Review: Autonomy by 7A580Ru


									     Review Package:
 Written Response Section
           of the
Socials 11 Provincial Exam

Prince George Secondary
                        Socials 11:
      Review for the Provincial Exam Essay Questions
    Beginning in the 2004-2005 school year, there is to be a provincial exam for Socials
11. The exam will consist of 54 marks for multiple choice, true and false, or matching
types of questions. There will also be two multi-paragraph essay questions based of two
of six themes (see the end of this document for the Socials 11 exam specs). Each of these
questions will be worth 12 marks. The purpose of this document is to provide students
and teachers a brief overview of the major themes of the exam in order to prepare for the
essays. This review includes:
     A description of the theme
     An overview of the major events relating to the theme
     Possible questions for the themes
     A model for an essay answer
     The exam specs as provided by the Ministry of Education.
     A command term list
     Written Response Scoring Criteria

Certainly, this review is not all-inclusive. Teachers and students will certainly be able to
find more examples to supplement this series of charts. As well, the descriptions of the
events included are not designed to be complete. Instead, these should serve as review of
the material. Students should be able to take each of the examples included in this review
and add to it in a written format.

For more information about the exam, log on to:
              Description of Themes and Review Charts
                                      1. AUTONOMY
This theme will include issues related to Canada’s evolution as a nation from 1914 to the
beginning of the 21st century. Events which allowed Canada to move away from the
governance of Great Britain towards gaining an international reputation for being a
middle power will be included in this theme.

