The Restoration Colonies

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					The English Civil War &
the Restoration Colonies

Middle and Southern Colonies
    Founded After 1662
   Parliament & King Charles I
• Parliament clashed
  repeatedly with Stuart kings
• Petition of Right (1628)
  asserted basic rights:
   – No taxation without
     Parliament’s approval
   – No quartering of troops in
     private homes and no martial
     law in peacetime
   – Right to trial by jury & due
                                  King Charles I (1625-49)
     process of law
The Civil War & Commonwealth
                   • Parliament won the Civil
                     War (1642-45)
                   • Charles escaped in 1647,
                     but recaptured in 1648 &
                     executed Jan. 30, 1649
                   • The Commonwealth was a
                     republic, but Oliver
                     Cromwell became dictator
                   • After his death, monarchy
 Oliver Cromwell     restored in 1660
      The Restoration Colonies
• King Charles II granted New
  Netherlands to his brother
  James in 1664 – became
  New York
• James granted southern
  portion to investors –
  became New Jersey
• King granted Carolina to a
  different group of investors
  in 1663 (split in 1729)
• King granted Pennsylvania
                                 King Charles II (1660-85)
  to William Penn in 1681
The Middle Colonies
        New York & New Jersey
• Duke of York’s charter
  granted him all land between
  Connecticut & Delaware
   – Connecticut received royal
     charter in 1662
   – Boundary settled in 1683
• New Jersey granted to John
  Berkeley & George
   – divided it into East & West
     Jersey in 1676
   – Reunited in 1702
Penn’s Woods
• William Penn wanted haven
  for fellow Quakers
• Established religious
  toleration for all, so German
  pietists flocked there
• Tried to treat Indians fairly
• Philadelphia soon became
  largest city in colonies
• Purchased 3 Lower Counties
  (Delaware) in 1682 to secure
  access to sea
• First colonized by Spanish in
• Charles II granted it to 8
  favorites in 1663
• “Grand Model” constitution
  (written by John Locke) tried
  to est. feudal system
• Rice became staple crop by
  1690; indigo in 1740s
• South Carolina became
  royal colony in 1719
• North Carolina became
  royal colony in 1729
      James II & the Dominion of
             New England
                          • King James II consolidated all
                            northern colonies into
                            Dominion of New England
                             – Viceroy = Edmund Andros
King James II (1685-88)      – Forced rel. toleration
                             – Stripped local governments of
                             – Required landowners to pay
                               annual quitrent
                          • James was openly Catholic, but
                            daughters Mary & Anne were
         The Glorious Revolution
• Parliament invited James’
  daughter Mary & husband
  William of Orange to take
  throne in 1688
• William defeated James at
  the Battle of the Boyne in
  Northern Ireland (July 1,
                               William III & Mary II
• William & Mary accepted
  Bill of Rights
• New colonial charters
  granted in 1691
• Plymouth merged into
  Mass. Bay

                                The Battle of the Boyne
    Social Contract Theory of
             • John Locke published Two
               Treatises on Government in
               – Man originally in state of nature,
                 with natural rights
                  • Life
                  • Liberty
                  • Property
               – Government = contract between
                 people to protect rights
               – If gov’t doesn’t protect rights,
John Locke       people have right of revolution
 The Stuart & Hanover Dynasties
• Act of Succession
  (1701) said monarch
  must always be
• Act of Union (1707)
  merged England &
  Scotland into the
  United Kingdom

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