing over high risk foods.
                                                               2. All cuts/sores should be covered with a blue waterproof
                                                               dressing to prevent the spread of bacteria onto high risk
                                                               foods.
                                                               3. Food handlers suffering from diarrhoea/vomiting/a
                                                               food-borne illness should not handle high risk foods as it
                                                               may become contaminated with bacteria.
2. Good kitchen hygiene standards
Control Measures                                               Explanation
    (a) Ensure all equipment/ fixtures/ fittings are clean 1. Different surfaces/boards/utensils should be used when
        before/after preparing foods                           preparing raw and cooked meat/poultry/eggs to prevent
                                                               the spread of bacteria from raw to cooked foods.
                                                               2. Clean all surfaces, equipment and tools thoroughly
                                                               before and after preparation to prevent the spread of
                                                               bacteria from high risk foods/raw foods.
    (b) Adequate cleaning procedures are carried out           1. Kitchen cloths should preferably be disposable/should
                                                               be bleached/disinfected/changed frequently so as to
                                                               prevent the spread of bacteria from high risk foods.
                                                               2. Spillages should be wiped up immediately to prevent the
                                                               spread of bacteria from contaminated foods.
                                                          3. Waste should be placed in covered bins which should be
                                                          well away from food preparation areas to prevent the
                                                          potential contamination from high risk foods.
                                                          4. Catering staff should carry out/apply the Hazard Analysis
                                                          Critical Control Point (HACCP) system to prevent bacterial
                                                          contamination at any stage.
                                                          5. Refrigerators should be cleaned weekly/regularly and
                                                          spillages wiped up immediately to prevent the spread of
                                                          bacteria from contaminated foods.
3. Correct storage/ serving of high risk foods
Control measures                                          Explanation
    (a) Ensure high risk foods are stored correctly       1. Separate raw and cooked meat/poultry/eggs to prevent
                                                          the spread of bacteria from cross contamination of high
                                                          risk products.
                                                          2. Store raw high risk products below cooked foods at the
                                                          bottom of the refrigerator to prevent the spread of
                                                          bacteria from cross contamination of high risk products
                                                          dripping onto the cooked foods.
                                                          3. Use a separate refrigerator for raw foods to prevent the
                                                          spread of bacteria from cross contamination of high risk
                                                          products dripping onto the cooked foods.
                                                          4. High risk foods should be covered to prevent the spread
                                                          of bacterial contamination.
    (b) Refrigerate at a temperature of 1 – 4 ˚C          1. High risk and perishable salad products must be kept in
                                                          refrigerator at a temperature of 1-4°C to prevent bacteria
                                                          multiplying.
                                                          2. Regular daily checks should be taken to ensure the
                                                          refrigerator is functioning at a maximum of 1-4°C to
                                                          prevent bacteria multiplying.
4. Correct cooking/ reheating of high risk foods
Control measures                                          Explanation
    (a) Cook until 75°C                                   1. A minimum centre of 75°C should be reached in high
                                                          risk foods and confirmed by a food probe thermometer as
                                                          most harmful bacteria are destroyed at this temperature.
                                                          2. Microwavable high risk foods also require a minimum
                                                          centre of 75°C to be reached and checked in different
                                                          places by a food probe thermometer as most harmful
                                                          bacteria are destroyed at this temperature.
    (b) Reheat until 82°C                                 1. Small numbers of bacteria may have survived original
                                                          cooking and continued to multiply; increasing the
                                                          temperature may destroy bacteria that would result in
                                                          contaminating high risk foods.
5. Correct storage of cooked high risk foods
Control measures                                          Explanation
    (a) Cooling of high risk foods within 1 – 1 ½ hours   1. High risk foods should be cooled down within 1-1½
                                                          hours of cooking and covered and refrigerated to prevent
                                                          the bacteria multiplying at room temperature.
    (b) Cool food thoroughly before placing in            1. Warm high risk foods must not be placed in a
        refrigerator                                      refrigerator, as this may increase the core temperature
                                                          causing bacteria to multiply.
    (c) Observe use-by date                               1. High risk foods should not be mixed from separate
                                                          batches/ careful monitoring/labelling with dates is
                                                          required to ensure correct disposal of foods past their use-
                                                          by date to prevent deterioration/bacterial contamination.
3 c) Explain the use of each of the following in food preservation.