Era     Event
1914-       1914-1918 World War I-Canada fought as a British colony until British
1918          Imperial War Cabinet established, 1916
1919-       Canada got her own seat at the Paris Peace Conference and in the new
1945          League of Nations (although Canada rejected Article X re: collective
            Chanak Crisis (1922)-Canada refused to sent troops to assist the British
              in Turkey
            Halibut Treaty (1923)-First treaty Canada signed without British
            Balfour Report (1926)-All dominions equal in status with each other
              and with Britain, agreed to by Britain at an imperial conference
            1927-Canada establishes its own embassy in Washington
            1931-Statute of Westminster
            Canada refused to get involved in international affairs for fear of being
              dragged into another war (Japan invades China in 1931 and again in
              1937, Italy invades Abyssinia in 1935, no official involvement in
              Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939)
            1939-1945: Canada deeply involved in the fighting in the Second World
1945-       Canada emerged as a ”Middle Power” after WW2
present     Deeply involved in the United Nations (UN), especially as
              peacekeepers (Suez, 1956)
            Fought as part of the UN force in the Korean War, 1950-1953
            Canada made the Supreme Court of Canada the last court of appeal
              (no more appeals to the Privy Council in Britain)
            Canada’s foreign policy deeply aligned to the foreign policy of the US
              (US radar bases in the Canadian north, NATO, NORAD, Canada
              refused to recognize the communist government in China because the
              US does not). Canada grounded the Avro Arrow fighter plane (1958)
              because the US did not want it-Canada bought US Bormarc ICBMs
            Economic integration with the US-St. Lawrence Seaway (1950s),
              Autopact (1964), foreign ownership of Canadian industries, Free
              Trade Agreement with US (1989) NAFTA (1990s).
            In the 1970s and the 1980s, US refused to recognize Canada’s claims of
              sovereignty in the Arctic
                                   2. ECONOMIC CYCLES
This theme explores the significant economic events that have led to fluctuations in
Canada’s economy during times of rapid expansion and major economic downturns
before and after both world wars.
Era      Event
1900-         New transportation and communication technology (steamships, trains,
1914             esp. the CPR, the telegraph and the telephone) allowed Canada to
                 become quite integrated with the world’s economy.
              Canada was still a country that produced primary products (esp.
                 wheat), but both Britain and the US were investing in emerging
                 Canadian industries (mining, pulp and paper, railway construction,
                 hydroelectric projects).
              Urbanization was increasing.
1914-         WWI brought the industrial age to Canada. Canada produced millions
1918             of shells, as well as planes, ships, etc., in war production. Much of the
                 production was done with women in the work force.
1920s         After a short recession at the close of the Great War, the economy
                 boomed throughout the decade. Americans began to invest heavily in
                 Canadian industries.
1930s         Great Depression/Dust Bowl. Little industrial production, high
                 unemployment, deflation. Government becomes more involved in the
                 economy (Royal Commission on Price Spreads, Rowell-Sirois Royal
                 Commission, Bennett’s “New Deal”)
1939-         World War II: Canadian economy booms once again. Women
1945             recruited for the work place. Government involved in raising funds
                 (Victory Bonds), rationing, price controls.
1945-         Creation of the Welfare State in Canada. Old Age Pensions improved,
present          unemployment insurance created, Family Allowances, welfare system
1945-         Canada’s “Golden Age”: Low unemployment, high prosperity.
1960          PM King tried to prevent a recession (as after WWI) with National
                 Housing Act, unemployment insurance, offering businesses incentives to
                 invest in new equipment and to upgrade plants.
              Unions expanded, wages and benefits increased
              Baby Boom: Led to new construction, new schools, rise of suburbs
              1950s: St. Lawrence Seaway completed, natural gas pipeline built,
                 Alberta to Central Canada
1960s         Autopact negotiated with the US
              Regional disparity addressed with DREE (Department of Regional
                 Economic Expansion)
1970s         Debate grew about foreign ownership in Canada, led to the formation of
                 FIRA (Foreign investment Review Agency)
              Politics of oil: huge increase in the price of oil ($8 US/barrel to $40
                 US/barrel) helped bring about inflation (“double digit inflation”).
            Early government attempts to halt inflation failed, led to wage and
            price controls (1975), which did little to stop inflation
1980s      Period of recession: Canadian dollar dropped in terms of the $US. This
            meant US goods more expensive, which led to more inflation
           Oil prices remained high
           Rise in interest rates-business raised prices to cover costs of borrowing
           Fewer people buying goods, less industrial production, workers fired,
            fewer taxes paid to government while government expenses were
           Stagflation: stagnant economy, high inflation, high unemployment
           Recession eased by the end of the decade
           By 1989, FIRA was eliminated (“Canada is open for business”), and the
            Free Trade Agreement with the US was signed
1990s      Government spending much more than it received in revenues-massive
            deficits, up to $40 billion/year
           Computer Age arrived
                           3. INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT
This theme focuses on the contribution Canada has made with respect to participation in
world conflicts, peacekeeping and global development.
International       Canada involved as an independent voter at the Paris Peace
involvement           Conference, 1919.
to 1945             Canada received a separate seat in the new League of Nations
                      (Canada also the first nation to dispute the idea of collective
                    Refused to assist the British in the Chanak Crisis, 1922
                    Refused to vote sanctions in the League of Nations against Japan
                      when it invaded China (1931 and again in 1937) or Italy when it
                      invaded Abyssinia in 1935.
                    World War II: fought with distinction (Battle of the Atlantic, in
                      Italy, at Normandy, liberation of the Netherlands)
Wars and            Korean War (1950-1953): fought as part of the United Nations
international         forces
involvement         Cold War: ally of the US in its ideological war against
since 1945            communism, 1945-1989, again mostly as a junior partner of the
                      US. Involved with NATO, NORAD, UN
                    Peacekeeping missions: Suez (1956-know this one for exams),
                      Congo (1960), Cyprus (1964). Yugoslavia (1992), Somalia (1994-
                      turns into international disgrace for Canada because of the murder
                      and torture of Somali citizens by Canadian soldiers)
International       Resource provider (wheat, timber) at the turn of the century.
Trade               1911-Canadians reject reciprocity (free trade) with the US
Agreements          1920s-less British influence, more American dominance in
                      Canadian industries.
                    TransCanada Pipeline, St. Lawrence Seaway, 1950s
                    Columbia River Treaty, 1964
                    Autopact, 1964
                    Free Trade Agreement, 1989
                    NAFTA, 1990s
                                4. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
This theme investigates Canada’s political system and how it works. Significant current
events pertaining to Canada’s government structure and procedures may be included.
Data will be provided in these circumstances. This chart does not describe the roles and
functions of the three levels of government, or the various branches of a democratic
government. Nor does it describe the types of federal and provincial courts and their
functions. This simply cannot be formatted into such a review. However, students are
expected to know this material. This section deals only with major changes in
government systems in Canada during the 20th century.

