Literature Review of Best Practices - National College Access Network.xls

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					                                                        Practices and Outcomes Identified in the Literature
 Practice   Description of Practice      Targeted               Program and Date                   Outcomes              Type of Research/ criticisms                                  Citation
 Category                               Population                    Studied
Academic Equipping school personnel Low-income, Ohio           Ohio Appalachian          College attendance increased    Not really a "best practice,"    "Ohio Appalachian Center for Higher Education" Ash Institute for
Prep      and emphasizing total     Appalachian                Center for Higher         in more than 77% of OACHE-      award winner for innovation in   Democratic Governance and Innovation. Retrieved July 28, 2005,
          school buy-in to          students                   Education (OACHE),        involved schools                government                       from www.innovations.harvard.edu/awards.html?id=3660
          encouraging college                                  Ash Institute

Academic   Providing educational         Elementary, Middle    MESA, Mathematics, 80% go on to college, 60%              Lack of adequate control group, "Resource Manual: 2003 State of Arizona Best Practices Education
Prep       enrichment to encourage       and high school,      Engineering, and   declare math and science               self-described best practice    Conference" (March 2003) Arizona Commission for Post Secondary
           students to enter technical   Arizona students      Science Achievementstudies, 88% retention if the          shown at conference             Education.
           professions                   with a focus on       Program            student participates in summer
                                         African American,                        bridge programs, indication
                                         Hispanic and Native                      that the program is successful
                                         American Students                        at encouraging Native
                                                                                  American students to study
                                                                                  engineering
Academic   Providing new learning        Very at-risk        Case studies of four None specified, though each            Case studies                     Allen, Lili, Cheryl Almeida, and Adria Steinberg. (May 2003) "From
Prep       environments such as          students,           programs: Maya       individual case study showed                                            the Prison Track to the College Track: Pathways to Postsecondary
           reinvented high schools,      particularly those  Angelou Public       outcomes that could be                                                  Success for Out-of-School Youth." Jobs for the Future.
           secondary/postsecondary       who have already    Charter School, PCC considered effective with more
           blends, extended learnng      dropped out of high Prep, Youth VOICES, study
           opportunities,                school or who have and ISUS Trade and
           education/employment          a criminal record   Technology Prep
           blends for older youth
Academic   Planning for college          All Students          N/A, National             Increased probability of        Note: Slides, look for direct    Cabrera, Alberto F. "On the path to college: What matters?" Slides
Prep       beginning in the 8th grade                          Educational               becoming college qualified      source later                     located at
                                                               Longitudinal Study of     18.1%                                                            http://www.edpartnerships.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Programs_a
                                                               1988 8th graders                                                                           nd_Services/Programs_Sub_Item/ENLACE/Pathways.pdf
Academic   Being College Qualified       All Students          N/A, National             Increased probability of        Note: Slides, look for direct    Cabrera, Alberto F. "On the path to college: What matters?" Slides
Prep                                                           Educational               applying 14%                    source later                     located at
                                                               Longitudinal Study of                                                                      http://www.edpartnerships.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Programs_a
                                                               1988 8th graders                                                                           nd_Services/Programs_Sub_Item/ENLACE/Pathways.pdf
Academic   Moderate or High Academic Lowest SES                N/A, 1980 Sophomore       Increased chance of securing a Longitudinal Regression           Cabrera, Alberto F. et al. (2003) "Pathways to a Four-Year Degree:
Prep       Preparation               students                  Cohort Database           college degree, 19% & 32%,     Analysis                          Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically
                                                                                         respectively                                                     Disadvantaged Students. Portland, OR: Annual Meeting of the
                                                                                                                                                          Association for the Study of Higher Education. (ERIC Document
                                                                                                                                                          Reproduction Service No. ED 482160)

Academic   Providing supplemental        Disadvantaged         No specific program,      33% of programs ranked          Opinion survey data; not linked Chancey, Bradford, et al. (December 1995) "Programs at Higher
Prep       courses                       students              data from NCES            supplemental courses in their   to outcomes                     Education Institutions for Disadvantaged Pre college Students."
                                                               survey of Pre             top three most important                                        NCES 96-230.
                                                               collegiate programs       services
                                                               for disadvantaged
                                                               students in Higher
                                                               Education Institutions,
                                                               1994
Academic   Offering 6-week summer        At-risk               Upward Bound,          Students who stayed in the          Myers and Schirm used a            Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Prep       programs on college                                 Burkheimer et al.      program were more likely to         control group, biggest problem     Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
           campuses                                            1976; Burkheimer,      take social science and math        is poor attrition because of       Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
                                                               Riccobono, and         courses and may have an             students taking summer jobs        Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                               Wisenbaker, 1979;      impact on college performance                                          http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
                                                               Myers and Schirm,      with more significant effects
                                                               1997, 1999.            among whites, Hispanics,
                                                                                      males, and lower performing
                                                                                      students with lower aspirations

