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A Project ON Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori

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					Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori



                             Executive Summary
Title of the analysis
       “Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori capital
Investment ltd.”
The function of the financial market is to facilitate the transfer of funds from surplus
sectors (lenders) to deficit sector (borrowers) Indian financial system consist of the
money market and capital market.
       Depository is an organization where the securities of a shareholder are held in
the electronic form at the request of the shareholder through a medium of a depository
participant.
To handle the securities in electronic form as per the Depository Act 1996, two
Depositories are registered with SEBI. They are
                  1. National Securities Depository Ltd (NSDL)
                  2. Central Depository Services (India) ltd (CSDL)
A derivative is a financial instrument that derives its value from an underlying asset.
This underlying asset can be stocks, bonds currency, commodities, metals and even
intangible. Like stock indices. There are different types of derivatives like Forwards,
Futures, Options, and Swaps.
       A future is a contract to buy or sell an asset at a specified future date at a
specified price. Options are deferred delivery contracts that give the buyers the right,
but not the obligation, to buy or sell a specified underlying at a price on or before a
specified date.
       ASCI computer share private Ltd. Is a joint venture between computer share
Australia and ASCI consultant’s Ltd. India in the registry management services
industry. Computer share Australia is the world’s largest and only global share
registry providing financial market services and technology to the global securities
industry. ASCI corporate and mutual fund share registry and investor services
business, India’s No.1Registrar and transfer agent and rated as India’s “most admired
registrar” for its over all excellence in volume management, quality process and
technology driven services.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori




       Computer share has over 6000 experienced professionals; computer share
operates in five continents, providing services and solutions to listed companies,
investors, employees, exchanges and other financial institutions while ASCI has
handled over 675 issues as Registrar to Issues servicing over 16 million investors
from multiple locations across India.
       ASCI Computer share is all geared up to establish a new paradigm in service
delivery driven by benchmark operations management practices, the highest quality
standards and state-of –the-art technology to service its clients and the investor
community at large. The rapid developments in the Indian securities.
       This report is delivered in to 2 parts; each part is prepared on the basis of the
analysis carried on in the company, of the first part of the report makes us familiar of
the company, its quality policy, quality objectives and its plans. The second part
contains the analysis on derivatives, stock broking process and its service offered by
ASCI to its clients. The objective of the analysis are to analysis of derivatives
products, trading systems and process, clearing and settlement, to know the process of
stock broking, the calculation of brokerage, how to get registered with ASCI in order
to buy and sell the shares.




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                                Objective of the analysis
          Getting an in-depth knowledge of working of derivatives market with
           special reference to the stock exchanges.

          Understanding the role of stock broking in capital market and derivatives
           market.

          To know the overview of the market, to study about the settlement
           procedure in the stock exchange.

          To analysis about the intermediaries, their functioning and importance of
           their presence in the capital market and study about the action trading in
           the stock exchange


Need for the study
        Financial Derivatives are quite new to the Indian Financial Market, but the
derivatives market has shown an immense potential which is visible by the growth it
has achieved in the recent past, In the present changing financial environment and an
increased exposure towards financial risks, It is of immense importance to have a
good working knowledge of Derivatives.

Methodology:-

Methodology explains the methods used in collecting       information to carry out the
project.

    I have collected the primary data from the internal guide and the clients who use
visit and trade in the ASCI stock broking Ltd. The secondary data about the online
trading is collected from the various websites.

   • Websites
   • Magazines
   • News papers

               The data for the analysis has been collected from NSE websites.




       Introduction to Organization:

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             ASCI, is a premier integrated financial services provider, and ranked
      among the top five in the country in all its business segments, services over 16
      million individual investors in various capacities, and provides investor
      services to over 300 corporate, comprising the who is who of Corporate India.
      ASCI covers the entire spectrum of financial services such as Stock broking,
      Depository Participants, Distribution of financial products - mutual funds,
      bonds, fixed deposit, equities, Insurance Broking, Commodities Broking,
      Personal Finance Advisory Services, Merchant Banking & Corporate Finance,
      placement of equity, IPO’s, among others. ASCI has a professional
      management team and ranks among the best in technology, operations and
      research of various industrial segments

             The birth of ASCI was on a modest scale in 1981. It began with the
      vision and enterprise of a small group of practicing Chartered Accountants
      who founded the flagship company …ASCI Consultants Limited. It started
      with consulting and financial accounting automation, and carved inroads into
      the field of registry and share accounting by 1985. Since then, they have
      utilized their experience and superlative expertise to go from strength to
      strength…to better their services, to provide new ones, to innovate, diversify
      and in the process, evolved ASCI as one of India’s premier integrated
      financial service enterprise.

             Thus over the last 20 years ASCI has traveled the success route,
      towards building a reputation as an integrated financial services provider,
      offering a wide spectrum of services. And they have made this journey by
      taking the route of quality service, path breaking innovations in service,
      versatility in service and finally…totality in service.

                     Our highly qualified manpower, cutting-edge technology,
      comprehensive infrastructure and total customer-focus has secured for us the
      position of an emerging financial services giant enjoying the confidence and
      support of an enviable clientele across diverse fields in the financial world.

      Vision of ASCI:



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


       “To be amongst most trusted power utility company of the country by
       providing environment friendly power on most cost effective basis, ensuring
       prosperity for its stakeholders and growth with human face.”


       Mission of ASCI:


      To ensure most cost effective power for sustained growth of India.
      To provide clean and green power for secured future of countrymen.
      To retain leadership position of the organization in Hydro Power generation,
       while working with dedication and innovation in every project we undertake.
      To maintain continuous pursuit for cost effectiveness enhanced productivity
       for ensuring financial health of the organization, to take care of stakeholders’
       aspirations continuously.
      To be a technology driven, transparent organization, ensuring dignity and
       respect for its team members.
      To inculcate value system all cross the organization for ensuring trustworthy
       relationship with its constituent associates & stakeholders.
      To continuously upgrade & update knowledge & skill set of its human
       resources.
      To be socially responsible through community development by leveraging
       resources and knowledge base.
      To achieve excellence in every activity we undertake.




       Quality policy of ASCI:




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               To achieve and retain leadership, ASCI shall aim for complete
       customer satisfaction, by combining its human and technological resources, to
       provide superior quality financial services. In the process, ASCI will strive to
       exceed Customer's expectations.

       Quality Objectives

       As per the Quality Policy, ASCI will:

              Build in-house processes that will ensure transparent and harmonious
               relationships with its clients and investors to provide high quality of
               services.
              Establish a partner relationship with its investor service agents and
               vendors that will help in keeping up its commitments to the customers.
              Provide high quality of work life for all its employees and equip them
               with adequate knowledge & skills so as to respond to customer's needs.
              Continue to uphold the values of honesty & integrity and strive to
               establish unparalleled standards in business ethics.
              Use state-of-the art information technology in developing new and
               innovative financial products and services to meet the changing needs
               of investors and clients.
              Strive to be a reliable source of value-added financial products and
               services and constantly guide the individuals and institutions in making
               a judicious choice of same.

Strive to keep all stake-holders (shareholders, clients, investors, employees, suppliers
and regulatory authorities) proud and satisfied




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY ASCI STOCK BROKING LIMITED


   1. Share Broking.
   2. Demat & Remat Services.
   3. Mutual Funds.
   4. Investments.
   5. Personal Tax planning.
   6. Insurance Advisory.
The explanation for the above –mentioned points are as follows:


       Services and qualities of ASCI Ltd

       Quality Objectives

       As per the Quality Policy, ASCI will:

             Build in-house processes that will ensure transparent and harmonious
              relationships with its clients and investors to provide high quality of
              services.
             Establish a partner relationship with its investor service agents and
              vendors that will help in keeping up its commitments to the customers.
             Provide high quality of work life for all its employees and equip them
              with adequate knowledge & skills so as to respond to customer's needs.
             Continue to uphold the values of honesty & integrity and strive to
              establish unparalleled standards in business ethics.
             Use state-of-the art information technology in developing new and
              innovative financial products and services to meet the changing needs
              of investors and clients.
             Strive to be a reliable source of value-added financial products and
              services and constantly guide the individuals and institutions in making
              a judicious choice of same.
             Strive to keep all stake-holders (shareholders, clients, investors,
              employees, suppliers and regulatory authorities) proud and satisfied.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori




The services provided by the ASCI:

A). my portfolio
     Portfolio planner
      Risk quotient
      Equity portfolio
      My net worth
 B). Planners
    Goal planner
      Retirement planner
      Yield calculator
      Risk hedger

C). Publications

      The Finapolis
      ASCI Bazaar Baatein.




                              DERIVATIVES



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Introduction:
       BSE created history on June 9, 2000 by launching the first Exchange traded
Index Derivative Contract i.e. futures on the capital market benchmark index - the
BSE Sensex. The inauguration of trading was done by Prof. J.R. Varma, member of
SEBI and chairman of the committee responsible for formulation of risk containment
measures for the Derivatives market. The first historical trade of 5 contracts of June
series was done on June 9, 2000 at 9:55:03 a.m. between M/s Kaji and Maulik
Securities Pvt. Ltd. and M/s Emkay Share and Stock Brokers Ltd. at the rate of 4755.


       In the sequence of product innovation, the exchange commenced trading in
Index Options on Sensex on June 1, 2001. Stock options were introduced on 31 stocks
on July 9, 2001 and single stock futures were launched on November 9, 2002.


       September 13, 2004 marked another milestone in the history of Indian Capital
Markets, the day on which the Bombay Stock Exchange launched Weekly Options, a
unique product unparallel in derivatives markets, both domestic and international.
BSE permitted trading in weekly contracts in options in the shares of four leading
companies namely Reliance, Satyam, State Bank of India, and Tisco in addition to the
flagship index-Sensex.




                          Indian derivatives markets


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   1. Rise of Derivatives
   The global economic order that emerged after World War II was a system where
many less developed countries administered prices and centrally allocated resources.
Even the developed economies operated under the Bretton Woods system of fixed
exchange rates. The system of fixed prices came under stress from the 1970s onwards.
High inflation and unemployment rates made interest rates more volatile. The Bretton
Woods system was dismantled in 1971, freeing exchange rates to fluctuate. Less
developed countries like India began opening up their economies and allowing prices
to vary with market conditions.
   Price fluctuations make it hard for businesses to estimate their future production
costs and revenues. Derivative securities provide them a valuable set of tools for
managing this risk.


2. Definition and Uses of Derivatives
       A derivative security is a financial contract whose value is derived from the
value of something else, such as a stock price, a commodity price, an exchange rate,
an interest rate, or even an index of prices. Some simple types of derivatives:
forwards, futures, options and swaps.
       Derivatives may be traded for a variety of reasons. A derivative enables a
trader to hedge some preexisting risk by taking positions in derivatives markets that
offset potential losses in the underlying or spot market. In India, most derivatives
users describe themselves as hedgers and Indian laws generally require that
derivatives be used for hedging purposes only. Another motive for derivatives trading
is speculation (i.e. taking positions to profit from anticipated price movements). In
practice, it may be difficult to distinguish whether a particular trade was for hedging
or speculation, and active markets require the participation of both hedgers and
speculators. A third type of trader, called arbitrageurs, profit from discrepancies in the
relationship of spot and derivatives prices, and thereby help to keep markets efficient.
       Jogani and Fernandez (2003) describe India’s long history in arbitrage trading,
with line operators and traders arbitraging prices between exchanges located in
different cities, and between two exchanges in the same city. Their study of Indian
equity derivatives markets in 2002 indicates that markets were inefficient at that time.



