"INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY"
Review For Exam 1 (January 28, 2009) 1 BUS3500 - Abdou Illia, Spring 2008 Introduction to Information Systems 2 Summary Questions Notes 1) Distinguish between Data and Information 2) List/Explain main components of an information system 3) What is the difference between Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) and Decision Support Systems (DSS) in terms of their targeted users? 4) What is the difference between Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Executive Information Systems (EIS) in terms of their target users. 5) What is the difference between Chief Information Officer and Chief Security Officer? 6) What is a Chief Knowledge Officer responsible for? 7) (a) What are the major components in a DSS? (b) What is the function of each? 8) What is an Expert System? What are the main components of an Expert system? What is a knowledge engineer? 3 Data versus Information Data – raw facts that represent the characteristics of an event Example 1: Event: High temperature Data: 100° F Example 2: Event: Sale Data: Sale’s date, item number, item description, etc. Information – facts within a given context The temperature today at noon in Times Square, NYC was 100° F Monday’s total sales for item #0001 is $1200.00 I P O 4 Information Systems A set of interrelated information technologies that work together to collect, store, process, and distribute information Major components of information systems Hardware (physical parts of a computer or other computing devices) Technologies Information Software (Instructions that tell hardware what to do) Databases (Software that enables storage/retrieval of data) Networks (Computing devices that communicate with each other) People Information technology (IT): Computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization 5 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN IT Information Technology is a relatively new functional area, having only been around formally for around 40 years Recent IT strategic positions include: Chief Information Officer (CIO) Chief Technology Officer (CTO) Chief Security Officer (CSO) Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) 6 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN IT Chief Information Officer (CIO) Oversees all uses of IT Ensures the strategic alignment of IT with business goals and objectives Chief Security Officer (CSO) Responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems Responsible for developing security policies and strategies Responsible for controlling implementation of security policies and strategies Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing the organization’s knowledge Responsible for supervising the implementation of knowledge systems 7 Administrative Information Systems Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Basic business system that serves the operational level (analysts) in an organization Office Automation Systems (OAS) Systems designed to help office workers in doing their job. Decision Support Systems (DSS) Systems designed to support middle managers and business professionals during the decision-making process Executive Information Systems (EIS) Specialized DSS that help senior level executives make decisions. 8 DSS structure Designed to help middle managers User make decisions Interface Major components Data management subsystem Model Management Internal and external data sources - Sensitivity Analysis -> What-if Analysis Model management subsystem -> Goal-seeking Analysis Typically mathematical in nature User interface How the people interact with the DSS Data Management Data visualization is the key Text - Transactional Data - Data warehouse Graphs - Business partners data Charts - Economic data 9 DSS’ Model Management Tools Simulation is used to examine proposed solutions and their impact Sensitivity analysis Determine how changes in one part of the model influence other parts of the model What-if analysis Manipulate variables to see what would happen in given scenarios Goal-seeking analysis Work backward from desired outcome 10 Determine monthly payment given various interest Works backward from a given monthly payment to rates. determine various loans that would give that payment. Expert Systems Components Knowledge base: database of the expertise, often in IF THEN rules. Inference engine: derives recommendations from knowledge base and problem-specific data User interface: controls the dialog between the user and the system Explanation system: Explain the how and why of recommendations User Example of rules Domain Expert IF User family is albatross AND Interface color is white Expertise THEN System bird is laysan albatross. Inference Engineer Knowledge Engine IF Engineer family is albatross AND color is dark Encoded Knowledge Explanation THEN expertise base System bird is black footed albatross - Knowledge engineer codify the human expert’s expertise into the systems’ knowledge base. - System engineer is the IT professional who develop the user interface, the 11 inference engine, and the explanation system. Hardware Technology 12 Summary Questions Notes 1) Name five (3) computer input devices 2) Name three (3) computer output devices 3) What computer devices can be used for both input and output? 