Academic   Tutoring, academic           At-risk                AVID, Mehan at al.     48% attend 4-year college,          no comparison group, no            Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Prep       strategies, motivational                            1996                   40% attend 2-year college,          knowledge of sampling bias, no     Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
           speakers, mentoring, and un-                                               12% other (37% in school            knowledge of attrition,            Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
           tracking                                                                   district go on to 4-year college)   interviews suggest the effects     Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                                                                                          aren't as good, but that they      http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
                                                                                                                          are most potent for the most at-
                                                                                                                          risk students
Academic   Providing rigorous            Low-income,          Neighborhood          64% persistence through 6-            No comparison data, though         Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Prep       enrichment classes to         minority, average (B Academic Initiatives, year program, over 60% went           others from that area rarely       Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
           students 5 days/week from     and C) students      Tierney and Jun 1998 to 4-year research university          attend Post-secondary              Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
           7th through 12th grade                                                   (most to USC with promised            education                          Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                                                    scholarships), and 96% went                                              http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
                                                                                    on to some form of post-
                                                                                    secondary education
Academic   Placing students in excellent High-achieving, low- A Better Chance       Of those graduating high              No comparison group - one          Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Prep       private and public high       income students      (ABC), Griffin, 1990; school, 96% go on to college          study compared to all black        Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
           schools                                            Perry and             and approximately 20% go to           students, students reported        Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
                                                              Kopperman, 1973;      Ivy League Schools.                   depression and isolation           Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                              Johnson and Prom,                                                                              http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
                                                              1983
Academic   2-year college-prep English Hispanic Students Puente Project,            84% went on to post-secondary       Puente showed no significant         Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Prep       Class                                              Gandara 1998          education, compared to 75% in       effect on academic                   Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
                                                                                    comparison group                    achievement, but suggests            Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
                                                                                                                        mentoring increased student          Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                                                                                        aspirations                          http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
Academic   Providing resources to allow Low-income, at-risk GE's College Bound College-going increased                  Cannot isolate practices,            Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Prep       schools to make necessary schools                Program, Bailis et al., significantly in 7 out of 10        different practices at different     Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
           changes in curriculum and                        1999                    programs including doubling at schools; lack of adequate                 Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
           practice to raise the                                                    4 out of 5 sites with initial rates control groups                       Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
           achievement of their                                                     less than 50%; 87% first-year                                            http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
           students                                                                 retention (70% nationally); 28%
                                                                                    dropped out of college (37%
                                                                                    nationally)
Academic   Providing school reform      Low-income, at-risk Project GRAD, Opuni, Students performed at or               Problems with student mobility,      Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Prep       through training, funding,   schools             1998                    above grade-level, increased        adequate control group, and          Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
           etc. beginning in elementary                                             teacher satisfaction, decreased information on college-going             Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
           school                                                                   principal referrals, increased                                           Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                                                    HS graduation rate                                                       http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
Academic   Restructuring the secondary    Low-income,         Indiana Career and      From 1994-95 to 1997-98,        This program was focused on        Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Prep       curriculum to provide          Indiana students    Post Secondary          interest in Core 40 grew from   increasing education within the    Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
           academic rigor to more                             Advancement Center      11%-37% of 9th graders;         state, thus, the strongest         Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
           students, including the Core                       (ICPAC), 21st Century   students graduating with        indicator of success is the rise   Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
           40 program, a statewide                            Scholars, Gillie 1999   honors diploma 1990 - 5.5%,     in Indiana's ranking among         http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
           campaign to encourage all                                                  1997 - 15.3%                    states of college matriculation
           students to take the basic                                                                                 from 39th in 1986 to 20th in
           college prep course load,                                                                                  1996
           qualifying them for
           admission to a 4-year
           college
Academic   Providing a 6-week summer      8th Graders with      Upward Bound,         Participants earned more non- Problems with attrition              Gullatt, Yvette and Wendy Jan. (2003) "How Do Pre-Collegiate
Prep       academic enrichment            incomes below         Mathematica           remedial HS math credits; were                                     Academic Outreach Programs Impact College-Going among
           program                        150% of the poverty                         more likely to remain in school                                    Underrepresented Students?" Washington, DC: Pathways to
                                          line and/or are                             (35% vs. 28%); were more                                           College Network Clearinghouse.
                                          potentially the first                       likely to receive financial aid
                                          in their families to                        (33% vs. 30%); earned more
                                          go to college                               non-remedial college credits
                                                                                      (6.8 vs. 5.7)
Academic   Providing a formal, long-      low-income           Sponsor a Scholar      Participants had slightly higher ???                               Gullatt, Yvette and Wendy Jan. (2003) "How Do Pre-Collegiate
Prep       term mentoring program         Philadelphia public (SAS), Mathematica,     GPAs, higher rates of college                                      Academic Outreach Programs Impact College-Going among
           that stresses academic         9th-graders - 1st    1993-1997              attendance than control group                                      Underrepresented Students?" Washington, DC: Pathways to
           goals and preferably has       year of college who                                                                                            College Network Clearinghouse.
           contact at least once a week   have motivation, but
           (Academic Enrichment)          average grades

Academic   Taking Algebra in middle       Middle School       AVID, 2000              Significant increases in overall Results were not as promising     Guthrie, Larry F. and Grace Pung Guthrie (June 2000) "Longitudinal
Prep       school                         Students                                    High School GPA                  for AVID's effect on GPA          Research on AVID 1999-2000: Final Report" Center for Research,
                                                                                                                                                         Evaluation and Training in Education (CREATE).

