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					NAME                                                                             TYPE
ABS, acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene.                                        Polymer
Acrylic sheet, Perspex, polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA                             Polymer
Alumina, corundum                                                                Ceramic
Aluminium                                                                        Element, Metal
Aluminium alloy, aluminium-copper alloy                                          Metal, Alloy
Areated concrete block                                                           Composite
Balsa                                                                            Natural, Wood
Beech                                                                            Natural, Wood
Bone                                                                             Composite, Natural
Bone china, vitreous china, porcelain                                            Ceramic
Brass, 70/30 Brass, yellow brass                                                 Metal, Alloy
Breeze block                                                                     Composite
Bronze, tin bronze                                                               Metal, Alloy
Carbon fibre epoxy laminate                                                      Composite, Polymer
Cast iron                                                                        Metal, Alloy
China clay, kaolin                                                               Ceramic, Natural, Mineral
Chipboard                                                                        Composite, Wood
Chromium-molybdenum low alloy steel                                              Metal, Alloy
Clay bricks, engineering bricks                                                  Ceramic
Copper, high conductivity copper                                                 Element, Metal
Douglas fir                                                                      Natural, Wood
Earthenware, vitreous china, vitreous earthenware.                               Ceramic
Electrical porcelain, steatite glass.                                            Ceramic, Glass
Fibreboard - softboard, medium boards, hardboards, medium density fibreboards.   Composite, Wood
Gallium arsenide                                                                 Semiconductor
Glass                                                                            Glass
Glass reinforced dough moulding compound (unsaturated polyester based)           Composite, Polymer
Gold                                                                             Element, Metal, Natural
Granite                                                                          Natural, Mineral
Hardboard                                                                        Composite, Wood
High carbon steel                                                                Metal, Alloy
High density polyethene, HDPE, polythene                                         Polymer
High temperature superconductor                                                  Ceramic
Lead                                                                             Element, Metal
Leather, suede                                                                   Natural
Low density polyethene, LDPE, polythene                                          Polymer
Magnesium                                                                        Element, Metal
Magnesium alloy, magnesium yttrium alloy.                                        Metal, Alloy
Marble                                                                           Natural, Mineral
Mild steel, BS 970                                                               Metal, Alloy
Natural rubber latex concentrate                                                 Natural, Polymer, Rubber
Natural rubber, Isoprene rubber                                                  Natural, Polymer, Rubber
Nylon, polyamide 6.6"                                                            Polymer
Oak                                                                              Natural, Wood
Pewter                                                                           Metal, Alloy
Plaster of Paris                                                                 Natural, Mineral
Plywood, 3ply Douglas fir plywood                                                Composite, Wood
Polystyrene                                                                      Polymer
PTFE, polytetrafluoroethene, Teflon (DuPont), Fluon (ICI)                        Polymer
PVC, rigid PVC, poly vinyl chloride                                              Polymer
Sandstone                                                                        Natural, Mineral
Scots Pine                                                             Natural, Wood
Silicon carbide, Carborundum                                           Ceramic
Silicon                                                                Element, Semiconductor
Silicone rubber sealant, Silastic.                                     Rubber
Silver                                                                 Element, Metal
Silver solder, brazing solder                                          Metal, Alloy
Slate                                                                  Natural, Mineral
Solder, soft solder, tin lead alloy                                    Metal, Alloy
Stainless steel, austenitic stainless steel, 304 stainless             Metal, Alloy
Tin                                                                    Element, Metal
Titanium, commercial purity titanium.                                  Element, Metal
Uranium                                                                Element, Metal
Urea resin, urea formaldehyde moulding material (cellulose filled)."   Composite, Polymer
Wool                                                                   Natural, Textile
INTRO
ABS has a very good combination of mechanical properties, heat and chemical resistance, at a cost lower than most engineerin
Compared to many other polymers - excellent outdoor weatherability, clarity (clear variants only), good flexural strength, good s
A white ceramic solid , with great hardness and compressive strength which is retained to high temperatures. Its hardness is ne
Hard strong, silver-white metal with a hard oxide layer formed by reacting with air and water. The basis of many alloys (having n
A silvery grey metal of low density and high strength. It conducts both heat and electricity very well. It has good corrosion resista
Aerated concrete blocks are made by including chemicals in the concrete mix which form gas bubbles as the concrete is setting
This very low density wood has an uneven texture and is porous. It is called a 'hardwood' (despite its softness) because the tree
A light coloured hardwood, used in large quantities in the UK for building applications.
Bone is produced by all vertebrates. It is stiff, low density and tough material.
This translucent, white material is impervious to water and strong making it ideal for tableware (cups, saucers, plates, etc), orna
A yellow metal which is strong and has good corrosion resistance. It is easily machined and conducts heat and electricity well. W
Breeze blocks are concrete blocks made from the coke furnace ashes and used mainly y in the construction of buildings. They
A yellowy-brown metal with good strength and corrosion resistance. Widely used in the construction of pumps and bearings.
Industrial use of carbon fibre often uses the 'prepreg' form. This takes many forms (eg a reel of tape, a roll of cloth, etc). It is ma
In 1948 it was discovered that by a treatment of molten cast iron with the rare earth element cerium, iron castings could be prod
A white powder or lump useful for its white colour and the production of high temperature ceramic products. The UK's largest e
A wood-based building board made from small wood chips bonded together with resin and capable of being machined. Used in
A grey metal with a high strength. Useful for mechanical applications in the engineering industry.
Engineering bricks are commonly available in three colours (red, blue/black, buff/yellow). They are a particularly high quality bri
This very pure form of copper has a reddish yellow colour and has excellent thermal and electrical conductivities. It is widely us
Softwood used in the building industry.
This white/cream material is normally coated in glaze to provide a water proof coating. It is commonly used for tableware (cups
A hard, ceramic/glass used for electrical insulation applications.
A family of brown (normally) wood-based panel boards available in a range of sizes and densities. Used in a wide range of build
Semiconductor with specific use in opto-electronic devices. Similar wafer production to silicon (see - Silicon: Introduction).
There is a wide range of glass types (bottles, jars, flat glass for windows, laboratory glass, optical glass, etc). Each type has its
A fibrous putty which can be moulded with good accuracy (it has low shrinkage), and has excellent dimensional stability. It has
A very ductile metal completely free of oxide film with the third highest electrical conductivity makes it ideally suited for electrica
This fine-grained rock can have a variety of colours including white, light grey and pink. It is used as a building stone (polished a
A hard, brown sheet material. Normally smooth one side and patterned on the other. One example from a family of boards (see
A grey metal of high strength. Used when high strength is required in mechanical applications. Corrodes on contact with water.
Low cost, easily processed material with a good resistance to impact. Higher strength and stiffness than low density polyethene
In 1988 a ceramic made from four metal elements was found to have no electrical resistance at all. 'Superconductors' had been
This blue-grey metal is soft, dense and has a low melting temperature. It is used in lead-acid batteries, and roofing.
Leather and suede are tanned animal skin or hide. Each type of skin has a characteristic 3 dimensional weave which is resistan
Has a variety of useful properties - low cost, waterproof, transparent, thermoplastic, flexible, etc. These make it a widespread m
A low density metal, in the pure form magnesium has no structural applications (these use magnesium alloys) but it is used for
A shiny metallic alloy with a very low density, suitable for structural use. It has good elevated temperature properties and good c
A beautiful stone, used for its appearance and hardness in building/architectural applications.
A grey metal of low cost and high strength. Useful for most types of general engineering and construction applications. Corrode
A white liquid used for dipped articles, extruded threads, foam rubber and adhesives. The rubber produced has a very high elas
Often finished as a black rubber (amber or brown bales in raw state). Used extensively in vehicle tyres.
A colourless, translucent polymer with a good combination of mechanical properties (strong, stiff, tough). Used for a wide range
A hard wood used in the building, furniture and marine construction industries. It is strong and durable.
Pewter has an attractive appearance, low melting point and high flexibility/ductility. It does not work-harden. Traditionally a tin (8
A white powder which sets rapidly after mixing with water. Heat is generated when setting. Suffers little shrinkage during setting
Plywood is made from several thin layers of wood glued together (with the grain of each layer running at 90 degrees to the prev
Polystyrene is easily moulded and produces results which show brilliance and clarity and have a good surface hardness. A very
PTFE is often used for its slippery surface, it is also very resistant to chemicals. For a plastic, it has a high melting point (and ex
An engineering plastic suitable for a wide range of (non-demanding) applications. Can be coloured, transparent or opaque.
A yellow/brownish rock that is easily machined and worked. Used for building and architectural applications.
Yellowish/reddish brown wood with a straight grain, used for joinery and in the building industry.
As with all engineering ceramics, high temperature strength and corrosion resistance make silicon carbide attractive. The good
Silicon is widely used in the electronics industry as a semiconductor base for electronic components such as integrated circuits
Silicone rubber is very flexible and has good adhesive properties. It is suitable for use over a wide range of temperatures (-50Þ
A pure white metal with a characteristic silver sheen. It is soft and malleable. It is stable in oxygen and water but is attacked by
Silver solder is used to join two pieces of metal together. There are two grades of silver solder in common use 'Easy Running' a
This grey (layered) stone is easily split into thin sheets which are used for roofing purposes in buildings.
An alloy with a low melting point and good 'wetting' properties when molten (ie it flows freely over surfaces), and a good electric
A silvery grey metal of high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. It is widely used in the food and catering industries.
A malleable, ductile metal. Non-toxic, corrosion resistant, low melting point and low coefficient of friction. Good electrical condu
This grey, low-density - high strength metal is a particularly valuable material for use in aerospace applications. Titanium alloys
A high-density metal which has the important property of being able to support nuclear fission. Its main application is as a nucle
Urea has a good appearence, high rigidity, durability and good electrical properties. It is a thermosetting polymer.
Wool is hard wearing and keeps its texture during frequent use. It is bulky yet lightweight and has good thermal insulation prope
             APPEARS
             Opaque or transparent. Various colours.
             Brittle plastic - wide range of colours, transparent, translucent and opaque varieties.
             White solid.
             Silver white metal. Low density.
             Silvery grey colour, easily marked by many other materials, non-magnetic.
             Lightweight concrete coloured blocks (often 45cm x 10cm x 23cm).
softness) because the tree sheds its leaves each year.
             White to pale brown wood.
             Normally cream colour (can vary through to blood red).
             Translucent white material.
             Yellow metal, non-magnetic.
             Normally large, concrete coloured blocks (often 45cm x 10cm x 23cm).
             Yellowy-brown metal, non-magnetic.
             Black, grained material showing carbon fibres aligned in epoxy resin.
             Dark grey castings - machine to a silvery finish.
             White powder or lump.
             Generally pale-beige in colour with smooth sanded surfaces. Wooden chips are often visible.
             Grey metal. Magnetic.
             Red, blue/black or buff/yellow. Very hard compared to many other brick types, do not absorb water. (They often have a charact
             Reddish yellow metal.
             Softwood.
             Grey-white to cream, normally having a glazed finish.
             Hard ceramic/glass mass.
             Varies with the type of board.
             Dull, metallic appearance.
             Varies. Soda-lime glass is basically colourless and transparent.
             Normally is coloured with pigment.
             A dense, yellow metal with a characteristic gold sheen. Non magnetic.
             A fine grained rock. Can be white, light grey, pink, yellowish (or more rarely greenish). Hard compared to many other rocks.
             Hard, brown sheet material 1.3mm to 9.5mm thick. Normally smooth finish on one side and patterned on the other.
             Grey metal, rusts if unprotected from water, magnetic.
             Colourless, translucent/transparent.
uperconductors' had been found before, but the highest temperature at which they could operate was -240ðC.
             Blue-grey metal which is shiny/silvery when scratched. Non-magnetic.
             Leather has a variety of appearances depending on the source animal.
             Colourless, transparent/translucent, waxy feel.
             Dull, grey when cast. Scratching the surface reveals a silvery appearance. Non-magnetic.
             Shiny metal when cut, dull grey when cast. Low density, non-magnetic.
             Many different varieties, often multi-coloured, veined or speckled.
             Grey metal, rusts if unprotected from water, magnetic.
             White liquid, reminiscent of cream.
             Amber or brown bales in raw state. Varies in finished product, but usually black.
             Colourless, translucent.
             Fawn colour (when planed) with a fine wavy grain.
             Grey/silver colour, soft, non magnetic.
             Very fine, pure white powder before mixing. Soft, pure white solid when set.
             Wood, with layered construction.
             Varied. Produced as pellets for use in injection moulding, sheets and many other forms. Comes in all colours.
             Colourless, translucent.
             Varies. Can be coloured. Ranges from transparent to opaque.
             Course yellow/brownish rock. A relatively soft rock.
Yellowish/reddish brown wood with a straight grain.
Hard grey/black ceramic.
Dull, grey, metallic apperance.
Paste consistency which cures to flexible rubber on exposure to atmospheric moisture. May give off a vinegar smell on curing.
White with characteristic silvery sheen.
Silvery metal.
Grey, flat, flaky, layered stone. Soft.
Silver coloured metal, dense, non magnetic.
Silvery grey metal with a yellowish tinge.
The common form is a silvery white metal.
Matt grey metal, can easily be coloured by anodising.
A dull, grey metal. Non magnetic.
Irregular granular appearance. Pale coloured or colourless and translucent, urea can take dyes and tints and is generally availa
Greasy white fibre in fleece form.
MADEFROM

