INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY

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INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY Powered By Docstoc
					Review For
 Exam 1

    (January 28, 2009)




                                     1
BUS3500 - Abdou Illia, Spring 2008
   Introduction to
Information Systems




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  Summary Questions
                                                                      Notes


1) Distinguish between Data and Information

2) List/Explain main components of an information system
3) What is the difference between Transaction Processing Systems
   (TPS) and Decision Support Systems (DSS) in terms of their
   targeted users?
4) What is the difference between Decision Support Systems (DSS)
   and Executive Information Systems (EIS) in terms of their target
   users.
5) What is the difference between Chief Information Officer and
   Chief Security Officer?
6) What is a Chief Knowledge Officer responsible for?
7) (a) What are the major components in a DSS? (b) What is the
   function of each?
8) What is an Expert System? What are the main components of an
   Expert system? What is a knowledge engineer?                       3
    Data versus Information
   Data – raw facts that represent the characteristics of an event
       Example 1:
            Event: High temperature
            Data: 100° F
       Example 2:
            Event: Sale
            Data: Sale’s date, item number, item description, etc.
   Information – facts within a given context
       The temperature today at noon in Times Square, NYC was 100° F
       Monday’s total sales for item #0001 is $1200.00




                   I                      P                       O


                                                                      4
    Information Systems
   A set of interrelated information technologies that
    work together to collect, store, process, and
    distribute information
   Major components of information systems
        Hardware (physical parts of a computer or other computing devices)




                                                                             Technologies
    




                                                                             Information
       Software (Instructions that tell hardware what to do)
       Databases (Software that enables storage/retrieval of data)
       Networks (Computing devices that communicate with each other)
       People
   Information technology (IT): Computer-based tool
    that people use to work with information and
    support the information and information-processing
    needs of an organization
                                                                                    5
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN IT

    Information Technology is a relatively new
     functional area, having only been around
     formally for around 40 years

    Recent IT strategic positions include:
        Chief   Information Officer (CIO)
        Chief   Technology Officer (CTO)
        Chief   Security Officer (CSO)
        Chief   Privacy Officer (CPO)
        Chief   Knowledge Officer (CKO)

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ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN IT
   Chief Information Officer (CIO)
       Oversees all uses of IT
       Ensures the strategic alignment of IT with business goals
        and objectives
   Chief Security Officer (CSO)
       Responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems
       Responsible for developing security policies and strategies
       Responsible for controlling implementation of security
        policies and strategies
   Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO)
       Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing
        the organization’s knowledge
       Responsible for supervising the implementation of
        knowledge systems                                           7
Administrative Information Systems
   Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
       Basic business system that serves the operational level
        (analysts) in an organization
   Office Automation Systems (OAS)
       Systems designed to help office workers in doing their
        job.
   Decision Support Systems (DSS)
       Systems designed to support middle managers and
        business professionals during the decision-making
        process
   Executive Information Systems (EIS)
       Specialized DSS that help senior level executives make
        decisions.                                                8
    DSS structure
   Designed to help middle managers                         User
    make decisions                                         Interface

   Major components
       Data management subsystem                   Model Management
            Internal and external data sources     - Sensitivity Analysis
                                                       -> What-if Analysis
       Model management subsystem                     -> Goal-seeking Analysis
            Typically mathematical in nature
       User interface
            How the people interact with the DSS
                                                     Data Management
            Data visualization is the key
               Text                                -   Transactional Data
                                                    -   Data warehouse
               Graphs
                                                    -   Business partners data
               Charts                              -   Economic data


                                                                           9
     DSS’ Model Management Tools
        Simulation is used to examine proposed solutions
         and their impact
                  Sensitivity analysis
                      Determine how changes in one part of the model influence
                       other parts of the model
                  What-if analysis
                      Manipulate variables to see what would happen in given
                       scenarios
                  Goal-seeking analysis
                      Work backward from desired outcome




                                                                                             10
Determine monthly payment given various interest Works backward from a given monthly payment to
rates.                                           determine various loans that would give that payment.
Expert Systems Components
    Knowledge base: database of the expertise, often in IF THEN rules.
    Inference engine: derives recommendations from knowledge base and
     problem-specific data
    User interface: controls the dialog between the user and the system
    Explanation system: Explain the how and why of recommendations

                             User
                                                               Example of rules
     Domain
     Expert
                                                           IF
                          User                             family is albatross AND
                        Interface                          color is white
     Expertise
                                                           THEN
                                                System     bird is laysan albatross.
                        Inference               Engineer
     Knowledge
                         Engine                            IF
     Engineer
                                                           family is albatross AND
                                                           color is dark
Encoded     Knowledge        Explanation                   THEN
expertise
              base             System                      bird is black footed albatross

- Knowledge engineer codify the human expert’s expertise into the systems’
knowledge base.
- System engineer is the IT professional who develop the user interface, the
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inference engine, and the explanation system.
Hardware Technology




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Summary Questions
                                                           Notes

1) Name five (3) computer input devices

2) Name three (3) computer output devices
3) What computer devices can be used for both input and
   output?
4) What is the difference between: (a) a Kilobyte and a
   Gigabyte? (b) a Megabyte and a Gigabyte?
5) Name the two main types of monitors used in today’s
   computer systems.
6) (a) Name main components of the Processing subsystem.
   (b) What is the function of the ALU? ICU?
7) Explain the difference between RAM and ROM.
8) Describe the various types of computers.