(i) Salt

(ii) pH

(iii) Freeze-drying

Marking Instructions:

3 x 1 mark for each explanation.

Total: 3 marks (KU)

Salt
1. Dissolved in fluids, salt forms a concentrated solution in which spoilage micro-organisms cannot
flourish, as the dissolved salt ‘captures’ some of the water molecules making them unavailable to microorganisms.
2. Salt draws out moisture through a process of osmosis therefore preventing their growth and enabling the
food to last longer.
3. If salted in cold conditions, meats can last for years because the meat does not have time to spoil while
the salt has time to take effect by drawing out the moisture.
4. Salt prevents food from decaying due to the removal of moisture.
pH
1. The degree of pH used to preserve food will depend on the type of micro-organisms linked to the food.
2. pH below 7/acidic pH will inhibit microbial growth and increase shelf life of food product.
3. pH below 7/acidic pH is used in food preservation of pickled vegetables/chutneys to increase the shelf
life by preventing microbial growth.
4. Most micro-organisms cannot survive in acidic pH so food is preserved.
Freeze-Drying
1. Freeze drying removes moisture from food product making it unavailable to micro-organisms which
increases the shelf life/preserves the food.
2. Freeze drying in food preservation of products such as coffee/herbs so increase the shelf life with
minimal effect on flavour.
3. Once moisture is added back into the food micro organisms can grow and shelf life is reduced.
4. Freeze drying is used for heat sensitive foods as ice is driven off as water vapour causing little damage to
food (eg coffee granules).
3 d) The star profile below shows the results of testing the novelty cake.
Evaluate the suitability of this novelty cake for a toddler.
Marking Instructions:
5 x 1 mark for each valid evaluation point, linked to the suitability of the novelty cake for a toddler.
Only 1 mark per descriptor.
                                                                                                           Total – 5 marks
(EV)
Appearance (5)
1. The toddler may enjoy the attractive appearance of this noveltycake as it has a high rating, therefore making the
novelty cake suitable for the toddler.
2. The standard of presentation of cake decoration may be high, so the parent may be tempted to buy the cake as it has
received a top 5 score therefore the parent may be confident it would appeal to the toddler.
Colour (4)
1. The toddler may be attracted to the bright colours within the cake and therefore enjoy the bright appearance of the
noveltycake.
2. The noveltycake must be quite colourful as it has a fairly high rating of 4, which means it is quite colourful, as
toddlers are fond of bright contrasting colours this may make the cake a suitable choice for the toddler.
3. The high colour rating for the noveltycake is a disadvantage as it means there may be colouring additives within the
cake, which may cause hyperactivity/allergies in the toddler.
Sweetness (3)
1. The noveltycake has quite a high score of sweetness which may be unsuitable for the toddler as it may be high in
sugar therefore could cause tooth decay/obesity/(type 2) diabetes later in life.
2. The noveltycake has quite a high score for sweetness, which may be suitable for the toddler as most toddlers like a
sweet flavour.
3. This noveltycake has quite a high score for sweetness resulting in the toddler forming a high sugar awareness of
his/her palate; therefore the toddler may become dependant on a sweet tooth craving.
4. The noveltycake has quite a high score for sweetness; this may indicate a high sugar intake which could therefore
provide a quick energy source for an active toddler.
Creamy (3)
1. A score of 3 means the novelty cake has a fairly high creamy texture; this may be suitable for the toddler, as it may
contain high-energy ingredients, which may provide the toddler with energy to expend.
2. A score of 3 means the noveltycake has a fairly high creamy texture; this may be suitable for the toddler, as a creamy
texture may enable the toddler to chew/eat the cake more easily.
3. A score of 3 indicates the noveltycake has quite a high score for creaminess; this may not be suitable for the toddler
as it may lead to obesity in later life due to the high fat content within the creamy mixture
Moistness (4)
1. A high score of 4 makes this novelty cake suitable for a toddler as a moist cake may be easier to eat, therefore
preventing the toddler from choking on dry crumbs.
2. A high score of 4 makes this noveltycake suitable for a toddler as the toddler may be used to eating moist textures
from semi-pureed foods, therefore there may be a confidence/enjoyment when chewing the cake and no safety issues
from choking.
3. As most moistness in cakes comes from high fat content, this noveltycake may not be suitable for the toddler as it
may lead to obesity in later life.
4. As the novelty cake has a high score for moistness, there may be less chance of the cake drying out, which enables
the cake to have better keeping qualities and so leftovers can be stored for later use/less waste for parents of toddler.
Crumbly (1)
1. The novelty cake has a very low score of 1, making this cake suitable for a toddler to eat, as he/she may be less likely
to choke on crumbs when chewing the cake.
2. The noveltycake is not very crumbly, therefore it may be easier to cut standard slices of cake for the toddler to eat,
making sure they do not consume too much, therefore preventing tooth decay/obesity.
3. The noveltycake has a low score for crumbliness, which may prevent the toddler from making a mess when eating
the cake, therefore saves parent time clearing up/avoids damage to carpet/more hygienic environment for the
child/prevent upset
4 a) Explain two ways in which European Directives have influenced consumer law in the UK.
Marking Instructions:
2 x 1 mark for each explanation linked to influence on consumer law.
                                                                                                           Total – 2 marks
(KU)
(Headings have been provided to assist marking but are not required to be provided by the candidate)
Weights and Measures
1. UK minimum weight system/average weight system indicated by e mark.
2. Basic foods can only be sold in pre-determined packs eg coffee/tea/sugar to allow for price comparison of
commodities easily.
3. Metric measurements must now be included on food products.