Academic   Participating in AVID for two Middle School        AVID, 2000              AVID participants took more  Results show an increasing            Guthrie, Larry F. and Grace Pung Guthrie (June 2000) "Longitudinal
Prep       years in middle school        Students                                     HS college-prep courses      positive trend in the effect of       Research on AVID 1999-2000: Final Report" Center for Research,
                                                                                                                   AVID, but lack clear                  Evaluation and Training in Education (CREATE).
                                                                                                                   explanation of control group
Academic   Take more rigorous, core       Urban High School   N/A, ACT's analysis of Demanding vs. Not demanding "Generic Measure" - doesn't             Hendrie, Caroline. (1998) "Study Links Course-Taking With Urban
Prep       academic courses               Students, general   urban HS students'     prep - English ACT, 19 vs.    control for self-selection            Achievement" Education Week, 17(19), 5.
                                                              performance            16.4; Math ACT, 19.9 vs. 17.3

Academic   Increasing community voice Native Alaskan          Alaska Onward to    The number of students              Hard to isolate AOTE's impact      Lipka, Jerry (October 1999) "Closing the Gap: Education and
Prep       and improving student      Students                Excellence (AOTE),  attending college increased         from overarching social            Change in New Stuyahok. Case Study." Portland, Oregon:
           experience/learning                                New Stuyahok, 1999  from 10%-30% to 50%-80%             changes in education               Northwest Regional Education Lab. (ERIC Document Reproduction
                                                                                  from before and after AOTE                                             Service No. ED 437253)
                                                                                  implementation
Academic   Including a systemic change Middle, high school Talent Search, Harlem None specified                       Very insubstantial research,       McCants, Johanna (January 2004) "How Can Pre-College Outreach
Prep       component in a college      students            Center for Education;                                      Pathways-termed "promising         Programs Work with Schools?" Pathways to Improving Practice .
           access program                                  College Summit;                                            practice"                          National TRIO Clearinghouse and Pathways to College Network.
                                                           Urban Scholars
                                                           Program, University of
                                                           Mass.-Boston
Academic      Developing sustained           All Students             No specific program,   None specified                    Literature Review, Review of       Tierny, William G. and Linda Serra Hagedorn. (March 2002) "A
Prep          learning activities that begin                          CHEPA's collective                                       Needs, and Experience              Guide for Improving College Preparation Programs." CHEPA:
              early and occur frequently                              result                                                                                      Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.

Academic      Developing skill levels that     All Students           No specific program,   The central component of          Author Opinion                     Tierny, William G., Julia E. Colyar, and Zoe B. Corwin. (2003)
Prep          will prepare students for                               opinion                college-going (p.2), especially                                      "Preparing for College: Building Expectations, Changing Realities."
              college level work                                                             math and language skills                                             Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA).

Academic      Collaborating with schools       New York City       Gateway to Higher         74% of alumni had graduated No comparison group, data          "Raising Minority Academic Achievement: Gateway to Higher
Prep,         and offering summer              Student             Education, Campbell,      or would graduate from four-    from a survey, program selects Education" American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved August 10,
College       enrichment programs,             underrepresented in Patricia B. 1997          year colleges or universities   high-achieving students        2005 from http://www.aypf.org/rmaa/pdfs/Gateway.pdf
Admission     Saturday Academies,              Math and Science                              within five years; 59% of these
s Advising,   tutoring, counseling,                                                          students remained in a science-
Personal      internships, college visits,                                                   related major or profession
Growth        cultural awareness activities,
              advanced laboratory work,
              SAT prep classes and
              required AP courses

Academic      Providing a program of           High school juniors Career Beginnings         Participants started school on    Control group had same level       Gullatt, Yvette and Wendy Jan. (2003) "How Do Pre-Collegiate
Prep,         educational enrichment,          with average grades (no longer in             schedule more often and           of first year retention; no info   Academic Outreach Programs Impact College-Going among
College       mentoring, career                from economically operation)                  worked less while in college.     on number of students              Underrepresented Students?" Washington, DC: Pathways to
Admission     exploration and action plan      and/or educationally                                                            participating in interviews        College Network Clearinghouse.
s Advising,   development and                  disadvantaged
Personal      employment                       families
Growth