9) Distinguish between primary and secondary storage
                                                             13
 Processing subsystem
 Motherboard: chipset that all components connect to
 Two major components in processing subsys.
        CPU (Central Processing Unit) or Processor(s)
        Primary Storage:
           Random Access Memory (RAM)
           Read Only Memory (ROM)



                          CPU

                                                   Busses that
                                                   transfer data

                     Primary Storage
                                                              14
Central Processing Unit

           Processor                       Clock: generate time that
                                            synchronize other components
                 Clock
                                           ICU: Fetches instructions from
                                            RAM
Instruction                Arithmetic
Control Unit               Logic Unit      ALU: Execute instructions
                                            (arithmetic & logic operations)

                                           Registers: Store control
               Registers                    information, data, intermediate
                                            results




                                                                          15
Primary Storage
 Computer’s memory stored on semiconductor chips
 Two categories:
       RAM (Random Access Memory) which is volatile
           Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM)
           Double Data Rate SDRAM or DDR SDRAM
       ROM (Read-Only Memory) which is non-volatile
 Capacity in Megabytes (MB) or Gigabytes (GB)
      Primary Storage

             RAM
                                      RAM holds running programs
                                       and the data they use
   Program          Data
                                      ROM contains critical
                                       programs such as those that
                                       boot the computer
             ROM                                                16
    Front Side Bus and Northbridge

                                CPU

                                                          Front Side Bus

                                                                  RAM
                               Northbridge
                            (Memory Controller)
                                                            AGP Video Card


                                                                PCI bus
                        Southbridge                        Real Time Clock
                     (Memory Controller)                          USB
                                                             Other devices
 FSB: bi-directional data bus carrying data b/w CPU and Northbridge         17
 FSB speed is measured in Hz; e.g. 800 MHz FSB
Terminology
 Dot pitch
 Pixel
 Screen resolution




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   Make sure you can answer Hardware
    Review Questions answered in class. They
    are posted to the Review section of the
    course website.




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Software




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Summary Questions

1) What are the two main types of software?
2)   What are the three types of systems software?
3) What are the main functions of an operating system?
4) (a) Name some Operating Systems. (b) Name some
   Application software programs.
5) What does Multiprogramming mean? Virtual memory?

6) What are utility programs used for?




     In addition, make sure you can answer Software Review
     Questions answered in class. They are posted to the
     Review section of the course website.

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Relationship of software to hardware




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Main Types of Software
   Application software
       Programs that allow users to accomplish specific tasks

       Examples
            Word processing
            Web browser
            Tax preparation
            Data management
            Desktop publishing
            E-mail
            Groupware
            Presentation graphics
            Programming editors
            Spreadsheet
                                                                 23
Operating Systems (OS)
   Software platform on which other programs run
   Provides a connection between application
    programs and the computer hardware
   Major tasks
       Starting the computer
       Managing files
            Keeping track of where files are located
            Maintaining a table of file entries
            Etc.
       Managing Programs and Memory (RAM)
            Sending programs to the CPU
            Allocating primary storage (RAM) to programs
            Controlling devices that programs requires
       Ensuring security
       Providing a user interface
                                                            24
OS: Multiprogramming




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OS: Virtual Memory
                     ■ A technique that “extends”
                     primary memory (RAM) by
                     using secondary storage
                     devices
                     ■ Needed when there is not
                     enough RAM to hold programs




                                            26
Utility Software
   Accomplish common tasks and
    maintenance jobs
       Disk Defragmentation, Disk Optimization
       Virus protection
       Edit the Windows registry
       Remove Web cookies from HDD
       Encrypt data
       File and data recovery
       Spyware
       Program Uninstaller

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Database Systems




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  Summary Questions
                                                                    Notes

1) What is a table, a field, a record, a primary key, a composite
   key?
2) What are the problems with traditional file systems?
3) What are the major components of a DBMS?
4) (a) Name some Desktop DBMSs. (b) Name some Enterprise
   DBMSs.
5) What are the differences between Flat File and Relational
   database models?
6) What are the steps for Database development?


      In addition, make sure you can answer Hardware Review
      Questions answered in class. They are posted to the
      Review section of the course website.                          29
Basic Concepts of Data Management
                     Accounts table
    AccountID Customer          Type       Balance
                                                       Each table has:
    660001       John Smith     Checking   $120.00
                                                          Fields
    660002       Linda Martin   Saving     $9450.00       Records
                                                          1 Primary key
    660003       Paul Graham    Checking   $3400.00
   Table
        Two-dimensional structure composed of rows and columns
   Field
        Like a column in a spreadsheet
   Field name
        Like a column name in a spreadsheet
        Examples: AccountID, Customer, Type, Balance
   Field values
        Actual data for the field
   Record
        Set of fields that describe an entity (a person, an account, etc.)
   Primary key                                                            30
        A field, or group of fields, that uniquely identifies a record
Basic Concepts in Data Management
   A Primary key could be a single field like in this table




   A Primary key could be a composite key, i.e. multiple fields




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