Era           Event
1916-1918         Women in Canada granted the right to vote (suffrage)
1926              King-Byng Crisis defined the role of the governor-general in
1920s             Creation of Canada’s first true “Third Party”, the National
1931              Statute of Westminster essentially made Canada a truly
                    independent nation
1930s             Creation of two western political parties: The CCF and the Social
                    Credit Party
                  Rowell-Sirois Royal Commission recommended new roles for
                    both the federal and provincial governments (redistribution of funds
                    and powers)
1949              Supreme Court of Canada, established in 1875, finally becomes
                    Canada’s highest court when appeals to the Privy Council are ended
                  Newfoundland joins Confederation, the 10th province to do so
1960              First Nations Peoples given the right to vote in federal elections in
1970              October Crisis in Quebec (first use of the War Measures Act in
1980              Quebec referendum on sovereignty association-rejected by
                    Quebec by a large margin
1982              Canadian constitution patriated, Charter of Rights and Freedoms
1990              Failure of the Meech Lake Accord
1992              Failure of the Charlottetown Accord
1995              Second Quebec referendum fails but by a vote of 51% to 49%
1999              Nunavit established as the third territory. Very much a modern
                    aboriginal territory
                                     5. SOCIAL ISSUES
This theme deals with issues, either historic or contemporary, that involve the well-being
of humankind. These issues may relate to government policy, a shift in public opinion, or
an evolution of legal thought. Social issues may concern matters from a national or
international perspective.


Era           Events
To 1945           By 1911, there were nearly 2 million immigrants to Canada
                     (Sifton’s “Last Best West”). Most were British, American, or
                     Central Europeans. Southern Europeans, Africans, Jews, and
                     Asians mostly excluded (too difficult to assimilate).
                  BC opposed Asian immigration (i.e. Head Tax on Chinese,
                     Chinatown Riot in 1907, and Komagatu Maru incident in 1914)
                  1939: SS St. Louis: 400 Jews not allowed to enter Canada
1946              Immigration Act-“acceptable” immigrants were British subjects,
                     and quotas were established for Asian immigrants
1947-1952         170,000 war refugees from Central Europe were permitted to enter
1962              New Immigration policies introduced: individual immigrants had to
                     demonstrate they could establish themselves and had enough
                     money to support themselves
                  Sponsorship: Canadian citizens could sponsor relatives from any
                     European country or NATO nation (this excluded Africans and
1967              Points system: minimum points awarded for education, training,
                     occupational demands, adaptability, age, etc. Once one had 50
                     points they could enter Canada
1978              New immigration guidelines adapted
                 Humanitarian (unite families)
                 Economic (what does Canada need?)
                 Demographic (increase population)
                  AND three classes of immigrants
                 Family-sponsored by a Canadian citizen
                 Refugee-people persecuted in their own countries, and
                 Economic-What occupations were needed by Canada?
                  More and more immigrants coming from Asia and Africa (17% in
                     1961-1971, up to 54% in 1981-1991)
                  Results: by 1996, 35% of Vancouver’s population was made up of
                     immigrants. More than one half of all Vancouver students were
                     enrolled in ESL.