Academic      Providing a program of           High school juniors Career Beginnings         Participants started school on    Control group had same level       Gullatt, Yvette and Wendy Jan. (2003) "How Do Pre-Collegiate
Prep,         educational enrichment,          with average grades (no longer in             schedule more often and           of first year retention; no info   Academic Outreach Programs Impact College-Going among
College       mentoring, career                from economically operation)                  worked less while in college.     on number of students              Underrepresented Students?" Washington, DC: Pathways to
Admission     exploration and action plan      and/or educationally                                                            participating in interviews        College Network Clearinghouse.
s Advising,   development and                  disadvantaged
Personal      employment (Career-Based         families
Growth        Outreach)

Academic      Providing education              Students from          Quantum                42% vs. 16% went on to post       Students were randomly        "Raising Academic Achievement: Quantum Opportunities"
Prep,         activities (tutoring,            families receiving     Opportunities          secondary education, students     selected into the program and American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from
Personal      homework assistance,             public assistance in   Program, Brandeis,     were also more likely to enroll   a control group was randomly http://www.aypf.org/RAA/index.htm
Growth        computer-aided instruction),     San Antonio,           1995 (study            in bachelor's programs and 2-     selected. Milwaukee was
              development activities, (life    Philadelphia,          conducted in 1989)     year degree programs,             dropped from the study due to
              and family skills, future        Milwaukee,                                    graduate from high school, take   implementation and set-up
              planning), 4-year                Oklahoma City, and                            part in community service and     problems. Study also provides
              commitment by mentors,           Saginaw                                       less likely to become teen        cost/benefit analysis.
              community service, and                                                         parents
              financial incentives for
              participation
Academic    Providing career exploration   Economically          Career Beginnings,        9.7% increase in college         Students were randomly             "Some Things Do Make a Difference for Youth: Career Beginnings"
Prep,       and action plan                disadvantaged,        Manpower                  attendance immediately after     selected into the program and      American Youth Policy Forum . Retrieved August 15, 2005 from
Personal    development, educational       minority, first       Demonstration             high school with similar         the randomly selected control      http://www.aypf.org/compendium/index.html
Growth      enrichment, mentoring, and     generation students   Research Corp., 1990      retention success after          group was similar to the
            employment                     who ranked in the                               enrollment                       program participants.
                                           middle of their
                                           classes
                                           academically

College    Institutionalizing the          Urban, HS students, Westwind Prep               85% of graduates going on to     Self-claimed best practice, no     "Resource Manual: 2003 State of Arizona Best Practices Education
Admission expectation that students        50% FFRLP eligible Academy's PSP                post secondary education,        rigorous research                  Conference" (March 2003) Arizona Commission for Post Secondary
s Advising will go to college through                          Program, Arizona            increased SAT/ACT scores                                            Education.
           required college information                        State Conference
           courses                                             Best Practice
College    Holding informational           Parents of low-     College Knowledge for       No data, but positive reviews     No rigorous research, self-       "Resource Manual: 2003 State of Arizona Best Practices Education
Admission workshops for parents            income and ethnic Parents, Early                from parents                      identified best practice from     Conference" (March 2003) Arizona Commission for Post Secondary
s Advising                                 minority students   Academic Outreach                                             Arizona Conference                Education.
College    WSA Comprehensive               No specifications   Washington State            Applicants were 2.3 times more Very short study, program and        "Washington State Achievers Program: How does it Influence
Admission Intervention Program                                 Achievers Program           likely to aspire to a 4-year      practices, methodology, results   Student Postsecondary Educational Opportunities?"
s Advising                                                     (WSA)                       degree, recipients were 2.5       not well-defined, no control
                                                                                           times more likely t plan to go to group
                                                                                           college; applicants were 3
                                                                                           times more likely to apply for
                                                                                           other kinds of financial aid
College    Developing aspiration for       All Students          No specific program,      None specified                    Literature Review, Review of      Adams, John E. (October 1997) "A Study to Determine the Impact of
Admission college in the eighth grade                            but backed by a                                             Needs, and Experience             a Pre college Intervention on Early Adolescent Aspiration and
s Advising                                                       number of reports:                                                                            Motivation for College in West Virginia." Dissertation submitted to
                                                                 Ingels, 1990; Nora                                                                            the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Blacksburg, VA.
                                                                 and Cabrera, 1993;
                                                                 Rock, 1994; Mau,
                                                                 1995)
College    Providing assistance in         All Students          N/A, National             Increased probability of         Note: Slides, look for direct   Cabrera, Alberto F. "On the path to college: What matters?" Slides
Admission College Applications                                   Educational               applying 11.3%                   source later                    located at
s Advising                                                       Longitudinal Study of                                                                      http://www.edpartnerships.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Programs_a
                                                                 1988 8th graders                                                                           nd_Services/Programs_Sub_Item/ENLACE/Pathways.pdf
College    Providing assistance in         All Students          N/A, National             Increased probability of         Note: Slides, look for direct   Cabrera, Alberto F. "On the path to college: What matters?" Slides
Admission College (admissions?)                                  Educational               applying 8.1%                    source later                    located at
s Advising essays                                                Longitudinal Study of                                                                      http://www.edpartnerships.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Programs_a
                                                                 1988 8th graders                                                                           nd_Services/Programs_Sub_Item/ENLACE/Pathways.pdf
College    Providing information about Disadvantaged             No specific program,      35% of programs ranked           Opinion survey data; not linked Chancey, Bradford, et al. (December 1995) "Programs at Higher
Admission college                      students                  data from NCES            information about college in     to outcomes                     Education Institutions for Disadvantaged Pre college Students."
s Advising                                                       survey of Pre             their top three most important                                   NCES 96-230.
                                                                 collegiate programs       services
                                                                 for disadvantaged
                                                                 students in Higher
                                                                 Education Institutions,
                                                                 1994
College    Close                         Low-income,            Florida's College       Self-identified key to           High turnover of students, self-   Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Admission student/teacher/mentor         educationally-         Reach Out Program       effectiveness; CROP students selection issues                       Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
s Advising relationships                 disadvantaged          (CROP) (State-wide),    performed comparably to non-                                        Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
                                         Florida students       Florida's Post-         CROP students and had lower                                         Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                                Secondary Education     rates of college remediation;                                       http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
                                                                Planning Commission,    seems to level the playing field
                                                                1999                    for disadvantaged students