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They argue that lack of knowledge, market frictions and regulatory impediments have
led to low levels of capital employed.
       Price volatility may reflect changes in the underlying demand and supply
conditions and thereby provide useful information about the market. Thus, economists
do not view volatility as necessarily harmful.
       Speculators face the risk of losing money from their derivatives trades, as they
do with other securities. There have been some well-publicized cases of large losses
from derivatives trading. In some instances, these losses stemmed from fraudulent
behavior that went undetected partly because companies did not have adequate risk
management systems in place. In other cases, users failed to understand why and how
they were taking positions in the derivatives.
       Derivatives in arbitrage trading in India. However, more recent evidence
suggests that the efficiency of Indian equity derivatives markets may have improved.


3. Exchange-Traded and Over-the-Counter Derivative Instruments
       OTC (over-the-counter) contracts, such as forwards and swaps, are bilaterally
negotiated between two parties. The terms of an OTC contract are flexible, and are
often customized to fit the specific requirements of the user. OTC contracts have
substantial credit risk, which is the risk that the counterparty that owes money defaults
on the payment. In India, OTC derivatives are generally prohibited with some
exceptions: those that are specifically allowed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) or,
in the case of commodities (which are regulated by the Forward Markets
Commission), those that trade informally in “havala” or forwards markets.
       An exchange-traded contract, such as a futures contract, has a standardized
format that specifies the underlying asset to be delivered, the size of the contract, and
the logistics of delivery. They trade on organized exchanges with prices determined
by the interaction of many buyers and sellers. In India, two exchanges offer
derivatives trading: the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock


       Exchange (NSE). However, NSE now accounts for virtually all exchange-
traded derivatives in India, accounting for more than 99% of volume in 2003-2004.
Contract performance is guaranteed by a clearinghouse, which is a wholly owned
subsidiary of the NSE. Margin requirements and daily marking-to-market of futures


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positions substantially reduce the credit risk of exchange traded contracts, relative to
OTC contracts.


4. Development of Derivative Markets in India
       Derivatives markets have been in existence in India in some form or other for
a long time. In the area of commodities, the Bombay Cotton Trade Association started
futures trading in 1875 and, by the early 1900s India had one of the world’s largest
futures industry. In 1952 the government banned cash settlement and options trading
and derivatives trading shifted to informal forwards markets. In recent years,
government policy has changed, allowing for an increased role for market-based
pricing and less suspicion of derivatives trading. The ban on futures trading of many
commodities was lifted starting in the early 2000s, and national electronic commodity
exchanges were created.
       In the equity markets, a system of trading called “badla” involving some
elements of forwards trading had been in existence for decades. However, the system
led to a number of undesirable practices and it was prohibited off and on till the
Securities and a clearinghouse guarantees performance of a contract by becoming
buyer to every seller and seller to every buyer.
       Customers post margin (security) deposits with brokers to ensure that they can
cover a specified loss on the position. A futures position is marked-to-market by
realizing any trading losses in cash on the day they occur.
       “Badla” allowed investors to trade single stocks on margin and to carry
forward positions to the next settlement cycle. Earlier, it was possible to carry forward
a position indefinitely but later the maximum carry forward period was 90 days.
Unlike a futures or options, however, in a “badla” trade there is no fixed expiration
date, and contract terms and margin requirements are not standardized.
       Derivatives Exchange Board of India (SEBI) banned it for good in 2001. A
series of reforms of the stock market between 1993 and 1996 paved the way for the
development of exchange traded equity derivatives markets in India. In 1993, the
government created the NSE in collaboration with state-owned financial institutions.
NSE improved the efficiency and transparency of the stock markets by offering a
fully automated screen-based trading system and real-time price dissemination. In




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1995, a prohibition on trading options was lifted. In 1996, the NSE sent a proposal to
SEBI for listing exchange-traded derivatives.
       The report of the L. C. Gupta Committee, set up by SEBI, recommended a
phased introduction of derivative products, and bi-level regulation (i.e., self-
regulation by exchanges with SEBI providing a supervisory and advisory role).
Another report, by the J. R. Varma Committee in 1998, worked out various
operational details such as the margining systems. In 1999, the Securities Contracts
(Regulation) Act of 1956, or SC(R)A, was amended so that derivatives could be
declared “securities.” This allowed the regulatory fMr.Xework for trading securities
to be extended to derivatives. The Act considers derivatives to be legal and valid, but
only if they are traded on exchanges.
       Finally, a 30-year ban on forward trading was also lifted in 1999. The
economic liberalization of the early nineties facilitated the introduction of derivatives
based on interest rates and foreign exchange. A system of market-determined
exchange rates was adopted by India in March 1993. In August 1994, the rupee was
made fully convertible on current account. These reforms allowed increased
integration between domestic and international markets, and created a need to manage
currency risk.


5. Derivatives Users in India
       The use of derivatives varies by type of institution. Financial institutions, such
as banks, have assets and liabilities of different maturities and in different currencies,
and are exposed to different risks of default from their borrowers. Thus, they are
likely to use derivatives on interest rates and currencies, and derivatives to manage
credit risk. Non-financial institutions are regulated differently from financial
institutions, and this affects their incentives to use derivatives. Indian insurance
regulators, for example, are yet to issue guidelines relating to the use of derivatives by
insurance companies.
       In India, financial institutions have not been heavy users of exchange-traded
derivatives so far, with their contribution to total value of NSE trades being less than
8% in October 2005. However, market insiders feel that this may be changing, as
indicated by the growing share of index derivatives (which are used more by
institutions than by retail investors). In contrast to the exchange-traded markets,


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domestic financial institutions and mutual funds have shown great interest in OTC
fixed income instruments. Transactions between banks dominate the market for
interest rate derivatives, while state-owned banks remain a small presence.
Corporations are active in the currency forwards and swaps markets, buying these
instruments from banks.
Why do institutions not participate to a greater extent in derivatives
markets?
       Some institutions such as banks and mutual funds are only allowed to use
derivatives to hedge their existing positions in the spot market, or to rebalance their
existing portfolios. Since banks have little exposure to equity markets due to banking
regulations, they have little incentive to trade equity derivatives. Foreign investors
must register as foreign institutional investors (FII) to trade exchange-traded
derivatives, and be subject to position limits as specified by SEBI. Alternatively, they
can incorporate locally as under RBI directive, banks’ direct or indirect (through
mutual funds) exposure to capital markets instruments is limited to 5% of total
outstanding advances as of the previous year-end. Some banks may have further
equity exposure on account of equities collaterals held against loans in default.
       FIIs have a small but increasing presence in the equity derivatives markets.
They have no incentive to trade interest rate derivatives since they have little
investments in the domestic bond markets. It is possible that unregistered foreign
investors and hedge funds trade indirectly, using a local proprietary trader as a front.
       Retail investors (including small brokerages trading for themselves) are the
major participants in equity derivatives, accounting for about 60% of turnover in
October 2005, according to NSE. The success of single stock futures in India is
unique, as this instrument has generally failed in most other countries. One reason for
this success may be retail investors’ prior familiarity with “badla” trades which shared
some features of derivatives trading. Another reason may be the small size of the
futures contracts, compared to similar contracts in other countries. Retail investors
also dominate the markets for commodity derivatives, due in part to their long-
standing expertise in trading in the “havala” or forwards markets.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori



Why have derivatives?

       Derivatives have become very important in the field finance. They are very
important financial instruments for risk management as they allow risks to be
separated and traded. Derivatives are used to shift risk and act as a form of insurance.
This shift of risk means that each party involved in the contract should be able to
identify all the risks involved before the contract is agreed. It is also important to
remember that derivatives are derived from an underlying asset. This means that risks
in trading derivatives may change depending on what happens to the underlying asset.

       A derivative is a product whose value is derived from the value of an
underlying asset, index or reference rate. The underlying asset can be equity, forex,
commodity or any other asset. For example, if the settlement price of a derivative is
based on the stock price of a stock for e.g. Infosys, which frequently changes on a
daily basis, then the derivative risks are also changing on a daily basis. This means
that derivative risks and positions must be monitored constantly.

Why Derivatives are preferred?

Retail investors will find the index derivatives useful due to the high correlation of the
index with their portfolio/stock and low cost associated with using index futures for
hedging.

Looking Ahead
       Clearly, the nascent derivatives market is heading in the right direction. In
terms of the number of contracts in single stock derivatives, it is probably the largest
market globally. It is no longer a market that can be ignored by any serious
participant. With institutional participation set to increase and a broader product
rollout inevitable, the market can only widen and deepen further.


How does F&O trading impact the market?
       The start of a new derivatives contract pushes up prices in the cash market as
operators take fresh positions in the new month series in the first week of every new
contract. This buying in the derivatives segment pushes up future prices. Higher



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


future prices are seen as indicators of bullish prices in the days to come. Thus, higher
prices due to new month buying in the derivatives market lead to buying in the
physical   market.    This    lifts   prices   in   the    cash    market    as    well.


       The huge surge in open positions has coincided with the market indexes
reaching historic highs. This shows that the two segments are linked.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


        FUTURES CONTRACT:

       A futures contract is similar to a forward contract in terms of its working. The
difference is that contracts are standardized and trading is centralized. Futures markets
are highly liquid and there is no counterparty risk due to the presence of a
clearinghouse, which becomes the counterparty to both sides of each transaction and
guarantees the trade.

What is an Index?

       To understand the use and functioning of the index derivatives markets, it is
necessary to understand the underlying index. A stock index represents the change in
value of a set of stocks, which constitute the index. A market index is very important
for the market players as it acts as a barometer for market behavior and as an
underlying in derivative instruments such as index futures.

The Sensex and Nifty

       In India the most popular indices have been the BSE Sensex and S&P CNX
Nifty. The BSE Sensex has 30 stocks comprising the index which are selected based
on market capitalization, industry representation, trading frequency etc. It represents
30 large well-established and financially sound companies. The Sensex represents a
broad spectrum of companies in a variety of industries. It represents 14 major industry
groups. Then there is a BSE national index and BSE 200. However, trading in index
futures has only commenced on the BSE Sensex.

       While the BSE Sensex was the first stock market index in the country, Nifty
was launched by the National Stock Exchange in April 1996 taking the base of
November 3, 1995. The Nifty index consists of shares of 50 companies with each
having a market capitalization of more than Rs 500 crore.

Futures and stock indices

       For understanding of stock index futures a thorough knowledge of the
composition of indexes is essential. Choosing the right index is important in choosing



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


the right contract for speculation or hedging. Since for speculation, the volatility of
the index is important whereas for hedging the choice of index depends upon the
relationship between the stocks being hedged and the characteristics of the index.

       Choosing and understanding the right index is important as the movement of
stock index futures is quite similar to that of the underlying stock index. Volatility of
the futures indexes is generally greater than spot stock indexes.

       Everytime an investor takes a long or short position on a stock, he also has an
hidden exposure to the Nifty or Sensex. As most often stock values fall in tune with
the entire market sentiment and rise when the market as a whole is rising.

       Retail investors will find the index derivatives useful due to the high
correlation of the index with their portfolio/stock and low cost associated with using
index futures for hedging

6.1 Understanding index futures

       A futures contract is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell an asset
at a certain time in the future at a certain price. Index futures are all futures contracts
where the underlying is the stock index (Nifty or Sensex) and helps a trader to take a
view on the market as a whole.

       Index futures permits speculation and if a trader anticipates a major rally in the
market he can simply buy a futures contract and hope for a price rise on the futures
contract when the rally occurs.

       In India we have index futures contracts based on S&P CNX Nifty and the
BSE Sensex and near 3 months duration contracts are available at all times. Each
contract expires on the last Thursday of the expiry month and simultaneously a
new contract is introduced for trading after expiry of a contract.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


Example: Futures contracts in Nifty in July 2001


                   Contract month              Expiry/settlement

                   July 2001                   July 26

                   August 2001                 August 30

                   September 2001              September 27


 On July 27

                        Contract month       Expiry/settlement

                        August 2001          August 30

                        September 2001       September 27

                        October 2001         October 25




       The permitted lot size is 200 or multiples thereof for the Nifty. That is you buy
one Nifty contract the total deal value will be 200*1100 (Nifty value)= Rs 2,20,000.