Polymer of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. C, H, O.
Oxide of aluminium. Al2O3. Al, O.
Aluminium. Al.
Alloy of aluminium and copper with other trace elements. Al, 4-5% Cu, with Si, Mn, Mg, Zn
Portland cement, sand and chemical additives.
Wood.
Wood.
40% hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) in collagen.
Si, P, Ca, Mg, Na, K, O, Al (impurities include organic materials, Fe, Ti, Cr).
Alloy of copper (70%) and zinc (30%). Cu, Zn.
3 parts coke breeze (furnace ashes), 1 part sand, 1 part Portland cement.
Alloy of copper (90%) and tin (10%). Cu, Sn.
Carbon fibres and epoxy resin.
Iron, carbon (graphite), cerium. Fe, C, Ce.
Crystalline structure of aluminium, silicon, oxygen and hydrogen. Al, Si, O, H.
Wood particles, urea formaldehyde, paraffin wax.
Mainly Fe, C(0.4%), Si(0.2%), Mn(0.9%), P(0.35%), S(0.035%), Cr(1.1%), Mo(0.2%)
SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, CaO, MgO, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, SO3, FeS2.
Pure copper metal, Cu
Wood.
Si, Al, Ca, Mg, K, Na, O. (Main impurities - Fe, Ti).
Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Na, K, O.
Cellulose fibre, (urea formaldehyde, paraffin wax).
Gallium, arsenic. Ga, As.
Typically 73% silica, 15% sodium oxide, 8% calcium oxide, 2% magnesium oxide, 2% aluminium oxide. SiO2, Na2O, CaO, Mg