Era           Event
1900              Women had few rights
                  Two major issues: suffrage and prohibition
                  Nellie McClung and Emily Murphy led the battle for the right to
                  The WCTU fought for prohibition
1914-1918         Women’s contributions to the war effort led to limited suffrage in
                    1917 (Wartime Elections Act) to the full right to vote in 1918.
                  Agnus Macphail became Canada’s first elected MP.
1929              Person’s Case: Privy Council overturned a Supreme Court
                    decision that disallowed Canadian women to enter the Senate.
                    Cairine Wilson became Canada’s first female senator.
                  During the boom times of the 1920s, more and more women
                    entered the work force and fought for better education prospects
World War         Women joined the Armed Forces: Canadian Army Corps and the
II (1939-           Women’s Royal Canadian Naval Service. Usually worked in
1945)               administration, as nurses or ambulance drivers-no combat roles
                  Entered the workplace in large numbers to assist in the war effort.
                    After the war, tax breaks and childcare programs were dismantled
                    to encourage women to leave the work place
1950s             The Baby Boom and the growth of suburbs led most women to
                    become housewives
                  In 1957, Ellen Fairclough became the first woman to be appointed
                    to a cabinet position in the federal government
1960s             Royal Commission on the Status of Women recommended a
                    National Action Committee (NAC) on the Status of Women, a
                    federal portfolio for women, and an end to discrimination in the
                    work force (hiring practices, wages)
1970s             Changes in school texts to eliminate sexism, affirmative action
                    programs established
1980s to          While there have been incredible changes in the status of women in
the present         Canada during the 20th century, there is still a long way to go.
                    Women still receive a much lower average wage than men, there
                    are still very few women politicians, and violence against women is
                    still a major issue.
                            French-English Relations

Era         Event
1914-1918       Conscription Crisis: English Canada felt French Canada not doing
                  its share: Major election issue, 1917, which split the country
                  between French and English voters
1935            Maurice Duplesis became Union Nationale premier of Quebec:
                  followed Quebec nationalist policies (Maitre Chez Nous)
1939-1945       Second Conscription Crisis: Just like WWI, it was felt that the
                  French were not contributing their fair share, and just like WWI
                  very few of the soldiers conscripted actually were needed overseas
1960s           Quiet Revolution: Quebec modernized and demanded more rights
                  within Confederation
                Bilingualism and Biculturalism Royal Commission:
                  recommended bilingual policies, pleased no one
                Charles De Gaulle incident in Montreal, 1967 (“Vive la Quebec
1970            October Crisis: Two prominent people kidnapped, and one, Pierre
                  LaPorte, was killed by his captors (the FLQ). Violent end of the
                  Quiet Revolution
1976            Election of the Parti Quebecois-led to Bill 101, making Quebec a
                  unilingual (French) province. Also led to the 1980 referendum on
                  sovereignty association, which Quebeckers rejected in favour of a
                  new constitution
1982            Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms became part of
                  Canada’s new Constitution. Quebec refused to sign on to the new
1987-1990       Failure of the Meech Lake Constitutional Accord, designed to
                  convince Quebec to sign the Constitution
1992            Charlottetown Accord also rejected by Canadians
1995            Second referendum-just barely rejected by Quebeckers
                Since then, separation has become a very cold issue in Quebec and
                  the rest of Canada
                                First Nations