       In the case of BSE Sensex the market lot is 50. That is you buy one Sensex
futures the total value will be 50*4000 (Sensex value)= Rs 2,00,000.

Hedging

       The other benefit of trading in index futures is to hedge your portfolio
against the risk of trading. In order to understand how one can protect his portfolio
from value erosion let us take an example.

Illustration:

       Mr.X enters into a contract with Mr.Y that six months from now he will sell to
Y 10 dresses for Rs 4000. The cost of manufacturing for X is only Rs 1000 and he
will make a profit of Rs 3000 if the sale is completed.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


                             Cost (Rs)       Selling price          Profit

                               1000               4000               3000


       However, X fears that Y may not honour his contract six months from now. So
he inserts a new clause in the contract that if Y fails to honour the contract he will
have to pay a penalty of Rs 1000. And if Y honours the contract X will offer a
discount of Rs 1000 as incentive.


                            ‘Y’ defaults                        ‘Y’ honours

                      1000 (Initial Investment)              3000 (Initial profit)

                      1000 (penalty from Mr.Y)      (-1000) discount given to Mr.Y

                          - (No gain/loss)                    2000 (Net gain)




       As we see above if Mr.Y defaults Mr.X will get a penalty of Rs 1000 but he
will recover his initial investment. If Mr.Y honours the contract, Mr.X will still make
a profit of Rs 2000. Thus, Mr.X has hedged his risk against default and protected his
initial investment.

       The example explains the concept of hedging. Let us try understanding how
one can use hedging in a real life scenario.

       Stocks carry two types of risk – company specific and market risk. While
company risk can be minimized by diversifying your portfolio, market risk cannot
be diversified but has to be hedged. So how does one measure the market risk?
Market risk can be known from Beta.

       Beta measures the relationship between movement of the index to the
movement of the stock. The beta measures the percentage impact on the stock prices
for 1% change in the index. Therefore, for a portfolio whose value goes down by 11%
when the index goes down by 10%, the beta would be 1.1. When the index increases
by 10%, the value of the portfolio increases 11%. The idea is to make beta of your
portfolio zero to nullify your losses.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


         Hedging involves protecting an existing asset position from future adverse
price movements. In order to hedge a position, a market player needs to take an equal
and opposite position in the futures market to the one held in the cash market. Every
portfolio has a hidden exposure to the index, which is denoted by the beta. Assuming
you have a portfolio of Rs 1 million, which has a beta of 1.2, you can factor a
complete hedge by selling Rs 1.2 mn of S&P CNX Nifty futures

Steps:

   1. Determine the beta of the portfolio. If the beta of any stock is not known, it is
         safe to assume that it is 1.
   2. Short sell the index in such a quantum that the gain on a unit decrease in the
         index would offset the losses on the rest of the portfolio. This is achieved by
         multiplying the relative volatility of the portfolio by the market value of his
         holdings.

Therefore in the above scenario we have to shortsell 1.2 * 1 million = 1.2 million
worth of Nifty.

Now let us see the impact on the overall gain/loss that accrues:


                                                Index up 10% Index down 10%

                     Gain/(Loss) in Portfolio    Rs 120,000    (Rs 120,000)

                     Gain/(Loss) in Futures     (Rs 120,000)   Rs 120,000

                           Net Effect               Nil            Nil


         As we see, that portfolio is completely insulated from any losses arising out of
a fall in market sentiment. But as a cost, one has to forego any gains that arise out of
improvement in the overall sentiment. Then why does one invest in equities if all
the gains will be offset by losses in futures market. The idea is that everyone
expects his portfolio to outperform the market. Irrespective of whether the market
goes up or not, his portfolio value would increase.

         The same methodology can be applied to a single stock by deriving the beta of
the scrip and taking a reverse position in the futures market.



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


        Thus, we understand how one can use hedging in the futures market to offset
losses in the cash market.

6.3 Speculation

        Speculators are those who do not have any position on which they enter in
futures and options market. They only have a particular view on the market, stock,
commodity etc. In short, speculators put their money at risk in the hope of profiting
from an anticipated price change. They consider various factors such as demand
supply, market positions, open interests, economic fundamentals and other data to
take their positions.

Illustration:

        Mr.X is a trader but has no time to track and analyze stocks. However, he
fancies his chances in predicting the market trend. So instead of buying different
stocks he buys Sensex Futures.

        On May 1, 2001, he buys 100 Sensex futures @ 3600 on expectations that the
index will rise in future. On June 1, 2001, the Sensex rises to 4000 and at that time he
sells an equal number of contracts to close out his position.

Selling Price : 4000*100         = Rs.4,00,000

Less: Purchase Cost: 3600*100 = Rs.3,60,000

Net gain                           Rs.40,000

        Mr.X has made a profit of Rs.40,000 by taking a call on the future value of the
Sensex. However, if the Sensex had fallen he would have made a loss. Similarly, if it
would have been bearish he could have sold Sensex futures and made a profit from a
falling profit. In index futures players can have a long-term view of the market up to
atleast 3 months.

6.4 Arbitrage




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


       An arbitrageur is basically risk averse. He enters into those contracts were he
can earn riskless profits. When markets are imperfect, buying in one market and
simultaneously selling in other market gives riskless profit. Arbitrageurs are always in
the look out for such imperfections.

   In the futures market one can take advantages of arbitrage opportunities by buying
from lower priced market and selling at the higher priced market. In index futures
arbitrage is possible between the spot market and the futures market (NSE has
provided a special software for buying all 50 Nifty stocks in the spot market.

      Take the case of the NSE Nifty.

      Assume that Nifty is at 1200 and 3 month’s Nifty futures is at 1300.

      The futures price of Nifty futures can be worked out by taking the interest cost
       of 3 months into account.

      If there is a difference then arbitrage opportunity exists.

Let us take the example of single stock to understand the concept better. If Wipro is
quoted at Rs.1000 per share and the 3 months futures of Wipro is Rs.1070 then one
can purchase Wipro at Rs.1000 in spot by borrowing @ 12% annum for 3 months and
sell Wipro futures for 3 months at Rs 1070.

Sale          = 1070

Cost= 1000+30 = 1030

Arbitrage profit =   40

These kind of imperfections continue to exist in the markets but one has to be alert to
the opportunities as they tend to get exhausted very fast.




6.5 Pricing of Index Futures



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


         The index futures are the most popular futures contracts as they can be used in
a variety of ways by various participants in the market.

         How many times have you felt of making risk-less profits by arbitraging
between the underlying and futures markets. If so, you need to know the cost-of-carry
model to understand the dynamics of pricing that constitute the estimation of fair
value of futures.

1. The cost of carry model

The cost-of-carry model where the price of the contract is defined as:

F=S+C

where:

F Futures price

S Spot price

C Holding costs or carry costs

         If F < S+C or F > S+C, arbitrage opportunities would exist i.e. whenever the
futures price moves away from the fair value, there would be chances for arbitrage.

         If Wipro is quoted at Rs.1000 per share and the 3 months futures of Wipro is
Rs.1070 then one can purchase Wipro at Rs.1000 in spot by borrowing @ 12% annum
for 3 months and sell Wipro futures for 3 months at Rs 1070.

         Here F=1000+30=1030 and is less than prevailing futures price and hence
there are chances of arbitrage.

Sale            = 1070

Cost= 1000+30 = 1030

Arbitrage profit     40



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


However, one has to remember that the components of holding cost vary with
contracts on different assets.

2. Futures pricing in case of dividend yield

       We have seen how we have to consider the cost of finance to arrive at the
futures index value. However, the cost of finance has to be adjusted for benefits of
dividends and interest income. In the case of equity futures, the holding cost is the
cost of financing minus the dividend returns.

Example:

       Suppose a stock portfolio has a value of Rs.100 and has an annual dividend
yield of 3% which is earned throughout the year and finance rate=10% the fair value
of the stock index portfolio after one year will be F= Rs.100 + Rs.100 * (0.10 – 0.03)

Futures price = Rs 107

       If the actual futures price of one-year contract is Rs.109. An arbitrageur can
buy the stock at Rs.100, borrowing the fund at the rate of 10% and simultaneously sell
futures at Rs.109. At the end of the year, the arbitrageur would collect Rs.3 for
dividends, deliver the stock portfolio at Rs.109 and repay the loan of Rs.100 and
interest of Rs.10. The net profit would be Rs 109 + Rs 3 - Rs 100 - Rs 10 = Rs 2.
Thus, we can arrive at the fair value in the case of dividend yield.




Trading strategies



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


1. Speculation

       We have seen earlier that trading in index futures helps in taking a view of the
market, hedging, speculation and arbitrage. Now we will see how one can trade in
index futures and use forward contracts in each of these instances.

Taking a view of the market

Have you ever felt that the market would go down on a particular day and feared that
your portfolio value would erode?

There are two options available

Option 1: Sell liquid stocks such as Reliance

Option 2: Sell the entire index portfolio

       The problem in both the above cases is that it would be very cumbersome and
costly to sell all the stocks in the index. And in the process one could be vulnerable to
company specific risk. So what is the option? The best thing to do is to sell index
futures.

Illustration:

Scenario 1:

On July 13, 2001, ‘X’ feels that the market will rise so he buys 200 Nifties with an
expiry date of July 26 at an index price of 1442 costing Rs 2,88,400 (200*1442).

On July 21 the Nifty futures have risen to 1520 so he squares off his position at 1520.

‘X’ makes a profit of Rs 15,600 (200*78)




Scenario 2:




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


On July 20, 2001, ‘X’ feels that the market will fall so he sells 200 Nifties with an
expiry date of July 26 at an index price of 1523 costing Rs 3,04,600 (200*1523).

On July 21 the Nifty futures falls to 1456 so he squares off his position at 1456.

‘X’ makes a profit of Rs 13,400 (200*67).

In the above cases ‘X’ has profited from speculation i.e. he has wagered in the hope of
profiting from an anticipated price change.

2. Hedging

       Stock index futures contracts offer investors, portfolio managers, mutual funds
etc several ways to control risk. The total risk is measured by the variance or standard
deviation of its return distribution. A common measure of a stock market risk is the
stock’s Beta. The Beta of stocks are available on the www.nseindia.com.

       While hedging the cash position one needs to determine the number of futures
contracts to be entered to reduce the risk to the minimum.

       Have you ever felt that a stock was intrinsically undervalued? That the profits
and the quality of the company made it worth a lot more as compared with what the
market thinks?

       Have you ever been a ‘stockpicker’ and carefully purchased a stock based on a
sense that it was worth more than the market price?

       A person who feels like this takes a long position on the cash market. When
doing this, he faces two kinds of risks:

a. His understanding can be wrong, and the company is really not worth more than the
market price or

b. The entire market moves against him and generates losses even though the
underlying idea was correct.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


       Everyone has to remember that every buy position on a stock is
simultaneously a buy position on Nifty. A long position is not a focused play on the
valuation of a stock. It carries a long Nifty position along with it, as incidental
baggage i.e. a part long position of Nifty.

Let us see how one can hedge positions using index futures:

‘X’ holds HLL worth Rs 9 lakh at Rs 290 per share on Jan1 2008asuming that the
beta of HLL is 1.13. How much Nifty futures does ‘X’ have to sell if the index futures
is ruling at 1527?

To hedge he needs to sell 9 lakh * 1.13 = Rs 1017000 lakh on the index futures i.e.
666 Nifty futures.

On Jan , 2008 the Nifty futures is at 1437 and HLL is at 275. ‘X’ closes both positions
earning Rs 13,389, i.e. his position on HLL drops by Rs 46,551 and his short position
on Nifty gains Rs 59,940 (666*90).

Therefore, the net gain is 59940-46551 = Rs 13,389.