Gold. Au.
Quartz, feldspar, mica. SiO2.
Cellulose fibre (tempered hardboards may contain linseed oil).
Mainly iron. Fe, C (0.55%), Si (0.25%), Mn (0.7%), S (0.05% max), P (0.05% max).
Carbon and hydrogen.
A ceramic oxide of thallium, calcium, barium and copper. Tl, Ca, Ba, Cu, O.
Lead. Pb.
Cross linked protein.
Carbon and hydrogen. CH2. C, H.
Magnesium. Mg.
Magnesium, yttrium (4%), neodymium (2.25%), other heavy rare earths (1%), Zirconium (0.5%). Mg, Y, Nd, Zr.
CaCO3. Calcium carbonate. Calcium, carbon, oxygen. Coloured veining produced by trace elements.
Mainly iron. Fe, C (0.2%), Si (0.30%), Mn (0.7%), P (0.05% max), S (0.05% max).
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. C, H, O. Hydrocarbon cis-polyisoprene.
Carbon and hydrogen. C, H. Hydrocarbon Cis-polyisoprene.
Family of amide co-polymers. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. C, H, O, N.
Wood.
Tin (92%), antimony (3%-5%), copper (1%-3%).
Calcium Sulphate. 2CaSO4.H2O as plaster before mixing - CaSO4.2H2O when set.
Wood and glue.
Also called poly(phenylethene). Carbon and hydrogen. C, H.
Carbon and fluorine. C, F. Additions of bronze, graphite and glass can improve specific properties.
Chlorine, carbon and hydrogen. C, Cl, H.
Silicon, oxygen. Si, O. SiO2.
Wood.
Silicon and carbon. Si, C.
Pure silicon. Si.
Polydimethylsiloxane and fillers.
Silver. Ag.
Silver, copper and zinc. 16-52% copper, 4-38% zinc, 10-80% silver (hard=78% silver, easy = 67% silver). Ag, Cu, Zn.
Mainly SiO2, Al2O3 and iron oxides.
Alloy, commonly tin (60%) and lead (40%). Sn, Pb.
Mainly iron with other elements in specific quantities. Fe, C (0.03%), Si (1%), Mn (2%), P (0.045%), S (0.03%), Cr (17-19%), Ni
Tin - Sn.
Titanium, Ti.
Uranium metal. U.
Complex urea formaldehyde polymer. Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen. C, O, N, H.
DENSITYV    DENSITY          TSV TS                   STIFFNESSV   STIFFNESS DUCTILITYV DUCTILITY
     1040   Low                40 Fair                         1.9 Moderate
     1189   Low                80 Fair                         3.2 Moderate
     3900   Moderate                                          350  Very high
     2700   Moderate          80 Fair                           70 High
     2800   High             480 Very strong                 70.6  High               11 Ductile
      900   Low                                                 22 High                  Brittle
      176   Low                25 Weak                         3.2 Moderate
      737   Low                                              9.79  Moderate
     2100   Moderate         100 Fair                           16 Moderate
     2850   Moderate             Weak                           90 High                0 Brittle
     8550   High             400 Very strong                  117  High               70 Highly ductile
     1400   Moderate                                            30 High                  Brittle
     8800   High             270 Strong                       100  High               14 Ductile
     1500   Low                                                    Not available     1.3 Ductile
     7200   High             500 Very strong                   175 Very high           7 Ductile
     2630   Moderate           1 Weak                              Not available         Not available
      858   Low                  Weak                            2 Moderate              Brittle
     7830   High             920 Very strong                   211 Very high          13 Ductile
     2950   Moderate             Weak                                                  0 Brittle
     8900   High             380 Very strong                   117 High             55.4 Highly ductile
      530   Low               18 Weak                         16.4 Moderate
     2650   Moderate             Weak                           40 High                0 Brittle
     2200   Moderate          57 Fair                           75 High                0 Brittle
            Low                  Weak                              Low
     5317   High
     2500   Moderate         100 Fair                           70 High                  0 Brittle
     1800   Low               35 Fair
    19300   Very high        100 Fair                          71     High              45 Highly ductile
     2600   Moderate                                           30     High
      900   Low               23 Weak                           4     Moderate
     7830   High             850 Very strong                  205     Very high         13 Ductile
      950   Low               29 Weak                           1     Moderate        1000 Ductile