College    Having a college-educated     Hispanic Students      Puente Project,         84% went on to post-secondary Puente showed no significant          Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Admission Puente Counselor and                                  Gandara 1998            education, compared to 75% in effect on academic                    Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
s Advising Mentor, usually Hispanic                                                     comparison group              achievement, but suggests             Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
                                                                                                                      mentoring increased student           Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                                                                                      aspirations                           http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
College    Receiving Counseling          low-income,            Baltimore College       More likely to attend college lit review, data analysis, focus      Gullatt, Yvette and Wendy Jan. (2003) "How Do Pre-Collegiate
Admission (Informational Outreach)       minority High          Bound                   and complete freshman year    groups, etc. Poorly described         Academic Outreach Programs Impact College-Going among
s Advising                               School juniors                                                               control group                         Underrepresented Students?" Washington, DC: Pathways to
                                                                                                                                                            College Network Clearinghouse.
College    Providing a mentoring         At-risk Youth         GEAR UP; Big             Mentees are more likely to       very insubstantial research,       McCants, Johanna (January 2004) "How Can Pre-College Outreach
Admission program that has structure                           Brothers, Big Sisters;   attend and graduate from         Pathways-termed "promising         Programs Use Data to Make Decisions?" Pathways to Improving
s Advising and supervision in both the                         The Norwalk Mentor       college; less likely to skip     practice"                          Practice . National TRIO Clearinghouse and Pathways to College
           matching process and after                          Program; The             classes, have a bad attitude                                        Network.
           the relationship is formed                          Hospital Youth           toward teachers, experiment
                                                               Mentoring Program;       with drugs and alcohol, be
                                                               International            violent or get arrested
                                                               Telementor Program
College    Providing trained mentors     At-risk Youth         GEAR UP; Big             Mentees are more likely to       very insubstantial research,       McCants, Johanna (January 2004) "How Can Pre-College Outreach
Admission for at least one year (less                          Brothers, Big Sisters;   attend and graduate from         Pathways-termed "promising         Programs Use Data to Make Decisions?" Pathways to Improving
s Advising than six months causes                              The Norwalk Mentor       college; less likely to skip     practice"                          Practice . National TRIO Clearinghouse and Pathways to College
           harm)                                               Program; The             classes, have a bad attitude                                        Network.
                                                               Hospital Youth           toward teachers, experiment
                                                               Mentoring Program;       with drugs and alcohol, be
                                                               International            violent or get arrested
                                                               Telementor Program
College    Having well-staffed           Schools, particularly No specific program      These schools have               Literature Review                  McDonough, Patricia M. "Counseling and College Counselingin
Admission counseling departments at      urban and rural                                significantly higher rates of                                       America's High Schools." National Association for College
s Advising schools and a supportive                                                     college attendance.                                                 Admission Counseling (NACAC).
           post secondary educational
           environment
College    Taking students on college Middle Income,            No specific program,    Students perceived the college Data collected through surveys;      Ray, Martha S. (1992) "The College-Choice Process for High
Admission visits                         small city high        an analysis of          visit as the most useful practice opinions, not outcomes            School Students: An Evaluation of High School Counselor
s Advising                               school (Leon HS)       counselor activities    in helping with the college-                                        Interventions and Strategies." Dissertation: Florida State University
                                         students enrolled in                           choice decision                                                     (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED 350541)
                                         AP English
College    Incorporating families into   All Students           No specific program,    None specified                   Literature Review, Review of       Tierny, William G. and Linda Serra Hagedorn. (March 2002) "A
Admission the learning environment                              CHEPA's collective                                       Needs, and Experience              Guide for Improving College Preparation Programs." CHEPA:
s Advising                                                      result                                                                                      Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.
College    Providing and preparing       All Students           No specific program,    None specified                   Literature Review, Review of       Tierny, William G. and Linda Serra Hagedorn. (March 2002) "A
Admission students for the full range of                        CHEPA's collective                                       Needs, and Experience              Guide for Improving College Preparation Programs." CHEPA:
s Advising postsecondary options (i.e..                         result                                                                                      Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.
           Elite institutions)
College    Having adequate school         All Students         No specific program,    Counselors are necessary to     Author Opinion                    Tierny, William G., Julia E. Colyar, and Zoe B. Corwin. (2003)
Admission counseling staff                                     opinion                 guide students through the                                        "Preparing for College: Building Expectations, Changing Realities."
s Advising                                                                             college application process and                                   Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA).
                                                                                       for socio-emotional support