Let us take another example when one has a portfolio of stocks:

Suppose you have a portfolio of Rs 10 crore. The beta of the portfolio is 1.19. The
portfolio is to be hedged by using Nifty futures contracts. To find out the number of
contracts in futures market to neutralise risk . If the index is at 1200 * 200 (market lot)
= Rs 2,40,000, The number of contracts to be sold is:

   a. 1.19*10 crore = 496 contracts

       2,40,000

If you sell more than 496 contracts you are overhedged and sell less than 496
contracts you are underhedged.

Thus, we have seen how one can hedge their portfolio against market risk.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


3. Margins

       The    margining    system       is   based   on   the   JR   Verma   Committee
recommendations. The actual margining happens on a daily basis while online
position monitoring is done on an intra-day basis.

Daily margining is of two types:

1. Initial margins

2. Mark-to-market profit/loss

       The computation of initial margin on the futures market is done using the
concept of Value-at-Risk (VaR). The initial margin amount is large enough to cover
a one-day loss that can be encountered on 99% of the days. VaR methodology seeks
to measure the amount of value that a portfolio may stand to lose within a certain
horizon time period (one day for the clearing corporation) due to potential changes in
the underlying asset market price. Initial margin amount computed using VaR is
collected up-front. The daily settlement process called "mark-to-market" provides
for collection of losses that have already occurred (historic losses) whereas initial
margin seeks to safeguard against potential losses on outstanding positions. The mark-
to-market settlement is done in cash.

Let us take a hypothetical trading activity of a client of a NSE futures division to
demonstrate the margins payments that would occur.

      A client purchases 200 units of FUTIDX NIFTY 29JUN2001 at Rs 1500.
      The initial margin payable as calculated by VaR is 15%.

Total long position = Rs 3,00,000 (200*1500)

Initial margin (15%) = Rs 45,000

Assuming that the contract will close on Day + 3 the mark-to-market position will
look as follows:

Position on Day 1


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


   Close Price               Loss           Margin released    Net cash outflow

1400*200 =2,80,000 20,000 (3,00,000-         3,000 (45,000-     17,000 (20,000-
                         2,80,000)               42,000)             3000)

Payment to be made                                                  (17,000)


New position on Day 2

Value of new position = 1,400*200= 2,80,000

Margin = 42,000


   Close Price            Gain               Addn Margin        Net cash inflow

1510*200 =3,02,000 22,000 (3,02,000-         3,300 (45,300-     18,700 (22,000-
                        2,80,000)                42,000)             3300)

Payment to be recd                                                  18,700


Position on Day 3

Value of new position = 1510*200 = Rs 3,02,000

Margin = Rs 3,300


                 Close Price              Gain                 Net cash inflow

                 1600*200            18,000 (3,20,000-     18,000 + 45,300* = 63,300
                 =3,20,000              3,02,000)

             Payment to be recd                                     63,300


Margin account*

Initial margin           =          Rs 45,000

Margin released (Day 1) = (-) Rs 3,000

Position on Day 2                   Rs 42,000

Addn margin              = (+) Rs 3,300

Total margin in a/c                 Rs 45,300*


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


Net gain/loss

Day 1 (loss)           =    (Rs 17,000)

Day 2 Gain             =     Rs 18,700

Day 3 Gain             =      Rs 18,000

Total Gain             =     Rs 19,700

The client has made a profit of Rs 19,700 at the end of Day 3 and the total cash inflow
at the close of trade is Rs 63,300.

Settlement of futures contracts:

       Futures contracts have two types of settlements, the MTM settlement which
happens on a continuous basis at the end of each day, and the final settlement which
happens on the last trading day of the futures contract.


1. MTM settlement:

   All futures contracts for each member are marked-to-market(MTM) to the daily
settlement price of the relevant futures contract at the end of each day. The
profits/losses are computed as the difference between:


      The trade price and the day’s settlement price for contracts executed during
       the day but not squared up.
      The previous day’s settlement price and the current day’s settlement price for
       brought forward contracts.
      The buy price and the sell price for contracts executed during the day and
       squared up.


   The CMs who have a loss are required to pay the mark-to-market (MTM) loss
amount in cash which is in turn passed on to the CMs who have made a MTM profit.
This is known as daily mark-to-market settlement. CMs are responsible to collect and
settle the daily MTM profits/losses incurred by the TMs and their clients clearing and


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


settling through them. Similarly, TMs are responsible to collect/pay losses/ profits
from/to their clients by the next day. The pay-in and pay-out of the mark-to-market
settlement are effected on the day following the trade day. In case a futures contract is
not traded on a day, or not traded during the last half hour, a ‘theoretical settlement
price’ is computed.

2. Final settlement for futures
       On the expiry day of the futures contracts, after the close of trading hours,
NSCCL marks all positions of a CM to the final settlement price and the resulting
profit/loss is settled in cash. Final settlement loss/profit amount is debited/ credited to
the relevant CM’s clearing bank account on the day following expiry day of the
contract.

       All trades in the futures market are cash settled on a T+1 basis and all
positions (buy/sell) which are not closed out will be marked-to-market. The closing
price of the index futures will be the daily settlement price and the position will be
carried to the next day at the settlement price.

       The most common way of liquidating an open position is to execute an
offsetting futures transaction by which the initial transaction is squared up. The initial
buyer liquidates his long position by selling identical futures contract.

       In index futures the other way of settlement is cash settled at the final
settlement. At the end of the contract period the difference between the contract value
and closing index value is paid.

How to read the futures data sheet?

       Understanding and deciphering the prices of futures trade is the first challenge
for anyone planning to venture in futures trading. Economic dailies and exchange
websites www.nseindia.com and www.bseindia.com are some of the sources where
one can look for the daily quotes. Your website has a daily market commentary,
which carries end of day derivatives summary along with the quotes.




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  Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


           The first step is start tracking the end of day prices. Closing prices, Trading
  Volumes and Open Interest are the three primary data we carry with Index option
  quotes. The most important parameter are the actual prices, the high, low, open, close,
  last traded prices and the intra-day prices and to track them one has to have access to
  real time prices.

           The following table shows how futures data will be generally displayed in the
  business papers daily.


  Series         First   High     Low    Close    Volume (No of   Value          No of    Open interest
                 Trade                              contracts)             (Rs   trades      (No of
                                                                  in lakh)                 contracts)
BSXJUN2000       4755      4820   4740   4783.1        146        348.70          104          51

BSXJUL2000       4900      4900   4800   4830.8        12          28.98          10           2

BSXAUG2000       4800      4870   4800   4835           2          4.84            2           1

   Total                                               160        38252           116          54


  Source: BSE

          The first column explains the series that is being traded. For e.g.
           BSXJUN2000 stands for the June Sensex futures contract.

          The column on volume indicates that (in case of June series) 146 contracts
           have been traded in 104 trades.

          One contract is equivalent to 50 times the price of the futures, which are
           traded. For e.g. In case of the June series above, the first trade at 4755
           represents one contract valued at 4755 x 50 i.e. Rs.2,37,750/-.

      Open interest indicates the total gross outstanding open positions in the market for
  that particular series. For e.g. Open interest in the June series is 51 contracts. The
  most useful measure of market activity is Open interest, which is also published by
  exchanges and used for technical analysis. Open interest indicates the liquidity of a
  market and is the total number of contracts, which are still outstanding in a
  futures market for a specified futures contract.



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


   A futures contract is formed when a buyer and a seller take opposite positions in a
transaction. This means that the buyer goes long and the seller goes short. Open
interest is calculated by looking at either the total number of outstanding long or short
positions – not both Open interest is therefore a measure of contracts that have not
been matched and closed out. The number of open long contracts must equal exactly
the number of open short contracts.


    Action                                          Resulting open interest

    New buyer (long) and new seller (short)                 Rise
    Trade to form a new contract.

    Existing buyer sells and existing seller buys           Fall
    –The old contract is closed.

    New buyer buys from existing buyer. The No change – there is no increase in long
    Existing buyer closes his position by selling contracts being held
    to new buyer.

    Existing seller buys from new seller. The No change – there is no increase in short
    Existing seller closes his position by buying contracts being held
    from new seller.


       Open interest is also used in conjunction with other technical analysis chart
patterns and indicators to gauge market signals. The following chart may help with
these signals.


                       Price        Open interest               Market

                                                                   Strong

                                                            Warning signal

                                                                   Weak

                                                            Warning signal


The warning sign indicates that the Open interest is not supporting the price
direction.


                                          OPTIONS

What is an Option?




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


        An option is a contract giving the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to
buy or sell an underlying asset (a stock or index) at a specific price on or before a
certain date (listed options are all for 100 shares of the particular underlying asset).
        An option is a security, just like a stock or bond, and constitutes a binding
contract with strictly defined terms and properties.
Listed options have been available since 1973, when the Chicago Board Options
Exchange, still the busiest options exchange in the world, first opened.


The World With and Without Options
        Prior to the founding of the CBOE, investors had few choices of where to
invest their money; they could either be long or short individual stocks, or they could
purchase treasury securities or other bonds.
                     Once the CBOE opened, the listed option industry began, and
investors now had a world of investment choices previously unavailable.

Options vs. Stocks

        In order to better understand the benefits of trading options, one must first
understand some of the similarities and differences between options and stocks.


Similarities:
  Listed Options are securities, just like stocks.
  Options trade like stocks, with buyers making bids and sellers making offers.
  Options are actively traded in a listed market, just like stocks. They can be bought
  and    sold just like any other security.


Differences:
  Options are derivatives, unlike stocks (i.e, options derive their value from
  something else, the underlying security).
  Options have expiration dates, while stocks do not.
  There is not a fixed number of options, as there are with stock shares available.
  Stockowners have a share of the company, with voting and dividend rights. Options
  convey no such rights.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


Options Premiums
        In this case, XYZ represents the option class while May 30 is the option series.
All options on company XYZ are in the XYZ option class but there will be many
different series.
        An option Premium is the price of the option. It is the price you pay to
purchase the option. For example, an XYZ May 30 Call (thus it is an option to buy
Company XYZ stock) may have an option premium of $2. This means that this
option costs $200.00. Why? Because most listed options are for 100 shares of stock,
and all equity option prices are quoted on a per share basis, so they need to be
multiplied times 100. More in-depth pricing concepts will be covered in detail in other
sections of the course.
Strike Price
        The Strike (or Exercise) Price is the price at which the underlying security
(in this case, XYZ) can be bought or sold as specified in the option contract. For
example, with the XYZ May 30 Call, the strike price of 30 means the stock can be
bought for $30 per share. Were this the XYZ May 30 Put, it would allow the holder
the right to sell the stock at $30 per share.
        The strike price also helps to identify whether an option is In-the-Money, At-
the-Money, or Out-of-the-Money when compared to the price of the underlying
security. You will learn about these terms in another section of the course.


Exercising Options
        People who buy options have a Right, and that is the right to Exercise.
For a Call Exercise, Call holders may buy stock at the strike price (from the Call
seller). For a Put Exercise, Put holders may sell stock at the strike price (to the Put
seller). Neither Call holders nor Put holders are obligated to buy or sell; they simply
have the rights to do so, and may choose to Exercise or not to Exercise based upon
their own logic.


Assignment of Options
        When an option holder chooses to exercise an option, a process begins to find
a writer who is short the same kind of option (i.e., class, strike price and option type).
Once found, that writer may be Assigned. This means that when buyers exercise,


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


sellers may be chosen to make good on their obligations. For a Call Assignment,
Call writers are required to sell stock at the strike price to the Call holder. For a Put
Assignment, Put writers are required to buy stock at the strike price from the Put
holder.
Long Term Investing
          Given the numerous opportunities that options convey, it is also important to
know that there are options available which can be used to implement longer-term
strategies (not one, two or three months, but those with holding times of one, two or
more years).
          These are called LEAPS (for Long Term Equity Anticipation Securities), and
are yet another alternative that options offer to investors. LEAPS are options with
expiration dates of up to three years from the date they are first listed, and are
available on a number of individual stocks and indexes.
          LEAPS have different ticker symbols than short-term options (options with
less than nine months until expiration) and, while not available on all stocks, are
available on most widely held issues and can be traded just like any other options.