    11340   Very high         16    Weak                      16.1 Moderate             30 Highly ductile
     1000   Low, (typical)    26    Weak                                                50 Highly ductile
      918   Low               15    Weak, (typical)           0.18    Low              400 Highly ductile
     1700   Low               90    Fair                         45   High
     1840   Low              252    Strong                    44.1    High               7 Ductile
     2800   Moderate                                             35   High
     7840   High             430 Very strong                   210    Very high         16 Ductile
      950   Low                                                   0
     1150   Low                24 Weak                            0   Low                  Not available
     1120   Low                65 Fair                          3.2   Moderate          60 Highly ductile
      720   Low                21 Weak                        8.34    Moderate
     7280   High               52 Fair                           53   Moderate          50 Highly ductile
      700   Low                   Weak
      525   Low                48 Fair                          12    Moderate
     1050   Low                40 Fair                           3    Moderate          2.8 Ductile
     2100   Moderate                                           0.5    Low              320 Highly ductile
     1500   Low                45 Fair, (typical)                3    Moderate           21 Highly ductile
     2700   Moderate
                     510   Low                                  10   Moderate
                    3100   Moderate          Not available    400    Very high         Not available
                    2329   Moderate                           131    Very high
                    1040   Low           2 Weak                0.4   Low         590 Highly ductile
                   10500   Very high   250 Strong               83   High
er). Ag, Cu, Zn.
                    2800   Moderate
                    8520   High         55   Fair            29.99   Moderate     60   Highly ductile
                    7900   High        480   Very strong       200   Very high    35   Highly ductile
                    7290   High         10   Weak               50   High         75   Highly ductile
                    4510   Moderate    230   Strong            116   High         54   Highly ductile
                   19040   Very high   386   Very strong       166   Very high    10   Ductile
                    1500   Low          50   Fair             8.27   Moderate
                    1310   Low
HARDNESSV HARDNESS MELTSAT MELTS                   MAXUSETEMP SPECIFICHV SPECIFICH
           Soft
           Soft                                             80       1500 Moderate
           Very hard                                      1600       1070 Moderate
           Moderate       660 500-1000C                               899 Low
       142 Moderate       585 500-1000C                    150        900 Low
           Soft
           Soft               Does not melt
           Soft               Does not melt
           Soft
           Hard                                                       700 Low
       120 Moderate       930 500-1000C                    200        372 Low
           Soft
        80 Soft          1020 1000-1500C                   250            Not available
           Soft                                            230
       160 Moderate      1540 1500-2000C                              466 Low
           Not available 1750 1500-2000C                  1500        962 Low
           Soft               Does not melt                               Not available
       290 Moderate      1450 1000-1500C                   500        473 Low
           Hard          1000 1000-1500C                   900        800 Low
        80 Soft          1083 1000-1500C                   200        385 Low
           Soft               Does not melt
           Hard                                                       700 Low
           Hard
           Soft               Does not melt
           Soft          1240 1000-1500C
           Moderate       650 500-1000C, (typical)         300
           Not available                                   180
           Soft          1063 1000-1500C                              129 Low
           Very hard                                                  820 Low
           Soft               Does not melt
       270 Hard          1477 1000-1500C                   500        477 Low
           Soft           130 0-500C                       120       2300 Moderate
           Moderate
         4 Soft           327 0-500C                                  129 Low
           Not available                                   250
           Soft           120 0-500C                        85       2300 Moderate
           Soft           649 500-1000C                              1046 Moderate
           Moderate       540 500-1000C                    250        966 Low
           Hard                                                       900 Low
           Moderate      1530 1500-2000C                   500        477 Low
           Not available                                   150
           Soft           220 0-500C                        80       1500 Moderate
           Soft                                            110       1700 Moderate
           Soft               Does not melt
           Soft           290 0-500C
           Not available
           Soft               Does not melt
           Soft                                             65       1300 Moderate
           Soft           260 0-500C                       260
        75 Soft               Not available                          1000 Moderate
           Moderate                                                   800 Low
   Soft                   Does not melt
   Very hard                              1650
   Moderate        1412 1000-1500C         250   700 Low
30 Soft                                    200
   Soft             962 500-1000C                235 Low
   Soft             775 500-1000C         800
   Hard
   Soft             188   0-500C          200    150   Low
   Hard            1420   1000-1500C      750    490   Low
   Soft             232   0-500C                 219   Low
   Soft            1933   1500-2000C             522   Low
   Soft            1133   1000-1500C      500    116   Low
   Soft                                    80
   Not available          Does not melt   100
TCONDUCTV   TCONDUCT TEXPANDV TEXPAND ECONDUCTV ECONDUCT
        0   Poor           100 Moderate                0 Insulator
        0   Poor             77 Moderate               0 Insulator
       30   Good              7 Low                      Insulator
      238   Very good        23 Low             37667609 Conductor
      180   Very good     22.5 Low                277800 Conductor
        0   Poor             12 Low                    0 Insulator
        0   Poor            0.2 Low                    0 Insulator
            Poor                                       0 Insulator
            Poor                                       0 Insulator
        1   Moderate        3.5 Low                    0 Insulator
      121   Very good     19.9 Low              15040000 Conductor
        0   Poor             12 Low                    0 Insulator
       63   Good             18 Low              5556000 Conductor
            Moderate        0.5 Low                    0 Semiconductor
       32   Good             10 Low              1818000 Conductor
            Not available     5 Low                    0 Insulator
        0   Poor                Not available          0 Insulator
       42   Good          12.8 Low                   378 Conductor
        0   Poor              6 Low                    0 Insulator
      394   Very good     14.1 Low             100000080 Conductor
        0   Poor            3.5 Low                    0 Insulator
            Moderate        3.5 Low                    0 Insulator
            Moderate        4.5 Low                    0 Insulator
            Poor                                       0 Insulator
       55   Good          5.73 Low                     0 Semiconductor
        0   Poor              9 Low                    0 Insulator
            Not available                                Insulator
      300   Very good        14 Low             49020009 Conductor
        3   Moderate        7.5 Low                    0 Insulator
        0   Poor                                         Insulator
       50   Good             11 Low              5000000 Conductor
        0   Poor           110 Moderate                0 Insulator
            Moderate                          1000000000 Conductor
       34   Good             29 Low                51870 Conductor
            Poor                                         Insulator
        0   Poor           175 High                    0 Insulator
      150   Very good        25 Low             25640009 Conductor
       51   Good          26.7 Low               6757000 Conductor
        2   Moderate          4 Low                    0 Insulator
       48   Good          12.4 Low               6000000 Conductor
            Not available                                Insulator
        0   Poor           180 High                    0 Insulator
        0   Poor             80 Moderate               0 Insulator
        0   Poor              3 Low                    0 Insulator
            Good                                         Conductor
        0   Poor             11 Low                    0 Insulator
        0   Poor              7 Low                    0 Insulator
        0   Poor             70 Moderate               0 Insulator
        0   Poor             99 Moderate               0 Insulator
            Poor             10 Low                    0 Insulator
        1   Moderate         12 Low                    0 Insulator
  0   Poor                              0   Insulator
125   Very good   4.02    Low           0   Insulator
131   Very good     4.2   Low        1000   Semiconductor
  0   Poor         310    High          0   Insulator
418   Very good   19.2    Low    66670009   Conductor
      Good                                  Conductor
 1    Moderate      11    Low          0    Insulator
50    Good          24    Low    6671000    Conductor
14    Good        16.3    Low    1429000    Conductor
62    Good        19.9    Low    2320000    Conductor
17    Good         7.6    Low    2320000    Conductor
28    Good        13.5    Low    3448000    Conductor
 0    Poor          40    Low          0    Insulator
      Poor                             0    Insulator
FORM
Moulding, Pellets, Rod, Sheet, Strip
Rod, Sheet
Moulding, Powder
Foil, Sheet
Rod, Tube, Wire
Block, Brick, Lump
Plank, Sheet, Strip
Plank, Strip