College    Engaging parental         All Students              No specific program,    None specified                    Author Opinion                  Tierny, William G., Julia E. Colyar, and Zoe B. Corwin. (2003)
Admission involvement at home and at                           opinion                                                                                   "Preparing for College: Building Expectations, Changing Realities."
s advising school                                                                                                                                        Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA).

College    Including peer groups in the All Students           No specific program,    None specified                    Author Opinion                  Tierny, William G., Julia E. Colyar, and Zoe B. Corwin. (2003)
Admission college-going process                                opinion                                                                                   "Preparing for College: Building Expectations, Changing Realities."
s Advising                                                                                                                                               Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA).

College    Developing college             All Students         No specific program,    None specified                    Author Opinion                  Tierny, William G., Julia E. Colyar, and Zoe B. Corwin. (2003)
Admission aspirations as early as                              opinion                                                                                   "Preparing for College: Building Expectations, Changing Realities."
s Advising possible                                                                                                                                      Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA).

College    Providing advice early and     Disadvantaged        No specific program,    Student participation in          Literature Review of            Vargas, Joel H. (2004) "College Knowledge: Addressing Information
Admission often during key stages in      students             Lit review              programs with prominent           information research            Barriers to College." The Education Resources Institute (TERI).
s Advising students' educational                                                       information components were
           careers                                                                     related to students' college-
                                                                                       prep course taking or plans and
                                                                                       may be associated with college
                                                                                       enrollment (p. 14)
College    Investing in technological     Disadvantaged        No specific program,    Allows students to keep pace      Author Opinion                  Vargas, Joel H. (2004) "College Knowledge: Addressing Information
Admission infrastructure                  students             opinion                 with the increasing volume of                                     Barriers to College." The Education Resources Institute (TERI).
s Advising                                                                             college-related transactions
                                                                                       conducted over the internet
                                                                                       (p.16)
College      Focusing on academic and     All Students         No specific program,    None specified                    Literature Review, Review of    Tierny, William G. and Linda Serra Hagedorn. (March 2002) "A
Admission    counseling activities                             CHEPA's collective                                        Needs, and Experience           Guide for Improving College Preparation Programs." CHEPA:
s Advising                                                     result                                                                                    Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.
and
academic
prep
Financial    Providing Last Dollar        Cleveland            Cleveland Scholarship 91% college attendance rate;        Lack of sufficient control group; Bailis, Lawrence Neil, et al. (June 1995) "A New Field Emerges:
Aid          Programs                     Scholarship          Programs, survey of 71% college graduation rate           this is not a direct conclusion of College Access Programs" Brandeis University (ERIC Document
Advising                                  Programs' Grant      post-program                                              this study, but a part of their    Reproduction Service No. ED 461689)
                                          Recipients           experiences                                               literature review

Financial    Providing guaranteed         Low-income,          Neighborhood            64% persistence through 6-        No comparison data, though      Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Aid          scholarships in 7th grade to minority, average (B Academic Initiatives,   year program, over 60% went       others from that area rarely    Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
Advising     attend USC, pending          and C) students      Tierny and Jun 1998     to 4-year research university     attend Post-secondary           Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
             program completion                                                        (most to USC with promised        education                       Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                                                       scholarships), and 96% went                                       http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
                                                                                       on to some form of post-
                                                                                       secondary education
Financial   Guaranteeing scholarships    A class or group of   I Have a Dream          High School graduation rates of    Research evaluated 2 out of        Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Aid         to students in elementary    very low-income,      (IHAD), Kahne and       76% and 69% compared to            160 IHAD programs and those        Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
Advising    school (as early as 3rd      very high-risk        Bailey, 1997            37% and 34% among control          two were unique because they       Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
            grade), pending HS           students                                      group. (Two groups evaluated       had a consistent program           Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
            graduation                                                                 compared to prior years'           coordinator. Also, some            http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
                                                                                       students who were not involved     students were placed into
                                                                                       with IHAD.)                        parochial schools through the
                                                                                                                          program and the effect may be
                                                                                                                          because of the schools' efforts.