7.2 The Chicago Board Options Exchange
          The Chicago Board Options Exchange, or CBOE, was the world's first listed
options exchange, opened in 1973 by members of the Chicago Board of Trade.
Almost half of all listed options trades still occur on CBOE.

NOTE: Options also trade now on several smaller exchanges, including the American
Stock Exchange (AMEX), the Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX), the Pacific
Stock Exchange (PSE) and the International Securities Exchange (ISE).




CBOE: The Competitive Advantage
          With over 1500 competing market makers trading more than one million
options contracts per day, the CBOE is the largest and busiest options exchange in the
world.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


       The members of the Exchange have maintained this stature for over 25 years
by constantly providing deep and liquid markets in all options series for all CBOE
customers.

CBOE Facts
       The CBOE system works to give you the options you need for your
investment strategy, quickly and easily and at the most efficient price. The CBOE
offers investors the best options markets, the most efficient support network, and the
most intensive insight and most recognized educational division in the industry, the
Options Institute.


CBOE is the market leader in the options industry, with:
      Options on more than 1,332 stocks and 41 indices. More than 50,000 series
       listed
      Over $25 billion in contract value traded on a typical day
      Over 1 million options contracts changing hands daily
      The second largest listed securities market in the U.S., following only the
       NYSE
      Professional instructors teaching options trading to over 10,000 people a year
      The premier portal for options information on the Web,\


7.3 Regulation and Surveillance:
       Regulation and surveillance are necessary in the options industry in order to
protect customers and firms, and respond to customer complaints.

       CBOE has one of the most technologically advanced and computer-automated
measures for regulation and surveillance, which are unparalleled in the options
industry. CBOE has the premier Regulatory Division, with staff who constantly
monitor trading activity throughout the industry.

       The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) oversees the entire options
industry to ensure that the markets serve the public interest.

Options Clearing Corporation:


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       The formation of the OCC in 1973 as the single, independent, universal
clearing agency for all listed options eliminated the problem of credit risk in options
trading. Every options Exchange and every brokerage firm who offers its customers
the ability to trade options is a member or is associated with a member of the OCC.

       The OCC stands in the middle of each trade becoming the buyer for all
contracts that are sold, and the seller for all contracts that are bought. Thus, the OCC
is, in fact, the issuer of all listed options contracts, and is registered as such with the
SEC.

7.5 Options Market Participants
   Contrary to some beliefs, the single greatest population of CBOE users are not
huge financial institutions, but public investors, just like you. Over 65% of the
Exchange's business comes from them. However, other participants in the financial
marketplace also use options to enhance their performance, including:
      Mutual Funds
      Pension Plans
      Hedge Funds
      Endowments
      Corporate Treasurers

   Stock markets by their very nature are fickle. While fortunes can be made in a
jiffy more often than not the scenario is the reverse. Investing in stocks has two sides
to it –a) Unlimited profit potential from any upside (remember Infosys, HFCL etc) or
b) a downside which could make you a pauper.

   Derivative products are structured precisely for this reason -- to curtail the risk
exposure of an investor. Index futures and stock options are instruments that enable
you to hedge your portfolio or open positions in the market. Option contracts allow
you to run your profits while restricting your downside risk.

   Apart from risk containment, options can be used for speculation and investors
can create a wide range of potential profit scenarios.




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   ‘Option’, as the word suggests, is a choice given to the investor to either honour
the contract; or if he chooses not to walk away from the contract.

To begin, there are two kinds of options: Call Options and Put Options.

Call options

       Call options give the taker the right, but not the obligation, to buy the
underlying shares at a predetermined price, on or before a predetermined date.

Illustration 1:

Raj purchases 1 Satyam Computer (SATCOM) AUG 150 Call --Premium 8

       This contract allows Raj to buy 100 shares of SATCOM at Rs 150 per share at
any time between the current date and the end of next August. For this privilege, Raj
pays a fee of Rs 800 (Rs eight a share for 100 shares). The buyer of a call has
purchased the right to buy and for that he pays a premium.

Now let us see how one can profit from buying an option.

       Sam purchases a December call option at Rs 40 for a premium of Rs 15. That
is he has purchased the right to buy that share for Rs 40 in December. If the stock
rises above Rs 55 (40+15) he will break even and he will start making a profit.
Suppose the stock does not rise and instead falls he will choose not to exercise the
option and forego the premium of Rs 15 and thus limiting his loss to Rs 15.

       Let us take another example of a call option on the Nifty to understand the
concept better.

Nifty is at 1310. The following are Nifty options traded at following quotes.


               Option contract    Strike price             Call premium

               Dec Nifty          1325                     Rs.6,000

                                  1345                     Rs.2,000




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             Jan Nifty             1325                     Rs.4,500

                                   1345                     Rs.5000


       A trader is of the view that the index will go up to 1400 in Jan 2008 but does
not want to take the risk of prices going down. Therefore, he buys 10 options of Jan
contracts at 1345. He pays a premium for buying calls (the right to buy the contract)
for 500*10= Rs.5,000/-.

       In Jan 2008 the Nifty index goes up to 1365. He sells the options or exercises
the option and takes the difference in spot index price which is (1365-1345) * 200
(market lot) = 4000 per contract. Total profit = 40,000/- (4,000*10).

       He had paid Rs.5,000/- premium for buying the call option. So he earns by
buying call option is Rs.35,000/- (40,000-5000).

       If the index falls below 1345 the trader will not exercise his right and will opt
to forego his premium of Rs.5,000. So, in the event the index falls further his loss is
limited to the premium he paid upfront, but the profit potential is unlimited.

Call Options-Long and Short Positions

       When you expect prices to rise, then you take a long position by buying calls.
You are bullish. When you expect prices to fall, then you take a short position by
selling calls. You are bearish.




Put Options :
       A Put Option gives the holder of the right to sell a specific number of shares
of an agreed security at a fixed price for a period of time. eg: Sam purchases 1
INFTEC (Infosys Technologies) AUG 3500 Put --Premium 200. This contract allows
Sam to sell 100 shares INFTEC at Rs 3500 per share at any time between the current
date and the end of August. To have this privilege, Sam pays a premium of Rs 20,000
(Rs 200 a share for 100 shares).




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        The buyer of a put has purchased a right to sell. The owner of a put option has
the right to sell.

Illustration 2: Raj is of the view that the a stock is overpriced and will fall in future,
but he does not want to take the risk in the event of price rising so purchases a put
option at Rs 70 on ‘X’. By purchasing the put option Raj has the right to sell the stock
at Rs 70 but he has to pay a fee of Rs 15 (premium).

        So he will breakeven only after the stock falls below Rs 55 (70-15) and will
start making profit if the stock falls below Rs 55.

Illustration 3:

        An investor on Dec 15 is of the view that Wipro is overpriced and will fall in
future but does not want to take the risk in the event the prices rise. So he purchases a
Put option on Wipro.

Quotes are as under:

Spot Rs.1040

Jan Put at 1050 Rs.10

Jan Put at 1070 Rs.30

He purchases 1000 Wipro Put at strike price 1070 at Put price of Rs.30/-. He
pays Rs.30,000/- as Put premium.

His position in following price position is discussed below.

    1. Jan Spot price of Wipro = 1020
    2. Jan Spot price of Wipro = 1080

        In the first situation the investor is having the right to sell 1000 Wipro shares
at Rs.1,070/- the price of which is Rs.1020/-. By exercising the option he earns
Rs.(1070-1020) = Rs 50 per Put, which totals Rs 50,000/-. His net income is Rs
(50000-30000) = Rs 20,000.


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


       In the second price situation, the price is more in the spot market, so the
investor will not sell at a lower price by exercising the Put. He will have to allow the
Put option to expire unexercised. He looses the premium paid Rs 30,000.

Put Options-Long and Short Positions

       When you expect prices to fall, then you take a long position by buying Puts.
You are bearish. When you expect prices to rise, then you take a short position by
selling Puts. You are bullish.


                                                CALL OPTIONS           PUT OPTIONS

      If you expect a fall in price(Bearish)    Short                  Long

      If you expect a rise in price (Bullish)   Long                   Short




SUMMARY:

    CALL OPTION BUYER                                CALL OPTION WRITER (Seller)

            Pays premium                                  Receives premium
            Right to exercise and buy the shares          Obligation to sell shares if exercised
            Profits from rising prices                    Profits   from    falling   prices   or
            Limited losses, Potentially unlimited          remaining neutral
             gain                                          Potentially unlimited losses, limited




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


                                                             gain




    PUT OPTION BUYER                                  PUT OPTION WRITER (Seller)

             Pays premium                                  Receives premium
             Right to exercise and sell shares             Obligation to buy shares if exercised
             Profits from falling prices                   Profits   from   rising   prices   or
             Limited losses, Potentially unlimited          remaining neutral
              gain                                          Potentially unlimited losses, limited
                                                             gain




Option styles

       Settlement of options is based on the expiry date. However, there are three
basic styles of options you will encounter which affect settlement. The styles have
geographical names, which have nothing to do with the location where a contract is
agreed! The styles are:

European: These options give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or
sell the underlying instrument only on the expiry date. This means that the option
cannot be exercised early. Settlement is based on a particular strike price at
expiration. Currently, in India only index options are European in nature.

       eg: Sam purchases 1 NIFTY AUG 1110 Call --Premium 20. The exchange
will settle the contract on the last Thursday of August. Since there are no shares for
the underlying, the contract is cash settled.

American: These options give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or
sell the underlying instrument on or before the expiry date. This means that the
option can be exercised early. Settlement is based on a particular strike price at
expiration.




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        Options in stocks that have been recently launched in the Indian market are
"American Options". eg: Sam purchases 1 ACC SEP 145 Call --Premium 12

        Here Sam can close the contract any time from the current date till the
expiration date, which is the last Thursday of September.

        American style options tend to be more expensive than European style
because they offer greater flexibility to the buyer.

Option Class and Series

        Generally, for each underlying, there are a number of options available: For
this reason, we have the terms "class" and "series".

        An option "class" refers to all options of the same type (call or put) and style
(American or European) that also have the same underlying.

eg: All Nifty call options are referred to as one class.

        An option series refers to all options that are identical: they are the same type,
have the same underlying, the same expiration date and the same exercise price.


    Calls                                      Puts
    .           Jan      Feb      Mar          Jan            Feb        Mar
    Wipro
    1300        45       60       75           15             20         28
    1400        35       45       65           25             28         35
    1500        20       42       48           30             40         55


eg: Wipro JUL 1300 refers to one series and trades take place at different
premiums

        All calls are of the same option type. Similarly, all puts are of the same option
type. Options of the same type that are also in the same class are said to be of the




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


same class. Options of the same class and with the same exercise price and the same
expiration date are said to be of the same series

Pricing of options

       Options are used as risk management tools and the valuation or pricing of the
instruments is a careful balance of market factors.

There are four major factors affecting the Option premium:

      Price of Underlying
      Time to Expiry
      Exercise Price Time to Maturity
      Volatility of the Underlying

And two less important factors:

      Short-Term Interest Rates
      Dividends

7.11 Review of Options Pricing Factors

1. The Intrinsic Value of an Option

       The intrinsic value of an option is defined as the amount by which an option is
in-the-money, or the immediate exercise value of the option when the underlying
position is marked-to-market.

For a call option: Intrinsic Value = Spot Price - Strike Price

For a put option: Intrinsic Value = Strike Price - Spot Price

       The intrinsic value of an option must be positive or zero. It cannot be negative.
For a call option, the strike price must be less than the price of the underlying asset for
the call to have an intrinsic value greater than 0. For a put option, the strike price must
be greater than the underlying asset price for it to have intrinsic value.