Bar, Casting, Foil, Moulding, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube, Wire
Block/brick/lump
Casting
Sheet, Strip, Textile/woven
Casting
Granules, Pellets, Powder
Sheet
Bar, Casting, Ingot, Rod
Block, Brick, Lump
Bar, Casting, Foil, Ingot, Moulding, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube, Wire
Plank, Rod, Strip

Moulding
Sheet
Bar, Wafer
Bar, Fibre, Granules, Rod, Sheet, Tube
Moulding
Bar, Casting, Foil, Ingot, Sheet, Strip, Wire
Block, Brick, Lump
Sheet
Bar, Casting, Ingot
Bar, Fibre, Moulding, Pellets, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube

Bar, Casting, Foil, Ingot, Pellets, Powder, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube, Wire
Sheet, Textile/woven
Bar, Granules, Moulding, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube
Granules, Ingot, Powder
Bar, Casting, Ingot, Wire
Block, Brick, Lump
Bar, Ingot, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube, Wire
Liquid
Moulding, Powder
Bar, Moulding, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Textile/woven, Tube
Plank, Strip
Sheet
Powder
Sheet
Moulding, Sheet
Granules, Moulding, Powder, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube
Bar, Moulding, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube
Block, Brick, Lump
Plank, Strip
Moulding, Powder
Bar, Wafer
Paste
Bar, Foil, Ingot, Sheet, Strip, Wire
Rod, Strip, Wire
Sheet, Block, Brick, Lump
Bar, Ingot, Strip, Wire
Bar, Casting, Foil, Ingot, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube, Wire
Ingot
Bar, Rod, Sheet, Strip, Tube
Bar, Rod
Granules, Moulding, Powder
Textile, Woven
CUT?
Hacksaw
Hacksaw
Special methods needed
Hacksaw, Scissors
Hacksaw, Snips
Scratch and snap, Special methods needed
Hacksaw, Sharp knife, Wood saw
Wood saw
Hacksaw
Not normally applicable
Hacksaw, Snips
Scratch and snap, Special methods needed, Not normally applicable
Hacksaw
Scissors, Sharp knife
Hacksaw
Not normally applicable
Wood saw
Hacksaw
Scratch and snap, Special methods needed
Hacksaw, Snips
Wood saw
Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
Sharp knife, Wood saw
Scratch and snap, Special methods needed
Scratch and snap
Hacksaw
Hacksaw, Snips
Special methods needed
Sharp knife, Wood saw
Hacksaw
Hacksaw, Sharp knife, Snips

Hacksaw
Scissors, Sharp knife
Hacksaw, Scissors, Sharp knife, Snips
Hacksaw
Hacksaw
Scratch and snap
Hacksaw
Not normally applicable
Scissors, Sharp knife, Snips
Hacksaw
Wood saw
Hacksaw, Snips
Not normally applicable
Wood saw
Hacksaw, Scratch and snap, Sharp knife, Snips
Hacksaw, Scissors, Sharp knife
Hacksaw, Sharp knife
Special methods needed
Wood saw
Special methods needed
Scratch and snap, Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
Hacksaw, Snips
Snips, Not normally applicable
Scratch and snap, Special methods needed
Not normally applicable
Hacksaw, Special methods needed
Not normally applicable
Special methods needed
Special methods needed
Hacksaw
Scissors, Sharp knife
SHAPE?

Bending (with heat), Filing
Not normally applicable
Bending (without heat)
Abrasive paper, Bending (without heat), Casting, Filing, Forging, Milling, Turning
Special methods needed
Abrasive paper, Filing, Sawing, Planing
Abrasive paper, Chiselling, Turning, Sawing, Planing
Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
Bending (with heat), Casting, Filing, Forging, Milling, Turning
Not normally applicable
Casting, Filing, Milling, Turning
Not normally applicable
Casting, Filing, Milling, Turning
Casting
Abrasive paper, Chiselling, Sawing, Planing
Filing, Milling, Turning
Special methods needed, Not normally applicable
Bending (without heat), Casting, Filing, Forging, Milling, Turning
Abrasive paper, Chiselling, Turning, Sawing, Planing
Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable

Special methods needed, Not normally applicable
Bending (with heat)
Abrasive paper, Injection moulding
Bending (without heat), Casting, Filing
Chiselling, Special methods needed
Abrasive paper, Filing, Sawing
Casting, Forging, Milling, Turning
Bending (with heat), Turning

Bending (without heat), Filing
Not normally applicable
Bending (with heat)
Abrasive paper, Filing, Milling, Turning
Abrasive paper, Bending (without heat), Casting, Filing, Forging, Milling, Turning
Chiselling, Special methods needed
Bending (with heat), Bending (without heat), Casting, Filing, Forging, Milling, Turning
Casting
Injection moulding, Special methods needed"
Bending (with heat), Milling, Turning
Abrasive paper, Chiselling, Filing, Turning, Sawing, Planing
Bending (without heat), Filing
Casting
Abrasive paper, Chiselling, Sawing, Planing
Bending (with heat), Injection moulding, Vacuum forming
Abrasive paper, Filing, Milling, Turning
Bending (with heat), Injection moulding, Vacuum forming
Chiselling, Special methods needed
Abrasive paper, Sawing, Planing
Special methods needed
Special methods needed, Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
Bending (without heat), Casting, Filing
Not normally applicable
Special methods needed
Not normally applicable
Milling, Turning
Not normally applicable
Special methods needed
Special methods needed
Abrasive paper
Not normally applicable
JOIN?
Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding
Adhesives, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Not normally applicable
Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Soldering
Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding
Adhesives
Adhesives
Adhesives, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
Brazing, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Soldering, Welding
Adhesives
Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Soldering, Welding
Not normally applicable
Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding
Not normally applicable
Adhesives, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Special methods needed
Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Soldering, Welding
Adhesives, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
Adhesives, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Not normally applicable
Adhesives
Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Adhesives, Soldering
Not normally applicable
Adhesives, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding

Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Soldering
Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet)
Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding
Not normally applicable
Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding
Adhesives
Brazing, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding
Not normally applicable
Adhesives
Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding
Adhesives, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Soldering
Not normally applicable
Adhesives, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Adhesives
Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Special methods needed
Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding
Adhesives
Adhesives, Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt)
Adhesives, Mechanical - permanent, Special methods needed
Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
Adhesives, Soldering
Soldering, Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
Mechanical - permanent, (eg Rivet), Mechanical - semi-permanent, (eg screw or bolt), Welding
Not normally applicable
Adhesives, Brazing, Welding
Special methods needed
Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable
COATINGS
None normally needed
None normally needed
None normally needed
None normally needed
None normally needed
None normally needed
Paint, Stain, Varnish, None normally needed
Paint, Polish, Stain, Varnish, None normally needed
Not normally applicable
None normally needed
Plate, Polish, Polymer coat, None normally needed
None normally needed
Polish, None normally needed
Paint
Enamel, Galvanise, Paint, Polymer coat
Not normally applicable
Paint, Polymer coat, None normally needed
Paint, None normally needed
None normally needed
Polish, None normally needed
Paint, Polish, Stain, Varnish, None normally needed
None normally needed
Implant, None normally needed
Paint, Polish, Stain, Varnish
Implant, None normally needed
None normally needed
Dye, Enamel, Paint, Polymer coat, None normally needed
None normally needed
Polish, None normally needed
Paint, Polish, Stain, Varnish
Paint, None normally needed
None normally needed

None normally needed
Polish, None normally needed
None normally needed
None normally needed
Anodise, Paint
None normally needed
Carburise, Enamel, Galvanise, Paint, Polymer coat
Not normally applicable
None normally needed
Dye, None normally needed
Paint, Stain, Varnish, None normally needed
None normally needed
Not normally applicable
Paint, Stain, Varnish
None normally needed
None normally needed
None normally needed
None normally needed
Paint, Stain, Varnish, None normally needed
None normally needed
Implant, None normally needed
None normally needed
Polish, None normally needed
Not normally applicable
None normally needed
Not normally applicable
None normally needed
None normally needed
Anodise, Dye, Nitride
None normally needed
Dye, None normally needed
Dye
AVOID
Naked flames, Very hot temperatures
Certain solvents, Naked flames, Very hot temperatures

Certain acids, Certain alkalis
Certain acids, Certain alkalis
Contact with food/drink
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Naked flames, Contact with water
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Naked flames, Contact with water
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Contact with food/drink

All acids
Contact with food/drink
Certain acids
Naked flames, Very hot temperatures, Contact with food/drink
All acids
Contact with food/drink
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Naked flames, Contact with water
Certain acids
Certain acids, Contact with food/drink
Certain acids
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Naked flames, Contact with water


Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Naked flames, Contact with water
Certain acids, Contact with food/drink
Very hot temperatures
All acids, All alkalis, Certain solvents, Contact with skin, Contact with food/drink


Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Naked flames, Contact with water
All acids
Naked flames, Very hot temperatures
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Contact with food/drink
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Contact with food/drink
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Certain solvents, Naked flames
Certain solvents, Naked flames, Very hot temperatures
All acids, All alkalis, Naked flames, Very hot temperatures, Contact with food/drink, Contact with water
All acids, All alkalis, Naked flames, Very hot temperatures, Contact with food/drink
All acids
All acids
Certain acids, Naked flames, Contact with food/drink
Certain solvents, Naked flames
Certain solvents, Naked flames
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Naked flames
Very hot temperatures
Contact with food/drink
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Naked flames, Contact with water
Certain solvents, Naked flames, Very hot temperatures
Naked flames
Certain solvents, Naked flames, Very hot temperatures, Ultraviolet light
Certain acids
Certain acids, Certain alkalis, Naked flames, Contact with water
Contact with food/drink
Certain acids, Certain alkalis
Naked flames, Contact with food/drink
Certain acids
Certain acids, Contact with food/drink
Contact with food/drink
Certain acids, Very hot temperatures, Contact with food/drink

Certain acids
Certain acids
Certain acids, Contact with food/drink
Certain solvents, Naked flames, Contact with skin, Contact with food/drink
Naked flames, Contact with food/drink
RISK
Check with your teacher.
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USES
Casings for many domestic appliances (eg food mixers).
Available in sheets from 2mm to 65mm thick. Used in domestic baths, aircraft and other glazing, signs, point of sale furniture, g
Abrasives, spark plug insulator, electrical resistance components, vacum seals.
Pure aluminium is used in the aerospace industry, polished aluminium reflects well beyond the visible spectrum (at both ends),
Aircraft structures
Used for constructing walls in buildings.
Used in model making and as a filler for glass reinforced plastic structures.
Building applications (particularly in the UK) including plywood.
This record provides some information on human bone (cortical bone makes up the shaft of all long bones, the outer layer of th
Tableware (cups, saucers, plates, etc), ornaments and giftware.
Plumbing fittings, screws, nuts and bolts, architectural sections, builders hardware, locks and keys, clocks, electrical connector
Mainly used for walls in buildings.
Pumps, valves, bearings, condensers. In wrought form with small additions of phosphorus it is used for springs and connectors
Used where its expense can be justified - aircraft airframe, Formula One cars, tennis racquets/sporting goods, etc.
Engine components, engineering structural components.
Paper filling, paper coating, whiteware ceramics, refractories, paint, rubber filling, plastics filling, pharmaceuticals.
Furniture, building applications.
Mechanical applications in the engineering industry.
High-quality brick high strength, for building and civil engineering applications.
Electrical conductors - wire, cable, busbars, and other fabricated electrical components. Heat exchange apparatus. Roofing, cla
Used in the building industry.
Tableware (cups, saucers, plates, etc), sanitaryware, and giftware.
Electrical insulation for both very high and low voltages.
These boards are used in a wide range of building and furniture applications and have a wide range of useful properties (structu
As a basic material for semiconducting opto-electronic devices such as light detectors, light emitting diodes, photo-transistors,
Containers, jars, flat glass, radiation shielding, thermometer tubing, laboratory glassware, lead crystal decorative glasware, hea
Medium voltage switchgear, street lighting canopies, domestic appliance housings, under-bonnet automotive components, bus
Gold reserves, jewellery, electronics, glass (colouring and heat reflecting), dentistry, decorating pottery and china.
Building and architecture (polished or rough form).
Furniture, building applications, packaging.
High strength material for mechanical applications in the engineering industry.
Superior electrical properties at radio frequencies, many other uses include weatherproof sheeting and as a textile fibre.