Prior to       Indian Act had a huge impact on First Nations Peoples (FNP) lives
1920           Disease had killed 60-70% of FN population
               Cultural practices (potlatch and the Sun Dance) had been outlawed
                by the Indian Act
               Indian Act dictated “status”
               Duncan Campbell Scott: supt. of Indian Affairs, called for the
                complete assimilation of FNP
               Biggest tool of assimilation-residential schools (remove aboriginal
                children from homes at an early age, force them to abandon cultural
                practices and language). Federal government wanted to destroy the
                nomadic lifestyle, and missionaries wanted to convert FNP to
                Christianity. Meanwhile, FNP wanted their children to get an
                education to compete in the modern world
               50% of children in residential schools died of diseases contracted
                by the unhealthy living conditions of the schools, and the physical
                and sexual abuse of children was rampant
1920s          Allied Tribes formed to fight for aboriginal rights. Federal
                government responded by making it illegal to elicit funds for land
1939-1945      3000 FNP volunteered to fight in WWII (all automatically lost their
                status by joining in the war effort). Few ever received their
1946           Hearings into amending the Indian Act (“They fought for their
                country, but they were not allowed to vote”)
1948           FNP granted suffrage in BC
1960           FNP got the right to vote in federal elections
1969           Federal government recommended an end to the Indian Act. FNP
                appalled; the Act was flawed but it provided the only protection for
                rights they had. As well, Trudeau announced his plans to phase out
                the Indian Act without consulting with FNP. Plans eventually
1983           Self-government endorsed by the federal government
1986           Sechelt FN band became the first to have a form of self government
1999           Nunavit Territory established (another form of self government
                for the Inuit)
1990s          In 1992, BC decided to negotiate treaties with the BC FNP, after
                more than a century of pretending aboriginal title did not exist.
                First treaty signed with the Nisga’a in 1999.
               Treaty making in BC involves the BC Treaty Commission-issues
                involve land ownership, economic development, and education
                                 6. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
This theme focuses on a wide range of social and physical issues within the realm of
geography. An understanding of key environmental issues facing Canada and the world,
with reference to the impact humans have on their physical environment, will be
Era           Event
1900-1911           Growth of cities, such as Vancouver
                    Land in cities designated residential, business, industrial, etc.
                       Transportation always a big issue (no busses, cars, etc)
                    Huge increase in the % of people moving into cities-large working
                       class areas developed, most people lived under the poverty line.
                       Few taxes paid to cities to permit improvements in transportation or
                    High infant mortality rates because of unhealthy conditions
1919                Department of Health established in response to the influenza
                       epidemic of 1918-1919 which killed 50,000 people in Canada.
                       Attempted to improve living standards throughout Canada
1930s               Dust Bowl-poor farming methods had stripped the topsoil from
                       western farmlands, which led to droughts and dust storms
                       throughout the decade.
                    Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA)
                       established, 1935, to introduce anti-erosion measures and water-
                       storage facilities
                    Trail: Cominco smelters spewing pollution into the air with high
                       smoke stacks-destroyed local vegetation
                    Washington State complained-International Joint Commission
                       formed to examine the problem-Cominco forced to reduce its sulfur
                       output, but not until the 1960s did vegetation return to Trail
Late 1940s          Baby Boom and the post-war economic boom led to the growth of
and 1950s              suburbs and improvements in Canadian living standards
                    This increase in urban populations, along with the growth in
                       popularity of the automobile would lead to other problems, such as
                       air pollution and traffic gridlock
1960s               Damming of the Columbia River in BC-led to destruction of
                       salmon habitat, and increased farming in irrigated areas led to
                       increased use of fertilizers and pesticides flowing into the Columbia
                    Creation of Greenpeace-environmental activists who used attention
                       grabbing techniques to bring issues to the forefront of public
                       opinion (seal hunt off the East Coast, dumping of toxic waste,
                       logging old growth forests)
1970s               Acid Rain became a recognized problem
                    Higher oil prices led to the development of nuclear energy (with
                       accidents occurring at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania and in
                       Chernobyl in the Soviet Union)
1990s                Salmon stocks on the west coast had been drastically reduced
                      (overfishing), leading to a long-running dispute between Canada
                      and the US on how to deal with the issue
                     On the east coast, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland had been so
                      over-fished by both Canadian and foreign vessels that it was
                      decided to stop all cod fishing in that area, a moratorium that lasts
                      to the present day.
                     Outside of Canada and the other developed nations, there has been
                      a huge increase in the population, which has led to a reduced
                      standard of living in the developing parts of the globe

                                  Possible Questions
“Canada began the 20th century as a colony of Britain and ended it a colony of the United
States.” Evaluate this statement

Canada has had more influence on world affairs after 1945 than before 1945. Evaluate.

Describe the influence of the United States on the Canadian economy throughout the

Canada has been a good place to live for everyone throughout the 1900s. Evaluate this

Explain how women have gained rights throughout the 20th century, but still have not
reached equality with their male counterparts in the country.

How have First Nations people managed to avoid assimilation in the 20th century?

Analyse Canada’s environmental record during the 20th century.

Compare the treatment of Canada’s immigrants and First Nations peoples during the 20th

Discuss the role of the prime minister (or cabinet, executive branch, judicial branch,
legislative branch, governor general, premier, etc.)

Compare the jurisdictions of the federal and provincial governments in Canada. In your
answer, explain why there may be conflict between the two levels of government during
the 20th century.
A good answer should include the following:
“Canada began the 20th century as a colony of Britain and ended it a colony of the United
States.” Evaluate this statement

A strong thesis: Explain to the reader exactly what you set out to prove.
    “It is true that both Britain and the United States have had a great deal of
       influence on Canadian affairs throughout the 20th century. However, there have
       been many instances when Canada has clearly asserted its independence.”