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Price of underlying

        The premium is affected by the price movements in the underlying instrument.
For Call options – the right to buy the underlying at a fixed strike price – as the
underlying price rises so does its premium. As the underlying price falls so does the
cost of the option premium. For Put options – the right to sell the underlying at a fixed
strike price – as the underlying price rises, the premium falls; as the underlying price
falls the premium cost rises.

The following chart summarizes the above for Calls and Puts.


                    Option          Underlying price     Premium cost

                      Call


                      Put




2. The Time Value of an Option

        Generally, the longer the time remaining until an option’s expiration, the
higher its premium will be. This is because the longer an option’s lifetime, greater is
the possibility that the underlying share price might move so as to make the option in-
the-money. All other factors affecting an option’s price remaining the same, the time
value portion of an option’s premium will decrease (or decay) with the passage of
time.

Note: This time decay increases rapidly in the last several weeks of an option’s life.
When an option expires in-the-money, it is generally worth only its intrinsic value.


                        Option         Time to expiry   Premium cost

                             Call


                             Put




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3. Volatility

        Volatility is the tendency of the underlying security’s market price to fluctuate
either up or down. It reflects a price change’s magnitude; it does not imply a bias
toward price movement in one direction or the other. Thus, it is a major factor in
determining an option’s premium. The higher the volatility of the underlying stock,
the higher the premium because there is a greater possibility that the option will move
in-the-money. Generally, as the volatility of an under-lying stock increases, the
premiums of both calls and puts overlying that stock increase, and vice versa.

Higher volatility=Higher premium

Lower volatility = Lower premium


4. Interest rates


        In general interest rates have the least influence on options and equate
approximately to the cost of carry of a futures contract. If the size of the options
contract is very large, then this factor may take on some importance. All other factors
being equal as interest rates rise, premium costs fall and vice versa. The relationship
can be thought of as an opportunity cost. In order to buy an option, the buyer must
either borrow funds or use funds on deposit. Either way the buyer incurs an interest
rate cost. If interest rates are rising, then the opportunity cost of buying options
increases and to compensate the buyer premium costs fall. Why should the buyer be
compensated? Because the option writer receiving the premium can place the funds
on deposit and receive more interest than was previously anticipated. The situation is
reversed when interest rates fall – premiums rise. This time it is the writer who needs
to be compensated.



                               STRATEGIES

Bull Market Strategies

a. Calls in a Bullish Strategy




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         An investor with a bullish market outlook should buy call options. If you
expect the market price of the underlying asset to rise, then you would rather have the
right to purchase at a specified price and sell later at a higher price than have the
obligation to deliver later at a higher price.

         The investor's profit potential of buying a call option is unlimited. The
investor's profit is the market price less the exercise price less the premium. The
greater the increase in price of the underlying, the greater the investor's profit.

         The investor's potential loss is limited. Even if the market takes a drastic
decline in price levels, the holder of a call is under no obligation to exercise the
option. He may let the option expire worthless.

         The investor breaks even when the market price equals the exercise price
plus the premium.

         An increase in volatility will increase the value of your call and increase your
return. Because of the increased likelihood that the option will become in- the-money,
an increase in the underlying volatility (before expiration), will increase the value of a
long options position. As an option holder, your return will also increase.

A simple example will illustrate the above:

         Suppose there is a call option with a strike price of Rs.2000 and the option
premium is Rs.100. The option will be exercised only if the value of the underlying is
greater than Rs.2000 (the strike price). If the buyer exercises the call at Rs.2200 then
his gain will be Rs.200. However, this would not be his actual gain for that he will
have to deduct the Rs.200 (premium) he has paid.

The profit can be derived as follows

Profit      =      Market       price      -     Exercise       price      -      Premium
Profit      =      Market        price      –      Strike      price      –      Premium.
            2200 – 2000 – 100 = Rs.100

b. Puts in a Bullish Strategy


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        An investor with a bullish market outlook can also go short on a Put option.
Basically, an investor anticipating a bull market could write Put options. If the market
price increases and puts become out-of-the-money, investors with long put positions
will let their options expire worthless.

        By writing Puts, profit potential is limited. A Put writer profits when the price
of the underlying asset increases and the option expires worthless. The maximum
profit is limited to the premium received.

        However, the potential loss is unlimited. Because a short put position holder
has an obligation to purchase if exercised. He will be exposed to potentially large
losses if the market moves against his position and declines.

        The break-even point occurs when the market price equals the exercise price:
minus the premium. At any price less than the exercise price minus the premium, the
investor loses money on the transaction. At higher prices, his option is profitable.

        An increase in volatility will increase the value of your put and decrease your
return. As an option writer, the higher price you will be forced to pay in order to buy
back the option at a later date , lower is the return.

Bullish Call Spread Strategies

        A vertical call spread is the simultaneous purchase and sale of identical call
options but with different exercise prices.

        To "buy a call spread" is to purchase a call with a lower exercise price and to
write a call with a higher exercise price. The trader pays a net premium for the
position.

        To "sell a call spread" is the opposite, here the trader buys a call with a higher
exercise price and writes a call with a lower exercise price, receiving a net premium
for the position.




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        An investor with a bullish market outlook should buy a call spread. The "Bull
Call Spread" allows the investor to participate to a limited extent in a bull market,
while at the same time limiting risk exposure.

        To put on a bull spread, the trader needs to buy the lower strike call and sell
the higher strike call. The combination of these two options will result in a bought
spread. The cost of Putting on this position will be the difference between the
premium paid for the low strike call and the premium received for the high strike call.

        The investor's profit potential is limited. When both calls are in-the-money,
both will be exercised and the maximum profit will be realised. The investor delivers
on his short call and receives a higher price than he is paid for receiving delivery on
his long call.

        The investors's potential loss is limited. At the most, the investor can lose is
the net premium. He pays a higher premium for the lower exercise price call than he
receives for writing the higher exercise price call.

        The investor breaks even when the market price equals the lower exercise
price plus the net premium. At the most, an investor can lose is the net premium paid.
To recover the premium, the market price must be as great as the lower exercise price
plus the net premium.

An example of a Bullish call spread:

        Let's assume that the cash price of a scrip is Rs.100 and you buy a November
call option with a strike price of Rs.90 and pay a premium of Rs.14. At the same time
you sell another November call option on a scrip with a strike price of Rs.110 and
receive a premium of Rs.4. Here you are buying a lower strike price option and
selling a higher strike price option. This would result in a net outflow of Rs.10 at the
time of establishing the spread.

        Now let us look at the fundamental reason for this position. Since this is a
bullish strategy, the first position established in the spread is the long lower strike
price call option with unlimited profit potential. At the same time to reduce the cost of



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


puchase of the long position a short position at a higher call strike price is established.
While this not only reduces the outflow in terms of premium but his profit potential as
well as risk is limited. Based on the above figures the maximum profit, maximum loss
and breakeven point of this spread would be as follows:

Maximum profit = Higher strike price - Lower strike price - Net premium
                       paid

                    = 110 - 90 - 10 = 10

Maximum Loss = Lower strike premium - Higher strike premium

                    = 14 - 4 = 10

Breakeven Price = Lower strike price + Net premium paid

                     = 90 + 10 = 100

Bullish Put Spread Strategies

        A vertical Put spread is the simultaneous purchase and sale of identical Put
options but with different exercise prices.

        To "buy a put spread" is to purchase a Put with a higher exercise price and to
write a Put with a lower exercise price. The trader pays a net premium for the
position.

        To "sell a put spread" is the opposite: the trader buys a Put with a lower
exercise price and writes a put with a higher exercise price, receiving a net premium
for the position.

        An investor with a bullish market outlook should sell a Put spread. The
"vertical bull put spread" allows the investor to participate to a limited extent in a bull
market, while at the same time limiting risk exposure.

        To put on a bull spread, a trader sells the higher strike put and buys the lower
strikeput. The bull spread can be created by buying the lower strike and selling the


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


higher strike of either calls or put. The difference between the premiums paid and
received makes up one leg of the spread.

       The investor's profit potential is limited. When the market price reaches or
exceeds the higher exercise price, both options will be out-of-the-money and will
expire worthless. The trader will realize his maximum profit, the net premium

       The investor's potential loss is also limited. If the market falls, the options will
be in-the-money. The puts will offset one another, but at different exercise prices.

       The investor breaks-even when the market price equals the lower exercise
price less the net premium. The investor achieves maximum profit i.e the premium
received, when the market price moves up beyond the higher exercise price (both puts
are then worthless).

An example of a bullish put spread.

       Lets us assume that the cash price of the scrip is Rs.100. You now buy a
November put option on a scrip with a strike price of Rs.90 at a premium of Rs.5 and
sell a put option with a strike price of Rs.110 at a premium of Rs.15.

       The first position is a short put at a higher strike price. This has resulted in
some inflow in terms of premium. But here the trader is worried about risk and so
caps his risk by buying another put option at the lower strike price. As such, a part of
the premium received goes off and the ultimate position has limited risk and limited
profit potential. Based on the above figures the maximum profit, maximum loss and
breakeven point of this spread would be as follows:

Maximum profit = Net option premium income or net credit

                  = 15 - 5 = 10

Maximum loss = Higher strike price - Lower strike price - Net premium received

                = 110 - 90 - 10 = 10

Breakeven Price = Higher Strike price - Net premium income


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


                    = 110 - 10 = 100

2. Bear Market Strategies

a. Puts in a Bearish Strategy: When you purchase a put you are long and want the
market to fall. A put option is a bearish position. It will increase in value if the market
falls. An investor with a bearish market outlook shall buy put options. By purchasing
put options, the trader has the right to choose whether to sell the underlying asset at
the exercise price. In a falling market, this choice is preferable to being obligated to
buy the underlying at a price higher.

       An investor's profit potential is practically unlimited. The higher the fall in
price of the underlying asset, higher the profits.

       The investor's potential loss is limited. If the price of the underlying asset rises
instead of falling as the investor has anticipated, he may let the option expire
worthless. At the most, he may lose the premium for the option.

       The trader's breakeven point is the exercise price minus the premium. To
profit, the market price must be below the exercise price. Since the trader has paid a
premium he must recover the premium he paid for the option.

       An increase in volatility will increase the value of your put and increase your
return. An increase in volatility will make it more likely that the price of the
underlying instrument will move. This increases the value of the option.

b. Calls in a Bearish Strategy: Another option for a bearish investor is to go short on
a call with the intent to purchase it back in the future. By selling a call, you have a net
short position and needs to be bought back before expiration and cancel out your
position.

       For this an investor needs to write a call option. If the market price falls, long
call holders will let their out-of-the-money options expire worthless, because they
could purchase the underlying asset at the lower market price.




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       The investor's profit potential is limited because the trader's maximum profit is
limited to the premium received for writing the option.

       Here the loss potential is unlimited because a short call position holder has an
obligation to sell if exercised, he will be exposed to potentially large losses if the
market rises against his position.

       The investor breaks even when the market price equals the exercise price: plus
the premium. At any price greater than the exercise price plus the premium, the trader
is losing money. When the market price equals the exercise price plus the premium,
the trader breaks even.

       An increase in volatility will increase the value of your call and decrease your
return. When the option writer has to buy back the option in order to cancel out his
position, he will be forced to pay a higher price due to the increased value of the calls.

Bearish Put Spread Strategies

       A vertical put spread is the simultaneous purchase and sale of identical put
options but with different exercise prices.

       To "buy a put spread" is to purchase a put with a higher exercise price and to
write a put with a lower exercise price. The trader pays a net premium for the
position.

       To "sell a put spread" is the opposite. The trader buys a put with a lower
exercise price and writes a put with a higher exercise price, receiving a net premium
for the position. To put on a bear put spread you buy the higher strike put and sell the
lower strike put. You sell the lower strike and buy the higher strike of either calls or
puts to set up a bear spread.