Lead-acid batteries accounted for 64% of total lead consumption in 1991. Sheet for roofing. Raw material in the chemicals indu
Shoes, clothing, upholstery. Smaller quantities used for saddlery, industrial seals and other leather goods."
Low cost, large volume packaging material, gas pipes, kitchen utility ware, toys, squeezy bottles, waterproof sheeting, building i
As a base metal for magnesium alloys, anode material, granules/powder for reactions in the chemical industry. Used as a deox
Aerospace components, motorsport applications.
Building and architectural applications. Cladding, plinths, paving floors.
Used in all types of general engineering and constructional applications. Large quantities used in shipbuilding, car manufacture
Dipped articles (ie household, surgical and examination gloves; condoms; balloons), extruded thread, foam rubber, adhesives.
Tyres, belting, general mechanical applications, hose, footwear, engineering components (springs).
Bearings, bushes, cams, gears, fuel lines., electrical components (a growth area).
Building (eg traditionally for supporting beams, and panelling), furniture, marine construction.
Domestic decorative articles, drinking vessels, figurines, organ pipes.
Used for making reproductions of objects by casting and moulding (normally as an intermediate negative of the object - the fina
Building industry, marine construction.
A very wide range including refrigerator parts, costume jewellery, light fittings, toys, diffusers, food containers.
PTFE is used for its low friction and high temperature properties (eg non-stick frying pans), its resistance to chemicals makes it
Electrical insulation, building applications, packaging, coated fabric and paper, foam, safety glazing.
Building and architectural applications. Paving, walling, cladding, capping, etc.
Joinery, and in the building industry.

Electronic devices - integrated circuits, transistors, diodes, etc. World electronics industry market around $35 billion (silicon bas
Joint sealing in the construction industry, engineering, aerospace. Bonding and sealing of electronic components and assembli
Ornaments, mirrors, cutlery, jewellery, certain components in food and chemical industry where cheaper metals fail to withstand
Soldering makes a permanent joint between two pieces of metal by using an alloy which has a lower melting point than the met
Roof slates for buildings.
Used for making joints in the electronics industry (especially for use on printed circuit boards), also for joining in copper pipes.
Used in food and catering industry. Grades are available for a variety of both mechanical engineering uses and extreme perform
Tinplate (tin-coated steel), solder, bearing alloys, pewter, tin chemicals. The metal is rarely used alone.
Aerospace airframe and aeroengine compressor components. Heat exchangers and tanks for corrosive chemicals (especially w
Fuel for nuclear fission reactors.
Domestic electrical accessories, toilet seats, bottle caps.
Carpets, upholstery, machine and hand knitting yarns, tweed fabrics.
               HOWMADE
               Oil-based product.
s, point of sale furniture, guards, art and sculpture, engineering and technical models, etc.

               Aluminium is produced on a large scale where electric power is cheap when bauxite is electrolysed.
               Produced from mined bauxite ore using an electrolytic process.



ones, the outer layer of the skull, ribs, etc) intended to be compared with other materials - not as a manufacturing material itself.

              UK brass industry depends almost entirely on recycled metal.
              Breeze is the name used for the ash from coke furnaces. This forms the main component of breeze blocks.
or springs and connectors.
g goods, etc.

               Produced from large open-cast pits or quarries. In the UK large tips of sand waste are generated when it is extracted (sand to c
               Utilises low-grade timber.

               Raw material is quarried.
               Copper ore is reduced to copper metal by heating with carbon. Very pure copper can be produced using electrolytic methods.



             Utilises low-grade timber from sustainable resources.
iodes, photo-transistors, etc. Worth $5 billion per year to the world wide electronics industry.
             The main constituent is sand. Sand can be fused to form glass but the furnace temperature must be very high (1700 deg C). Th
motive components, business machine chassis and housings.
             Found in the earth's crust and in sea water.
             Cut from open cast mines.
             Utilises low-grade timber from sustainable resources.

d as a textile fibre.

erial in the chemicals industry.
               Made by tanning (and other treatment) of the hides or skins of a great variety of creatures (mostly domesticated animals, but in
 rproof sheeting, building industry, etc.
 industry. Used as a deoxidiser for copper, brass and nickel alloys.

              Mined.
building, car manufacture, food canning, and building constructions.
              Natural rubber is produced as sap in rubber trees (grown as smallholdings and as rubber plantations). Trees are ready for tapp
              See NATURAL RUBBER LATEX CONCENTRATE record.



ive of the object - the final reproduction being cast from the Plaster of Paris cast). Also for 'plastering' the walls of buildings.

             Oil-based product.
nce to chemicals makes it very useful for a wide range of other engineering applications (eg for use in direct contact with chemicals).
             Petrochemical industry.
               Dies for extrusion manufacture, furnace tubes, non-lubricated bearings, turbine blades, abrasives, etc.
               Sand.
omponents and assemblies.
per metals fail to withstand corrosion, photography, electrical industry.
melting point than the metals being joined) as a 'glue'.
               Mined (often open-cast).
  joining in copper pipes.
 uses and extreme performance applications including extremes of temperature and corrosive environments.

ve chemicals (especially when chemicals are to be heated).
            Uranium 235 is the only naturally occurring material which is readily suitable for nuclear fission. It forms one part in 140 of natur
            Manufactured by heating together urea and an aldehyde (generally formaldehyde - methanal).
            Wool grows naturally on sheep which graze over the landscape. The fleece is regularly cut from the sheep and processed into
                   ORIGIN
                   USA, Europe, Far East.



                   Australia, Guinea, Jamaica, Surinam, Russia, Guyana.

                   Tropical America.

material itself.
                   Traditionally the UK, but now produced in many countries world wide.
                   All industrialised nations have large brass producers.