Definitions (if necessary): Be clear about what you are describing in your answer. For
example, if you wanted to describe Canada’s role as a colony, you should explain exactly
what you mean by colony and how it applies to your answer.
    “In this instance, a colony means when one nation has a great deal of influence
       over another, either militarily, politically, economically, or culturally.”

Appropriate examples from throughout the century:
   “Canada did send troops to assist Britain during World War I, but insisted that
     Canada have a say in how they were used in an Imperial War Cabinet”;
   “Canada did not send assistance to Britain during the Chanak Crisis in 1922”;
   “While Canada’s military policies after World War II were greatly influenced by
     the United States (i.e NATO, NORAD, northern radar bases), Canada also did not
     follow American policies on China after 1970 and the Canadians offered
     sanctuary to American draft dodgers during the Vietnam War.”

Be certain to provide details about each of your examples.
    “In 1922, Britain asked the dominions to send troops to Turkey in order to put
       down a potential revolt against British rule in the country. However, Canada
       chose not to participate. The general feeling in the country was that we had just
       finished fighting a major war, and that Britain’s dispute with the Turks was not
       Canada’s concern. Prime Minister Mackenzie King informed the British that
       Canada could not simply send troops whenever Britain required assistance to get
       out of a jam. King told the British that this was a matter for Parliament to decide.
       However, Parliament was not in session and King refused to call it together until
       the crisis was over. Thus, the Chanak Crisis became the first time Canada refused
       to send help to Britain when she called for Canadian help.”

A strong conclusion:
    “Both Britain and the United States have greatly influenced Canadian policies
       during the 20th century. However, as the noted in the examples, their influence
       has not led to Canada being a “colony” of either nation. Instead, Canada has
       attempted to assert its independence in nearly every situation in dealing with both
       of these powerful nations. During World War I, …”
                        SOCIAL STUDIES 11
                                        TOTAL %

                   1. Skills and Processes                            *
                   2. Geography                                   31%
                   3. History                                     45%
                   4. Government                                  24%

The values in this table are approximate. The weighting of each topic reflects the
percentages represented by the PLOs in the Social Studies 11 Integrated Resource
Package, 1997.

* Topic 1, Skills and Processes, applies equally to Topics 2 to 4 and, therefore, will be
examined within the parameters of these three organizers.
The time allowed for the provincial examination is two hours. Students may, however,
take up to30 minutes of additional time to finish.

                              Examination Configuration:

              Matching Questions         up to 15% of the examination
           True-and-False Questions          up to 15% of the examination
              Multiple-Choice Questions up to 55% of the examination
              Written-Response Questions       27% of the examination
                          SOCIAL STUDIES 11
The Social Studies 11 examination will include key processes/concepts, figures, and
events within the time period extending from 1914 to the year 2000. Relevant data will
be provided for questions testing topics of a current nature.

The provincial examination is divided into two parts:

PART A: Selected-Response questions worth 73% of the examination (66 marks).
The question types will include multiple-choice questions, true-and- false questions,
andmatching questions.

PART B: Written-Response questions worth 27% of the examination (24 marks).
Students will be required to answer two multi-paragraph written-response questions
worth 12 marks each. Each question will draw on one of the following themes:
    Autonomy
    Economic cycles
    International involvement
    System of government
    Social issues
    Environmental issues
                           SOCIAL STUDIES 11

The prescribed learning outcomes (PLOs) in Skills and Processes emphasize the skills
and processes required for the critical study of Social Studies 11. The PLOs are
interconnected rather than discrete and are examined through integration with other

This topic deals with economic and environmental issues such as economic activity,
developed and developing nations, standards of living, demography, urban growth,
resource issues, sustainable development and key environmental issues facing the global

This topic deals with social, cultural, political and economic issues in the evolutionary
development of Canada from 1914–2000. World War One, the 1920s and 1930s, World
War Two, and post-war Canada from both a domestic and international perspective are
included under this topic.