Additives
1. Additives must be passed as safe by the European Union before a licence for use is permitted.
2. Directives stipulate how additives must be tested on food labelling (ie E number with additive category) before usage.

Food Labelling
1. All food must now be clearly marked with its name and description.
2. Most pre-packed foods must show a list of ingredients and how long it can be kept.
3. In the ingredient listings all additives (except flavourings) must be identified by their E number and the type of
additive they are must be indicated (eg colouring, preservative).
4. EU restrictions are placed on which additives are permitted in food ie there is an approved list of additives considered
safe to use.
5. Sets out details with regard to products, which have a low energy/reduced energy claim.
6. Food packages must be sold in metric weights.
7. Pre-packed foods should carry a date of minimum durability eg “best before”.
8. Highly perishable foods should have a “use-by” date, to prevent potential food poisoning cases.
9. Standardised format for inclusion of the optional nutritional labelling of food items.
10. Food manufacturers are required to currently list 12 potentially allergic ingredients (eg gluten/peanuts).
11. Directives now apply on the regulation of novel foods/lot marking/foods for particular nutritional uses.

Safety/Hygiene
1. Member states have agreed to harmonise food safety regulations on the retailing/catering of all foodstuffs.
2. Hygiene directives now apply to specific products such as meat/fish/milk.
3. Directives apply to use of food contact materials/packaging/contaminants.
4. Keen to harmonise standards for processed foods in the future.
4 b) Explain the effects of storage, preparation and cooking on Vitamin C.

Marking Instructions:

3 x 1 mark for each explanation.

1 x storage, 1 x preparation, 1 x cooking

Total: 3 marks (KU)