       An investor with a bearish market outlook should: buy a put spread. The "Bear
Put Spread" allows the investor to participate to a limited extent in a bear market,
while at the same time limiting risk exposure.




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       The investor's profit potential is limited. When the market price falls to or
below the lower exercise price, both options will be in-the-money and the trader will
realize his maximum profit when he recovers the net premium paid for the options.

       The investor's potential loss is limited. The trader has offsetting positions at
different exercise prices. If the market rises rather than falls, the options will be out-
of-the-money and expire worthless. Since the trader has paid a net premium

       The investor breaks even when the market price equals the higher exercise
price less the net premium. For the strategy to be profitable, the market price must
fall. When the market price falls to the high exercise price less the net premium, the
trader breaks even. When the market falls beyond this point, the trader profits.

An example of a bearish put spread.

       Lets assume that the cash price of the scrip is Rs.100. You buy a November
put option on a scrip with a strike price of Rs.110 at a premium of Rs.15 and sell a put
option with a strike price of Rs.90 at a premium of Rs.5.

       In this bearish position the put is taken as long on a higher strike price put with
the outgo of some premium. This position has huge profit potential on downside. If
the trader may recover a part of the premium paid by him by writing a lower strike
price put option. The resulting position is a mildly bearish position with limited risk
and limited profit profile. Though the trader has reduced the cost of taking a bearish
position, he has also capped the profit potential as well. The maximum profit,
maximum loss and breakeven point of this spread would be as follows:

Maximum profit = Higher strike price option - Lower strike price option
                      - Net premium paid

                    = 110 - 90 - 10 = 10

Maximum loss = Net premium paid

                = 15 - 5 = 10




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


Breakeven Price = Higher strike price - Net premium paid

                    = 110 - 10 = 100

Bearish Call Spread Strategies

        A vertical call spread is the simultaneous purchase and sale of identical call
options but with different exercise prices.

        To "buy a call spread" is to purchase a call with a lower exercise price and to
write a call with a higher exercise price. The trader pays a net premium for the
position.

        To "sell a call spread" is the opposite: the trader buys a call with a higher
exercise price and writes a call with a lower exercise price, receiving a net premium
for the position.

        To put on a bear call spread you sell the lower strike call and buy the higher
strike call. An investor sells the lower strike and buys the higher strike of either calls
or puts to put on a bear spread.

        An investor with a bearish market outlook should: sell a call spread. The "Bear
Call Spread" allows the investor to participate to a limited extent in a bear market,
while at the same time limiting risk exposure.

        The investor's profit potential is limited. When the market price falls to the
lower exercise price, both out-of-the-money options will expire worthless. The
maximum profit that the trader can realize is the net premium: The premium he
receives for the call at the higher exercise price.

        Here the investor's potential loss is limited. If the market rises, the options will
offset one another. At any price greater than the high exercise price, the maximum
loss will equal high exercise price minus low exercise price minus net premium.

        The investor breaks even when the market price equals the lower exercise
price plus the net premium. The strategy becomes profitable as the market price



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


declines. Since the trader is receiving a net premium, the market price does not have
to fall as low as the lower exercise price to breakeven.

An example of a bearish call spread.

        Let us assume that the cash price of the scrip is Rs 100. You now buy a
November call option on a scrip with a strike price of Rs 110 at a premium of Rs 5
and sell a call option with a strike price of Rs 90 at a premium of Rs 15.

        In this spread you have to buy a higher strike price call option and sell a lower
strike price option. As the low strike price option is more expensive than the higher
strike price option, it is a net credit startegy. The final position is left with limited risk
and limited profit. The maximum profit, maximum loss and breakeven point of this
spread would be as follows:

Maximum profit = Net premium received

                     = 15 - 5 = 10

Maximum loss = Higher strike price option - Lower strike price option -
                      Net premium received

                 = 110 - 90 - 10 = 10

Breakeven Price = Lower strike price + Net premium paid

                     = 90 + 10 = 100

Key Regulations

        In India we have two premier exchanges The National Stock Exchange of
India (NSE) and The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) which offer options trading on
stock indices as well as individual securities.

        Options on stock indices are European in kind and settled only on the last of
expiration of the underlying. NSE offers index options trading on the NSE Fifty index




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called the Nifty. While BSE offers index options on the country’s widely used index
Sensex, which consists of 30 stocks.

        Options on individual securities are American. The number of stock options
contracts to be traded on the exchanges will be based on the list of securities as
specified by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Additions/deletions in
the list of securities eligible on which options contracts shall be made available shall
be notified from time to time.

Underlying: Underlying for the options on individual securities contracts shall be the
underlying security available for trading in the capital market segment of the
exchange.

Security descriptor: The security descriptor for the options on individual securities
shall be:

       Market type - N
       Instrument type - OPTSTK
       Underlying - Underlying security
       Expiry date - Date of contract expiry
       Option type - CA/PA
       Exercise style - American Premium Settlement method: Premium Settled; CA
        - Call American
       PA - Put American.

Trading cycle: The contract cycle and availability of strike prices for options
contracts on individual securities shall be as follows:

        Options on individual securities contracts will have a maximum of three-
month trading cycle. New contracts will be introduced on the trading day following
the expiry of the near month contract.

        On expiry of the near month contract, new contract shall be introduced at new
strike prices for both call and put options, on the trading day following the expiry of
the near month contract. (See Index futures learning centre for further reading)



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Strike price intervals: The exchange shall provide a minimum of five strike prices
for every option type (i.e call and put) during the trading month. There shall be two
contracts in-the-money (ITM), two contracts out-of-the-money (OTM) and one
contract at-the-money (ATM). The strike price interval for options on individual
securities is given in the accompanying table.

        New contracts with new strike prices for existing expiration date will be
introduced for trading on the next working day based on the previous day's underlying
close values and as and when required. In order to fix on the at-the-money strike price
for options on individual securities contracts the closing underlying value shall be
rounded off to the nearest multiplier of the strike price interval. The in-the-money
strike price and the out-of-the-money strike price shall be based on the at-the-money
strike price interval.

Expiry day: Options contracts on individual securities as well as index options shall
expire on the last Thursday of the expiry month. If the last Thursday is a trading
holiday, the contracts shall expire on the previous trading day.

Order type: Regular lot order, stop loss order, immediate or cancel, good till day,
good till cancelled, good till date and spread order. Good till cancelled (GTC) orders
shall be cancelled at the end of the period of 7 calendar days from the date of entering
an order.

Permitted lot size: The value of the option contracts on individual securities shall not
be less than Rs.2 lakh at the time of its introduction. The permitted lot size for the
options contracts on individual securities shall be in multiples of 100 and fractions if
any, shall be rounded off to the next higher multiple of 100.

Price steps: The price steps in respect of all options contracts admitted to dealings on
the exchange shall be Re 0.05.

Quantity freeze: Orders which may come to the exchange as a quantity freeze shall
be the lesser of the following: 1 per cent of the market wide position limit stipulated
of options on individual securities as given in (h) below or Notional value of the
contract of around Rs.5 crore. In respect of such orders, which have come under


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


quantity freeze, the member shall be required to confirm to the exchange that there is
no inadvertent error in the order entry and that the order is genuine. On such
confirmation, the exchange at its discretion may approve such order subject to
availability of turnover/exposure limits, etc.

Base price: Base price of the options contracts on introduction of new contracts shall
be the theoretical value of the options contract arrived at based on Black-Scholes
model of calculation of options premiums. The base price of the contracts on
subsequent trading days will be the daily close price of the options contracts.
However in such of those contracts where orders could not be placed because of
application of price ranges, the bases prices may be modified at the discretion of the
exchange and intimated to the members.

Price ranges: There will be no day minimum/maximum price ranges applicable for
the options contract. The operating ranges and day minimum/maximum ranges for
options contract shall be kept at 99 per cent of the base price. In view of this the
members will not be able to place orders at prices which are beyond 99 per cent of the
base price. The base prices for option contracts may be modified, at the discretion of
the exchange, based on the request received from trading members as mentioned
above.

Exposure limits: Gross open positions of a member at any point of time shall not
exceed the exposure limit as detailed hereunder:

        Index Options: Exposure Limit shall be 33.33 times the liquid networth.

        Option contracts on individual Securities: Exposure Limit shall be 20 times
         the liquid networth.

Memberwise position limit: When the open position of a Clearing Member, Trading
Member or Custodial Participant exceeds 15 per cent of the total open interest of the
market or Rs 100 crore, whichever is higher, in all the option contracts on the same
underlying, at any time, including during trading hours.




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For option contracts on individual securities, open interest shall be equivalent to the
open positions multiplied by the notional value. Notional Value shall be the previous
day's closing price of the underlying security or such other price as may be specified
from time to time.

Market wide position limits: Market wide position limits for option contracts on
individual securities shall be lower of: *20 times the average number of shares traded
daily, during the previous calendar month, in the relevant underlying security in the
underlying segment of the relevant exchange or, 10 per cent of the number of shares
held by non-promoters in the relevant underlying security i.e. 10 per cent of the free
float in terms of the number of shares of a company.

        The relevant authority shall specify the market wide position limits once every
month, on the expiration day of the near month contract, which shall be applicable till
the expiry of the subsequent month contract.

Exercise settlement: Exercise type shall be American and final settlement in respect
of options on individual securities contracts shall be cash settled for an initial period
of 6 months and as per the provisions of National Securities Clearing Corporation Ltd
(NSCCL) as may be stipulated from time to time.

Reading Stock Option Tables

In India, option tables published in business newspapers and is fairly similar
to the regular stock tables.

The following is the format of the options table published in Indian business
news papers:

NIFTY OPTIONS

Contracts   Exp.Date   Str.Price   Opt.Type   Open   High   Low   Trd.Qty   No.of.Cont.   Trd.Value

RELIANCE    7/26/01    360         CA         3      3      2     4200      7             1512000

RELIANCE    7/26/01    360         PA         29     39     29    1200      2             432000

RELIANCE    7/26/01    380         CA         1      1      1     1200      2             456000

RELIANCE    7/26/01    380         PA         35     40     35    1200      2             456000

RELIANCE    7/26/01    340         CA         8      9      6     11400     19            3876000




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori



RELIANCE     7/26/01    340          PA     10    14    10   13800    23             4692000

RELIANCE     7/26/01    320          CA     22    24    16   11400    19             3648000

RELIANCE     7/26/01    320          PA     4     7     2    29400    49             9408000

RELIANCE     8/30/01    360          PA     31    35    31   1200     2              432000

RELIANCE     8/30/01    340          CA     15    15    15   600      1              204000

RELIANCE     8/30/01    320          PA     10    10    10   600      1              192000

RELIANCE     7/26/01    300          CA     38    38    38   600      1              180000

RELIANCE     7/26/01    300          PA     2     2     2    1200     2              360000

RELIANCE     7/26/01    280          CA     59    60    53   1800     3              504000




           The first column shows the contract that is being traded i.e Reliance.
           The second column displays the date on which the contract will expire i.e.
            the expiry date is the last Thursday of the month.
           Call options-American are depicted as 'CA' and Put options-American
            as'PA'.
           The Open, High, Low, Close columns display the traded premium rates.


Advantages of option trading

1. Risk management: Put options allow investors holding shares to hedge against a
possible fall in their value. This can be considered similar to taking out insurance
against a fall in the share price.

2. Time to decide: By taking a call option the purchase price for the shares is locked
in. This gives the call option holder until the Expiry Day to decide whether or not to
exercise the option and buy the shares. Likewise the taker of a put option has time to
decide whether or not to sell the shares.

3. Speculation: The ease of trading in and out of an option position makes it possible
to trade options with no intention of ever exercising them. If an investor expects the
market to rise, they may decide to buy call options. If expecting a fall, they may
decide to buy put options. Either way the holder can sell the option prior to expiry to



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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


take a profit or limit a loss. Trading options has a lower cost than shares, as there is no
stamp duty payable unless and until options are exercised.