Financial   Promising to ensure full      Low-income,          Indiana Career and      1st cohort - 46% met               This program was focused on        Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
Aid         funding for college in        Indiana students     Post Secondary          conditions, among whom 54%         increasing education within the    Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
Advising    Indiana if the students                            Advancement Center      used the scholarship the first     state, thus, the strongest         Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
            eligible for state assistance                      (ICPAC), 21st Century   year. 2nd cohort - 44.5% met       indicator of success is the rise   Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
            pledge to take the Core 40,                        Scholars, Gillie 1999   conditions, among whom 65%         in Indiana's ranking among         http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
            abstain from drugs and                                                     attended college.                  states of college matriculation
            alcohol, and graduate with a                                                                                  from 39th in 1986 to 20th in
            2.0 GPA at the end of their                                                                                   1996
            8th grade year

Financial   Promising to ensure full      Low-income,          Indiana Career and      48% enrolled in public four-year   Possibly the most sophisticated St. John, Edward P. et al. (August 2002) "Meeting the Access
Aid         funding for college in        Indiana students     Post Secondary          colleges vs. 35% of non-           study in college access, using Challenge: Indiana's Twenty-First Century Scholars Program"
Advising    Indiana if the students                            Advancement Center      scholars; nearly double            regression analysis and well-   Lumina Foundation for Education. 4(4), 59.
            eligible for state assistance                      (ICPAC), 21st Century   enrollment in public two-year      thought out control groups
            pledge to take the Core 40,                        Scholars, St. John      and private colleges
            abstain from drugs and                             2002
            alcohol, and graduate with a
            2.0 GPA at the end of their
            8th grade year

Other       Aspiring to a Bachelor's     All Students          N/A, National           Increased probability of           Note: Slides, look for direct      Cabrera, Alberto F. "On the path to college: What matters?" Slides
            Degree                                             Educational             applying to college 27.6%          source later                       located at
                                                               Longitudinal Study of                                                                         http://www.edpartnerships.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Programs_a
                                                               1988 8th graders                                                                              nd_Services/Programs_Sub_Item/ENLACE/Pathways.pdf
Other       Aspiring to an Advanced      All Students          N/A, National           Increased probability of           Note: Slides, look for direct      Cabrera, Alberto F. "On the path to college: What matters?" Slides
            Degree                                             Educational             applying to college 33.6%          source later                       located at
                                                               Longitudinal Study of                                                                         http://www.edpartnerships.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Programs_a
                                                               1988 8th graders                                                                              nd_Services/Programs_Sub_Item/ENLACE/Pathways.pdf
Other       Parents' expectations of     All Students          N/A, National           Increased probability of           Note: Slides, look for direct      Cabrera, Alberto F. "On the path to college: What matters?" Slides
            Bachelors Degree                                   Educational             applying to college 25.5%          source later                       located at
            Completion                                         Longitudinal Study of                                                                         http://www.edpartnerships.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Programs_a
                                                               1988 8th graders                                                                              nd_Services/Programs_Sub_Item/ENLACE/Pathways.pdf
Other       Parents' expectations of     All Students          N/A, National           Increased probability of           Note: Slides, look for direct      Cabrera, Alberto F. "On the path to college: What matters?" Slides
            Advanced Degree                                    Educational             applying to college 21.9%          source later                       located at
            Completion                                         Longitudinal Study of                                                                         http://www.edpartnerships.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Programs_a
                                                               1988 8th graders                                                                              nd_Services/Programs_Sub_Item/ENLACE/Pathways.pdf
Other      Students with college        Lowest-SES         N/A, 1980 Sophomore Increased chance of college            Longitudinal Regression            Cabrera, Alberto F. et al. (2003) "Pathways to a Four-Year Degree:
           degree aspirations in High   students           Cohort Database     degree completion 22%                  Analysis                           Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically
           school                                                                                                                                        Disadvantaged Students. Portland, OR: Annual Meeting of the
                                                                                                                                                         Association for the Study of Higher Education. (ERIC Document
                                                                                                                                                         Reproduction Service No. ED 482160)

Other      Students with college        Middle Low-SES     N/A, 1980 Sophomore Increased chance of college            Longitudinal Regression            Cabrera, Alberto F. et al. (2003) "Pathways to a Four-Year Degree:
           degree aspirations in High   students           Cohort Database     degree completion 43%                  Analysis                           Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically
           school                                                                                                                                        Disadvantaged Students. Portland, OR: Annual Meeting of the
                                                                                                                                                         Association for the Study of Higher Education. (ERIC Document
                                                                                                                                                         Reproduction Service No. ED 482160)

Other      Parental encouragement to    All Students       N/A, 1980 Sophomore Increased chance of college            Longitudinal Regression            Cabrera, Alberto F. et al. (2003) "Pathways to a Four-Year Degree:
           pursue a college degree                         Cohort Database     degree completion 4%                   Analysis                           Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically
                                                                                                                                                         Disadvantaged Students. Portland, OR: Annual Meeting of the
                                                                                                                                                         Association for the Study of Higher Education. (ERIC Document
                                                                                                                                                         Reproduction Service No. ED 482160)

