Criticisms of behavioralism 1) Deemphasizes the role of internal thoughts and feelings in behavior; Presents humans as lacking free will 2) Ignores biological predispositions Support for criticism 1. Alcoholics: When given nausea-inducing drug in alcoholic drinks, to condition them to feel nauseous in response to taste of alcohol. Doesn’t work because they KNOW it is the drug and not the alcohol. 2. Mice and latent learning: Animals are capable of latent learning – learning without a reward or punishment. Put mice in a maze and they will walk around and create a mental map of the maze even without the reward. How do we know they learned? When you provide a reward, they go through maze faster than mouse that has not had opportunity to explore maze. 3. Animals that are trained to do behaviors that are highly unusual (rat shooting basketball), lose the ability quickly. Those that are trained to do things that suit their biological predispositions (cat jumping through a hoop), retain them longer. 4. Los Horcones and Twin Oaks – have a lot of people leaving due to jealousy after break ups. Both communities also lose people who have trouble adjusting to communal ownership and parenting. Overjustification Effect Imagine the following experiment: Preschoolers who show a high interest in drawing were selected for study. The children were randomly assigned to three groups: expected reward, unexpected reward, and no reward. Those assigned to the expected reward group were told that they would receive a “good player badge” if they did a good job drawing. All the participants received the reward. Those in the unexpected reward group, the children were asked to draw without any mention of a reward. Unexpectedly, at the end of the time, all of these children were given a reward. Finally, the third group of children were asked to draw without mention or presentation of a reward. After the task, the children were sent back into the playroom and observed for how much time kids from each group spent drawing. What do you think happened? Those kids in the expected reward group drew the least. The other two drew the same. How does this relate to learning and grades?
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