This topic deals with political and legal issues related to the structure and function of
Canada’s three levels of government, political parties and their ideologies, and the
political process. The Canadian Constitution, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms,
federal, provincial and municipal law, human rights legislation and the implications of
the Indian Act are included under this topic.
                     SOCIAL STUDIES 11
Successful results can be achieved by addressing the specifics of the question. Most
questions contain a key-word or command term. The following list will help students to
read, analyze, and respond to written-response questions more effectively.

                         Support or refute a statement; give the positive or negative
       AGREE OR
                         features; express an informed opinion one way or the other;
                         list the advantages for or against.

                         To divide a complex whole into its component parts. This
       ANALYZE           process should involve not only breaking down the whole, but
                         also showing the relationship between the various elements.

                         Command words such as these strongly suggest to the student
      ASSESS THE         that two schools of thought exist about a given subject. These
      DEGREE / TO        questions often involve weighing the relative merit of
     WHAT EXTENT         conflicting points of view; e.g., negative vs. positive, strong
                         vs. weak, fundamental vs. immediate.

      COMPARE /          Give an estimate of the similarity and dissimilarity of one
     COMPARE AND         event or issue to another; give an estimate of the relationship
      CONTRAST           between two things.

       CONTRAST          Give an estimate of the difference between two things.

                         Give the meaning of a word or concept and provide a relevant

       DESCRIBE          Give a detailed account of a situation.

                         Present the various points of view as in a debate or argument.
        DISCUSS          Points-of-view arising from the topic should be supported
                         and/or challenged.

                         Making a judgement which involves determining the value of
       EVALUATE          a statement and/or assessing the relative significance of that

                         Make plain or intelligible the relationship which is asked for;
        EXPLAIN          e.g., Explain the similarities between . . . , or Explain the
                         differences between . . . .

       GIVE THE          Present information which determines the importance of an
    SIGNIFICANCE OF      event or issue. Quite often used to show causation.
              Clearly establish the identity of something based on an
              understood set of considerations; recognize the unique
              qualities of something and state the criteria used to identify it.
              Often used in conjunction with EXPLAIN.

              Defend or agree with a particular, predetermined point-of-
              view; give evidence, reasons, or examples.

             Give a catalogue of names, ideas, or events which belong to a
             particular class of items.

             Give a description of only the main features; summarize the
             principal parts of a thing, idea, or event.

             Give an account of the main points. This implies a degree of
SUMMARIZE    evaluation as the student weighs the relative merit of the more
             important versus the more trivial.

             Give the points in favour of, or opposed to, a predetermined
             point of view or particular position. Also see AGREE /
             DISAGREE. While students should generally support or refute
             the given statement, their responses may include opposing
                      SOCIAL STUDIES 11
An essay may or may not conform to each and every descriptor within a
particular scale point. The marker should classify the essay into a category
based on general impression rather than by checking off each descriptor.
                                          6 Answer
              Thesis is supported with precise and relevant details.
              Content is applied in a superior manner; all major points are identified.
              Documents are insightfully analyzed and evaluated. Sophisticated
               conclusions drawn.
              Expression is clear and fluent with few flaws in communication.

                                          5 Answer
              Thesis is consistently supported.
              Content is applied in a proficient manner; most major points are
              Documents are thoroughly analyzed and evaluated. Effective
               conclusions are drawn.
              Expression is generally fluent with few flaws in communication.

                                          4 Answer
              Thesis is evident with some supporting evidence.
              Content is applied in a competent manner; many major points are
              Documents are satisfactorily analyzed and evaluated. Adequate
               conclusions are drawn.
              Expression is sufficiently fluent with few flaws.

                                          3 Answer
              Thesis is attempted with limited supporting details.
              Content is applied in a satisfactory manner; some major points are
              Documents are minimally analyzed and evaluated. Few or flawed
              Expression is satisfactory with limitations and flaws.
                               2 Answer

   Thesis is insufficient.
   Content is applied in a poor manner; insufficient points are identified.
   Documents are poorly analyzed and no conclusions evident.
   Expression is awkward, which impedes understanding.

                               1 Answer

   Thesis is irrelevant.
   Content is vague; major points are absent.
   Documents are not analyzed.
   Expression is full of errors, making understanding difficult.

                               0 Answer

   While writing is evident, no attempt has been made to address the
    topic given or the writing is illegible.

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