Vitamin C/Ascorbic acid
Storage
1. Exposure to air leads to oxidation of vitamin C (and must therefore be stored in a fridge).
2. Long-term storage causes deterioration of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables.
3. Storage in light leads to loss of vitamin C.
4. Storage in dark conditions leads to less loss of vitamin C.
Preparation
1. The enzyme oxidase is activated by chopping leading to vitamin C loss.
2. Peeling fruits/vegetables would expose more surfaces to the air and cause oxidation.
3. Blunt knives cause more cells to rupture/be disrupted causing more of the enzyme oxidase to be released
which kills/destroys vitamin C.
4. Soaking in water causes loss of vitamin C by leaching into the water.
5. Use acids such as lemon juice/vinegar which can prevent the loss of vitamin C by oxidation.
6. Preparation in advance leads to destruction/loss of vitamin C by oxidation.
Cooking
1. Vitamin C is lost in water through leaching so use minimal water.
2. Heat destroys vitamin C so cook for as short a time as possible.
3. Alkaline cooking water (eg bicarbonate of soda) destroys vitamin C.
4. Cooking vitamin C rich foods in copper or copper alloy pots causes vitamin C to quickly oxidise in the
presence of large amounts of copper.
5. Vitamin C oxidises if kept hot.
4 c) Explain the effects of storage, preparation and cooking on fats.
Marking Instructions:
3 x 1 mark for each explanation.
1 mark each for effect of storage, preparation, cooking
Total – 3 marks (KU)
Fats
1. Storage
1. Exposure to air leads to gradual deterioration/oxidation of fat due to rancidity.
2. The fat molecules absorb oxygen causing oxidation and reacts giving fat an unpleasant
flavour/colour.
3. Fat left out in light will oxidise faster due to the impurities in fat (by enzymes) and the
presence of many polyunsaturated fatty acids.
4. Fat can become rancid due to enzyme (lipase) that breaks down fat molecules and “off”
flavours/colours develop because of the fatty acids in the food.
2. Preparation
1. Fats can be difficult to digest so preparing fat by exposing more of the surface to the
digestive juices makes it more easily digested (eg grating, slicing and chopping).
2. Preparing a high fatty food with a starchy food, will help the fat to be absorbed by the
starch making it more easily digested (eg macaroni cheese/potatoes and cheese).
3. Cooking
1. Solid fat melts to liquid when heated.
2. Fats are fairly stable to heat at normal cooking temperatures.
3. At very high temperatures (200°C) will break into fatty acids and glycerol/below smoke
point.
4. If fat continues to be heated a blue haze is given off, the fat ignites and burns rapidly.
5. If fat is overheated the breakdown of fatty acids and glycerol reduces the nutritional value
and keeping qualities of the fat/causes oxidation.
6. When the fat smokes this shows that the chemical structure is beginning to break down
and fat will go rancid.
7. If the chemical structure of fat is broken down the fat will smell and a substance called
acrolein (which affects the eyes) is produced.
4 d) Identify four methods of mechanical aeration. Explain how each brings about change in
food products
Marking Instructions:

4 x ½ mark for method of mechanical aeration

4 x 1 mark for each well explained description

Total – 6 marks

Mechanical Aerating          Explanation
Beating                      • This enables more air bubbles to be trapped between loose foam,
                             helping the product to rise.
Sieving                      • This enables more air to be trapped between the fine particles of flour
                             (helping the product to rise when baked).
Whisking                     • With egg the protein albumin stretches (to hold up to 7 times its own
                             value of air) trapping small air bubbles in stable foam. This will result
                             in a very light textured product (eg meringue).
Whipping                     • With cream, the fat globules begin to coalesce, this will thicken the
                             mixture.
Rubbing-in                   • The fat is rubbed into thin film surrounding the flour (forming a
                             waterproof barrier/traps air) to help baked products rise.
                             • If the mixture is lifted well out of the bowl, more air is trapped enabling
                             the product (scones/pastry) to rise more.
Creaming                     • Individual fat crystals surround the tiny air bubbles, trapping air (this
                             allows the product/cakes to rise more/making a closer texture).
Kneading                     • The kneading of bread dough traps air (enables the gluten to develop) to
                             help bread rise.
                             • Enables chains of yeast cells to be broken up, this creates a light, wellrisen
                             and even bread.


4 (e)     Explain the interrelationship of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D.