4. Leverage: Leverage provides the potential to make a higher return from a smaller
initial outlay than investing directly. However, leverage usually involves more risks
than a direct investment in the underlying shares. Trading in options can allow
investors to benefit from a change in the price of the share without having to pay the
full price of the share.

We can see below how one can leverage ones position by just paying the premium.


                               Option Premium               Stock
Bought on Oct 15               Rs 380                       Rs 4000
Sold on Dec 15                 Rs 670                       Rs 4500
Profit                         Rs 290                       Rs 500
ROI (Not annualized)           76.3%                        12.5%


5. Income generation: Shareholders can earn extra income over and above dividends
by writing call options against their shares. By writing an option they receive the
option premium upfront. While they get to keep the option premium, there is a
possibility that they could be exercised against and have to deliver their shares to the
taker at the exercise price.

6. Strategies: By combining different options, investors can create a wide range of
potential profit scenarios. To find out more about options strategies read the module
on trading strategies.


Settlement of options contracts

Options contracts have three types of settlements, daily premium settlement, exercise
settlement, interim exercise settlement in the case of option contracts on securities and
final settlement.


1. Daily premium settlement: Buyer of an option is obligated to pay the
premium towards the options purchased by him. Similarly, the seller of an option is


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


entitled to receive the premium for the option sold by him. The premium payable
amount and the premium receivable amount are netted to compute the net premium
payable or receivable amount for each client for each option contract.


2. Exercise settlement: Although most option buyers and sellers close out their
options positions by an offsetting closing transaction, an understanding of exercise
can help an option buyer determine whether exercise might be more advantageous
than an offsetting sale of the option. There is always a possibility of the option seller
being assigned an exercise. Once an exercise of an option has been assigned to an
option seller, the option seller is bound to fulfill his obligation (meaning, pay the cash
settlement amount in the case of a cash-settled option) even though he may not yet
have been notified of the assignment.


3. Interim exercise settlement: Interim exercise settlement takes place only for
option contracts on securities. An investor can exercise his in-the-money options at
any time during trading hours, through his trading member. Interim exercise
settlement is effected for such options at the close of the trading hours, on the day of
exercise. Valid exercised option contracts are assigned to short positions in the option
contract with the same series (i.e. having the same underlying, same expiry date and
same strike price), on a random basis, at the client level. The CM who has exercised
the option receives the exercise settlement value per unit of the option from the CM
who has been assigned the option contract.




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                     CLEARING AND SETTLEMENT


       National Securities Clearing Corporation Limited (NSCCL) undertakes
clearing and settlement of all trades executed on the futures and options (F&O)
segment of the NSE. It also acts as legal counterparty to all trades on the F&O
segment and guarantees their financial settlement.
Clearing entities
       Clearing and settlement activities in the F&O segment are undertaken by
NSCCL with the help of the following entities:


Clearing members

       In the F&O segment, some members, called self clearing members, clear and
settle their trades executed by them only either on their own account or on account of
their clients. Some others, called trading member–cum–clearing member, clear and
settle their own trades as well as trades of other trading members(TMs). Besides,
there is a special category of members, called professional clearing members (PCM)



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who clear and settle trades executed by TMs. The members clearing their own trades
and trades of others, and the PCMs are required to bring in additional security
deposits in respect of every TM whose trades they undertake to clear and settle.


Clearing banks

       Funds settlement takes place through clearing banks. For the purpose of
settlement all clearing members are required to open a separate bank account with
NSCCL designated clearing bank for F&O segment. The Clearing and Settlement
process comprises of the following three main activities:
1. Clearing
2. Settlement
3. Risk Management

Risk Management
NSCCL has developed a comprehensive risk containment mechanism for the F&O
segment. The salient features of risk containment mechanism on the F&O segment
are:

      The financial soundness of the members is the key to risk management.
       Therefore, the requirements for membership in terms of capital adequacy (net
       worth, security deposits) are quite stringent.
      NSCCL charges an upfront initial margin for all the open positions of a CM. It
       specifies the initial margin requirements for each futures/options contract on a
       daily basis. It also follows value-at-risk(VaR) based margining through SPAN.
       The CM in turn collects the initial margin from the TMs and their respective
       clients.
      The open positions of the members are marked to market based on contract
       settlement price for each contract. The difference is settled in cash on a T+1
       basis.
      NSCCL’s on-line position monitoring system monitors a CM’s open positions
       on a real-time basis. Limits are set for each CM based on his capital deposits.
       The on-line position monitoring system generates alerts whenever a CM
       reaches a position limit set up by NSCCL. NSCCL monitors the CMs for
       MTM value violation, while TMs are monitored for contract-wise position
       limit violation.


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      CMs are provided a trading terminal for the purpose of monitoring the open
       positions of all the TMs clearing and settling through him. A CM may set
       exposure limits for a TM clearing and settling through him. NSCCL assists the
       CM to monitor the intra-day exposure limits set up by a CM and whenever a
       TM exceed the limits, it stops that particular TM from further trading.
      A member is alerted of his position to enable him to adjust his exposure or
       bring in additional capital. Position violations result in withdrawal of trading
       facility for all TMs of a CM in case of a violation by the CM.
      A separate settlement guarantee fund for this segment has been created out of
       the capital of members. The fund had a balance of Rs. 648 crore at the end of
       March 2002. The most critical component of risk containment mechanism for
       F&O segment is the margining system and on-line position monitoring. The
       actual position monitoring and margining is carried out on–line through
       Parallel Risk Management System (PRISM). PRISM uses SPAN(r) (Standard
       Portfolio Analysis of Risk) system for the purpose of computation of on-line
       margins, based on the parameters defined by SEBI.

NSE–SPAN
       The objective of NSE–SPAN is to identify overall risk in a portfolio of all
futures and options contracts for each member. The system treats futures and options
contracts uniformly, while at the same time recognizing the unique exposures
associated with options portfolios, like extremely deep out–of–the–money short
positions and inter–month risk. Its over–riding objective is to determine the largest
loss that a portfolio might reasonably be expected to suffer from one day to the next
day based on 99% VaR methodology. SPAN considers uniqueness of option
portfolios. The following factors affect the value of an option:

          Underlying market price
          Strike price
          Volatility(variability) of underlying instrument
          Time to expiration
          Interest rate
       As these factors change, the value of options maintained within a portfolio
also changes. Thus, SPAN constructs scenarios of probable changes in underlying


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prices and volatilities in order to identify the largest loss a portfolio might suffer from
one day to the next. It then sets the margin requirement to cover this one–day loss.
The complex calculations (e.g. the pricing of options) in SPAN are executed by
NSCCL. The results of these calculations are called risk arrays. Risk arrays, and other
necessary data inputs for margin calculation are provided to members daily in a file
called the SPAN risk parameter file. Members can apply the data contained in the risk
parameter files, to their specific portfolios of futures and options contracts, to
determine their SPAN margin requirements. Hence, members need not execute
complex option pricing calculations, which is performed by NSCCL. SPAN has the
ability to estimate risk for combined futures and options portfolios, and also re–value
the same under various scenarios of changing market conditions.




CALCULATION OF BROKERAGE.
        Brokerage is the amount paid to the stock broker for the services rendered by
him to the client. As per the SEBI guidelines, ASCI can charge maximum 2 percent as
brokerage to the clients. Again brokerage differs from branch to branch. Along with
brokerage, Service tax at 10 percent, Cess etc., are also added to the amount charged
to the client.
        The brokerage is calculated at the rate of 0.5% or 0.50 paisa, whichever is
higher. In NSE &BSE, on Delivery base the brokerage is charged at the rate of 0.5%.
For the clients who are trading not frequently, the rate of brokerage is 0.75%.
Brokerage is calculated as follows:
=certain percentage of brokerage* price of a scrip
The answer will be multiplied with number of shares traded.
For example,
If the rate of brokerage is –0.5%
The price of a scrip is –Ts. 250


And the number of shares traded of that particular scrip is –100
Therefore, amount to be paid as brokerage is,


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori


=0.5*250/100
=Rs. 1.25*100
=Rs.125




HIDDEN COST
       Apart from brokerage other costs like Service charges, Cess, Courier charges,
Tax etc., are included in the brokerage, which is called as Hidden cost. Hidden cost
adds to the amount of brokerage. Apart from brokerage Service Tax is charged at the
rate of 12 percent, Cess is 0.2 percent and Security Transaction Tax is charged at the
rate of 0.13 percent (STT). STT is charged on turnover.




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          KEY COMBINATIONS USED FOR THE TRANSACTIONS:

Buying -F1 or +
Selling - F2 or -
Outstanding or pending position -F3
Delete -F4
Cancellation -F3
Market depth -F6 (no. of buyers, sellers, quantity sold, traded volume etc)
Total net position -F8 (transactions traded)
Market snapshot -F10 (company’s details – open, high, low, previous, close etc)
Choose instruments -Ctrl +Z
Total trading information _Ctrl +N




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                                     FINDINGS

   1. During the analysis I found that after opening an account, the transactions,
      which are made by the investors, are not updated or entered to the concerned
      investor’s account and because of this, sometimes the investor has to face
      some difficulties in accessing his account.

   2. NSE follows the NEAT system and BSE follows the BOLT system for trading
      in the securities. Both of these are Screen Based Trading Systems.

   3. The ASCI having broker and sub broker. These two are faciliting the clients to
      purchase and sell the securities in the secondary market, for that they charge
      some commission called brokerage.

   4. The ASCI Stock Broking Ltd has to fulfill the conditions framed by the SEBI.

   5. Market is being divided into two parts i.e. primary market and secondary
      market. Primary Market helps to raise fund through IPO’s and Secondary
      Market helps the investor to buy the share from the stock market. SEBI is
      regulating both the Markets.

   6. T+2 rolling settlements have been introduced in the year Aug 2003.

   7. NSDL and CSDL, these two are the Depositories in India.


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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori



   8. Doing the work of online buying and selling of securities on behalf of the
      client.

   9. Trading in Derivatives products like Futures and Options.
   10. Helping the client for clearing and settlements.




                                  CONCLUSION

   1. Investors can use derivatives instruments in all trends of markets especially
      options where loss is restricted to the premium paid and profit is unlimited.

   2. Introduction of derivatives in Indian market has really served its purpose of
      reducing the volatility in the spot market. It has made the stock market
      relatively safer.

   3. ASCI is one of the leading brokers at Hubli and it is providing good research
      reports and investment advices to keep its customers profitable.

   4. ASCI is providing many services to the investors along with share broking.
      Such as demat and Remat services, Mutual Funds, Investments, Personal Tax
      Planning and Insurance advisory. And it has proved it self as a leading stock
      broker.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori




                                  Suggestions:

   1. The awareness about derivatives among investors should be increased by
      conducting various awareness and educational programs.
   2. The company can conduct seminars to promote their services.
   3. The company can think of tapping the existing demat account holders and
      provide them enough information on derivatives and enable them to trade in
      the same. This will help the company to increase its earnings of brokerage
      income.
   4. The company has to create and maintain a database of prospective customers
      from time to time, to keep track of the people falling in different income levels
      and their investing patterns. This is possible if continuous contacts are
      maintained with the customers.
   5. The problems faced by the customers in online trading like placing of orders,
      delivery, margins etc. have to be attended quickly so that they carry an
      outstanding and reliable image outside.




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Analysis of Derivatives and Stock Broking at Apollo Sindhoori




                                   BIBLIOGRAPHY

      WWW. APPOLLO SINDHOORI.COM
      WWW.GOOLGE.COM
      WWW.ICICIDIRECT.COM
      WWW.NSEINDIA.COM

      The data was collected from the list of Books and websites given below:
                  Options, Futures and Other Derivatives – John C Hull




           BABASAB PATIL PROJECT REPORT ON FINANCE                              75

				
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