                   Manufactured in all industrialised nations.
                   Industrialised nations.
                   World wide.
                   UK, USA, Russia, China, Germany, France, Czechoslovakia.
                   Worldwide.
                   Europe, America, Japan, Australia.
                   Worldwide.
                   Mined worldwide. Chile, USA, Zambia, South Africa, Poland, Spain, China, Russia, Australia, Papua New Guinea."

                   Most countries of the world.
                   World wide.
                   Produced worldwide.

 ery high (1700 deg C). The addition of sodium carbonate reduces the required temperature to 800 deg C but leaves the glass soluble in wat

                   USSR and South Africa.
                   World wide.
                   Produced worldwide.
                   Europe, America, Japan, Australia.


                   Australia, Canada, USA, Mexico, Peru, China, CIS (formerly USSR).
                   Italy, France, USA, UK, Latin America.
                   Europe, USA, Far East.
                   USA, Norway.
                   UK.

                   Europe, America, Japan, Australia.
                   Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand.
                   Thailand, India, West Africa, China.




             World wide.
  with chemicals).
             USA, Europe, Japan.
USA, UK, Japan.

USA, Germany, Belgium, Japan, France.


Wales.

Europe, America, Japan, Australia.
Mainly found in SE Asia (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia), South America (Brazil, Bolivia), China, Africa.
Europe and USA.
Ore - Canada, Zaire, Angola, USA, Australia, CIS (formerly USSR).

British wool accounts for around 29% of hand wool. Other producers are Australia, New Zealand, South America
PROCESSES
Blowing, Injection moulding, Vacuum forming, Extruding
Blowing, Pressing, Vacuum forming, Extruding
Injection moulding, Pressing
Casting, Rolling
Casting
Casting
Not normally applicable
Not normally applicable

Casting, Chemical treatments
Casting, Forging, Pressing, Rolling, Extruding
Casting
Casting
Weaving/knitting, Spinning, Special processing methods
Casting
Casting, Chemical treatments, Extruding, Separation by partical size
Pressing, Rolling
Casting, Forging, Rolling
Pressing, Extruding
Casting, Forging, Rolling, Extruding
Not normally applicable
Casting
Pressing, Extruding
Pressing
Casting, Chemical treatments
Blowing, Casting, Injection moulding, Pressing, Rolling
Injection moulding
Casting, Pressing, Rolling, Weaving/knitting, Spinning, Extruding
Not normally applicable
Pressing
Casting, Forging, Rolling
Blowing, Casting, Injection moulding, Vacuum forming, Extruding

Blowing, Casting, Forging, Injection moulding, Rolling, Chemical treatments
Pressing, Chemical treatments
Blowing, Casting, Injection moulding, Vacuum forming, Extruding
Casting
Casting, Forging, Extruding
Special processing methods
Casting, Forging, Rolling
Casting, Extruding, Centrifuging (concentration), Evaporation (concentration), Creaming (concentration), Dipping, Foaming
Pressing, Chemical treatments, Special processing methods
Blowing, Injection moulding, Spinning, Extruding
Not normally applicable
Casting, Pressing, Rolling
Casting
Not normally applicable
Injection moulding, Vacuum forming, Extruding
Pressing
Blowing, Injection moulding, Vacuum forming, Extruding
Special processing methods
Not normally applicable
Pressing
Chemical treatments
Chemical treatments
Casting

Special processing methods
Casting
Casting, Forging, Rolling
Casting
Casting, Forging, Pressing
Casting, Pressing, Chemical treatments, Extruding"
Injection moulding
Weaving/knitting, Spinning
ENVIRONMEN


Safe as a solid component, dust in production is a hazard when inhaled.

Large quantities of energy are used to reduce the bauxite ore to aluminium.


Low impact on the environment - there is a replanting policy in the UK.

Cannot be recycled. Bone china has a high energy requirement for the firing process involved in manufacture. The lead in the g
The UK brass industry depends almost entirely on recycled metal.
Uses a waste product from another industry.
Readily recycled.


Produced form large open-cast pits or quarries. In the UK large tips of sand waste are generated when it is extracted (sand to c
Utilises low-grade timber from sustainable resources.
Large quantities of energy are consumed in the production of steel. Steel can be recycled.
The open quarrying and exhaust gases from brick kilns have environmental consequences. Energy is required to fire the clay t
Most copper mines are open cast and ores are poor in copper, therefore large amounts of rock must be processed. However, i
Replacement trees are planted to avoid deforestation caused by timber extraction.
Earthenware products have a high energy requirement for the firing processes involved in manufacture. Where lead is used in
Requires high energy to manufacture because of the firing processes involved.
Uses low-grade timber from sustainable resources.

Glass furnaces produce oxides of sulphur and nitrogen which can be harmful. The glass industry is steadily taking steps to redu



Utilises low-grade timber from sustainable resources.
Large quantities of energy are used in the production of steel. Steel can be recycled.


Lead has very high recycling rates. It is toxic if ingested or inhaled. Strict health and safety guidelines exist for lead workers, ho

LDPE is not (normally) biodegradable, however it can be recycled. Manufactured from oil-based raw materials.
Recyclable. Often extracted from sea water (with an energy requirement of 63 MWh/cubic metre of metal extracted).


Large quantities of energy are consumed in the production of steel. Steel can be recycled.
Low energy consumption, avoids the use of solvents (eg in adhesives), thin films are biodegradable.
Low pollution and low energy consumption compared to synthetics. Biodegradable (latex products).




Non-renewable source (crude oil).
Based on sand - little environmental impact.



Mining activities can cause environmental harm. Slate workers may have developed lung diseases in the past, due to poor wor

Large amounts of energy are consumed in producing steel. Pollution control is also essential.


Ore is very low grade, leachings and tailings are therfore large in volume. Uranium and its daughter/fission products are radioac
Manufactured from plentiful or renewable resources.
Textile processing (particularly scouring and dyeing) can produce chemical waste, but this is very carefully monitored. The natu
             COST

                15

                15
                10

                1.5
                1.5

                0.5
                 50

                 50
               300
                  7
                0.6
                1.5
                 20
                0.5
be processed. However, it is readily recycled and 40% of world demand for copper comes from recycled metal.
                  1
                0.5
                1.5
                1.5

                 7
                20

                  1
                1.5
                  9
                3.5

                30

                 3
                20
                20
                 1
                 7
                 3
                 3
                15
                 2


                 2
                 3
               100
                 3
                 1
                 0.6
                  30

                 30


                  1
                 30
                 35

                200
ssion products are radioactive. Generation of electricity by nuclear means poses a waste disposal requirement.

efully monitored. The natural Lanolin oil contained in wool is recovered from these wastes and used to produce cosmetics.

				
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