Marking Instruction

2 x 1 mark for correct response

Total – 2 marks

• Calcium and phosphorus work together in the formation of calcium phosphate
• Calcium phosphate is necessary for the hardening of bones and teeth/calcification
• If deficient in diet calcium will be withdrawn from bones leaving an imbalance of calcium phosphate
• If a severe deficiency of phosphorus occurs, the supply is used for the soft tissue at the expense of the
bones causing fragility in bones
• Calcium and phosphorus should be present in equal quantities to be absorbed equally; if not, this results in
the one which is in the least amount being not so well absorbed causing fragility in bones
• Calcium/phosphorus need vitamin D in order to be absorbed
• Vitamin D is necessary for the body to absorb calcium and phosphorus from the small intestine
• Vitamin D controls the absorption of calcium and phosphorus so a good supply in the diet is needed
• The presence of vitamin D enables phosphorus to be reabsorbed in the kidneys
4 f) Explain four ways vitamin C loss may be minimised from fruit and vegetables
Marking Instructions:
4 x 1 mark for each way linked to ways of reducing loss of vitamin C in fruit and vegetables.
                                                                                                             Total – 4 marks
(KU)
(Headings have been provided to assist the marker but are not required in the answer)
Storage
1. Fruits/vegetables should be stored for as short a time as possible as storage for a long time allows the vitamin C to be
oxidised by exposure to air.
2. Fruits/vegetables should be bought as fresh as possible, as long term storage causes deterioration/oxidation of
vitamin C.
3. Store fruits/vegetables in a refrigerator as low temperature slows down oxidation of vitamin C (eg put green leafy
vegetables in the vegetable or salad drawer in the refrigerator).
4. Store fruits/vegetables in the absence of light to avoid loss/oxidation of vitamin C, (eg store root vegetables in a cool
dark place/away from heat/daylight/air).
5. Avoid bruising/damage of the fruits/vegetables prior to storage as this will lead to destruction/oxidation of vitamin C.
6. Avoid buying ready prepared fruits/vegetables as these are more likely to have suffered nutrient loss because of
advance preparation/storage.
7. If freezing the fruits/vegetables, freeze quickly so that the vitamin C is preserved.
8. Using frozen fruits and vegetables as these are picked fresher then frozen therefore vitamin C content is preserved.

Preparation
1. Fruits/vegetables should only be prepared as required, as vitamin C will be lost through oxidation if they are prepared
in advance.
2. Fruits/vegetables should be cut into large chunks resulting in less surface area being exposed to the air therefore
helping to minimise vitamin C loss through oxidation.
3. Avoid soaking fruits/vegetables in water as vitamin C is water soluble and will result in the vitamin being leached into
the water.
4. When cutting fruits/vegetables, knives should be sharp as blunt knives cause more cells to be damaged (causing more
oxidase to be released) which is responsible for destroying vitamin C.
5. Avoid peeling fruits/vegetables if possible as most vitamin C is just under the skin/ peeling exposes more surface to
the air resulting in oxidation/loss of vitamin C.
6. Acids such as lemon juice/vinegar should be used during the preparation of fruits/ vegetables as this can slow down
the rate of oxidation therefore minimising vitamin C loss.

Cooking – Effect of heat and water on vitamin C
1. Fruits/vegetables should be cooked for a minimum time as vitamin C is destroyed at fairly low temperatures.
2. Avoid putting fruits/vegetables rich in vitamin C into boiling water (as this denatures the enzyme called oxidase)
which destroys vitamin C.
3. As vitamin C is water soluble it will be lost in cooking water so when cooking fruits/ vegetables use as little as possible
to prevent the vitamin leaching out into the water.
4. Fruits/vegetables should be cooked for as short a time as possible as the vitamin C will leach into the water.
5. Short methods of cooking such as steaming/microwaving/stir-frying should be used to cook fruits/vegetables to
conserve as much vitamin C as possible.
6. Serve fruit/vegetables immediately as vitamin C can be oxidised if fruits/vegetables are not served immediately or if
they are kept warm.

Effect of alkaline solutions on vitamin C
1. Fruits/vegetables should be kept away from alkaline solutions as the presence of an alkaline solution causes vitamin C
to be destroyed by oxidation.

								
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