4) What is the difference between: (a) a Kilobyte and a Gigabyte? (b) a Megabyte and a Gigabyte? 5) Name the two main types of monitors used in today’s computer systems. 6) (a) Name main components of the Processing subsystem. (b) What is the function of the ALU? ICU? 7) Explain the difference between RAM and ROM. 8) Describe the various types of computers. 9) Distinguish between primary and secondary storage 13 Processing subsystem Motherboard: chipset that all components connect to Two major components in processing subsys. CPU (Central Processing Unit) or Processor(s) Primary Storage: Random Access Memory (RAM) Read Only Memory (ROM) CPU Busses that transfer data Primary Storage 14 Central Processing Unit Processor Clock: generate time that synchronize other components Clock ICU: Fetches instructions from RAM Instruction Arithmetic Control Unit Logic Unit ALU: Execute instructions (arithmetic & logic operations) Registers: Store control Registers information, data, intermediate results 15 Primary Storage Computer’s memory stored on semiconductor chips Two categories: RAM (Random Access Memory) which is volatile Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM) Double Data Rate SDRAM or DDR SDRAM ROM (Read-Only Memory) which is non-volatile Capacity in Megabytes (MB) or Gigabytes (GB) Primary Storage RAM RAM holds running programs and the data they use Program Data ROM contains critical programs such as those that boot the computer ROM 16 Front Side Bus and Northbridge CPU Front Side Bus RAM Northbridge (Memory Controller) AGP Video Card PCI bus Southbridge Real Time Clock (Memory Controller) USB Other devices FSB: bi-directional data bus carrying data b/w CPU and Northbridge 17 FSB speed is measured in Hz; e.g. 800 MHz FSB Terminology Dot pitch Pixel Screen resolution 18 Make sure you can answer Hardware Review Questions answered in class. They are posted to the Review section of the course website. 19 Software 20 Summary Questions 1) What are the two main types of software? 2) What are the three types of systems software? 3) What are the main functions of an operating system? 4) (a) Name some Operating Systems. (b) Name some Application software programs. 5) What does Multiprogramming mean? Virtual memory? 6) What are utility programs used for? In addition, make sure you can answer Software Review Questions answered in class. They are posted to the Review section of the course website. 21 Relationship of software to hardware 22 Main Types of Software Application software Programs that allow users to accomplish specific tasks Examples Word processing Web browser Tax preparation Data management Desktop publishing E-mail Groupware Presentation graphics Programming editors Spreadsheet 23 Operating Systems (OS) Software platform on which other programs run Provides a connection between application programs and the computer hardware Major tasks Starting the computer Managing files Keeping track of where files are located Maintaining a table of file entries Etc. Managing Programs and Memory (RAM) Sending programs to the CPU Allocating primary storage (RAM) to programs Controlling devices that programs requires Ensuring security Providing a user interface 24 OS: Multiprogramming 25 OS: Virtual Memory ￭ A technique that “extends” primary memory (RAM) by using secondary storage devices ￭ Needed when there is not enough RAM to hold programs 26 Utility Software Accomplish common tasks and maintenance jobs Disk Defragmentation, Disk Optimization Virus protection Edit the Windows registry Remove Web cookies from HDD Encrypt data File and data recovery Spyware Program Uninstaller 27 Database Systems 28 Summary Questions Notes 1) What is a table, a field, a record, a primary key, a composite key? 2) What are the problems with traditional file systems? 3) What are the major components of a DBMS? 4) (a) Name some Desktop DBMSs. (b) Name some Enterprise DBMSs. 5) What are the differences between Flat File and Relational database models? 6) What are the steps for Database development? In addition, make sure you can answer Hardware Review Questions answered in class. They are posted to the Review section of the course website. 29 Basic Concepts of Data Management Accounts table AccountID Customer Type Balance Each table has: 660001 John Smith Checking $120.00 Fields 660002 Linda Martin Saving $9450.00 Records 1 Primary key 660003 Paul Graham Checking $3400.00 Table Two-dimensional structure composed of rows and columns Field Like a column in a spreadsheet Field name Like a column name in a spreadsheet Examples: AccountID, Customer, Type, Balance Field values Actual data for the field Record Set of fields that describe an entity (a person, an account, etc.) Primary key 30 A field, or group of fields, that uniquely identifies a record Basic Concepts in Data Management A Primary key could be a single field like in this table A Primary key could be a composite key, i.e. multiple fields 31