Other      High School Peer          All Students          N/A, 1980 Sophomore Increased chance of college            Longitudinal Regression            Cabrera, Alberto F. et al. (2003) "Pathways to a Four-Year Degree:
           encouragement to pursue a                       Cohort Database     degree completion 5%                   Analysis                           Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically
           college degree                                                                                                                                Disadvantaged Students. Portland, OR: Annual Meeting of the
                                                                                                                                                         Association for the Study of Higher Education. (ERIC Document
                                                                                                                                                         Reproduction Service No. ED 482160)

Other      Continuous and consistent    Low-income,        Florida's College         Self-identified key to           High turnover of students, self-   Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
           contact with students        educationally-     Reach Out Program         effectiveness; CROP students selection issues                       Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
                                        disadvantaged      (CROP) (State-wide),      performed comparably to non-                                        Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
                                        Florida students   Florida's Post-           CROP students and had lower                                         Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                           Secondary Education       rates of college remediation;                                       http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
                                                           Planning Commission,      seems to level the playing field
                                                           1999                      for disadvantaged students

Other      Parental Involvement         Low-income,        Florida's College         Self-identified key to           High turnover of students, self-   Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
                                        educationally-     Reach Out Program         effectiveness; CROP students selection issues                       Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
                                        disadvantaged      (CROP) (State-wide),      performed comparably to non-                                        Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
                                        Florida students   Florida's Post-           CROP students and had lower                                         Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
                                                           Secondary Education       rates of college remediation;                                       http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
                                                           Planning Commission,      seems to level the playing field
                                                           1998                      for disadvantaged students

Other      Treating student cultures as All Students       No specific program,      "The research is quite clear    Author Opinion                      Tierny, William G., Julia E. Colyar, and Zoe B. Corwin. (2003)
           an asset, not a deficit                         opinion                   that working from a deficit                                         "Preparing for College: Building Expectations, Changing Realities."
                                                                                     model is harmful to the welfare                                     Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA).
                                                                                     of the child" (p.8).
Personal   Developing social skills     Disadvantaged      No specific program,      43% of programs ranked social Opinion survey data; not linked       Chancey, Bradford, et al. (December 1995) "Programs at Higher
Growth                                  students           data from NCES            skills development in their top to outcomes                         Education Institutions for Disadvantaged Pre college Students."
                                                           survey of Pre             three most important services                                       NCES 96-230.
                                                           collegiate programs
                                                           for disadvantaged
                                                           students in Higher
                                                           Education Institutions,
                                                           1994
Personal    Providing career counseling Disadvantaged           No specific program,      32% of programs ranked            Opinion survey data; not linked Chancey, Bradford, et al. (December 1995) "Programs at Higher
Growth                                  students                data from NCES            career counseling in their top    to outcomes                     Education Institutions for Disadvantaged Pre college Students."
                                                                survey of Pre             three most important services                                     NCES 96-230.
                                                                collegiate programs
                                                                for disadvantaged
                                                                students in Higher
                                                                Education Institutions,
                                                                1994
Personal    Taking part in co-curricular   All Students         No specific program,      No specific outcomes,             Author Opinion                       Tierny, William G., Julia E. Colyar, and Zoe B. Corwin. (2003)
Growth      activities, school- and                             opinion                   "Programs can include field                                            "Preparing for College: Building Expectations, Changing Realities."
            community-based activities                                                    trips, personal development                                            Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA).
            that take place outside the                                                   seminars, social skills
            structure and timing of the                                                   workshops, college fairs, test
            regular school day                                                            preparation, graduation
                                                                                          ceremonies, and celebrations
Retention   Providing academic support     Students who         Student Support           Students took more credits and    Students matched with a              "Raising Academic Achievement: Student Support Services"
            services, especially peer      qualify for TRIO     Services (SSS), part      were more likely to stay at the   statistically similar control        American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from
            tutoring,                      programming          of TRIO, Chaney,          same institution through the      group. Includes cost/benefit         http://www.aypf.org/RAA/index.htm
            counseling/academic                                 Westat, 1997              third year. Results are greater   analysis.
            advising, cultural events,                                                    as participation increases.
            workshops and special
            academic courses
Retention   Engaging in summer,         800 Low-income          Higher Ground, Bailis, Increased retention during the No control group.                          "Some Things Do Make a Difference for Youth: Higher Ground"
            academic, and career        and minority            1996                   first two years of 15% over the                                           American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from
            activities, mentoring       students at 8                                  average at the students'                                                  http://www.aypf.org/compendium/index.html
                                        colleges and                                   institutions.
                                        universities
Retention   Last Dollar Scholarship     Boston ACCESS           Boston ACCESS, data Renewal rate ranged between             Lack of sufficient control group;    Bailis, Lawrence Neil, et al. (June 1995) "A New Field Emerges:
            renewal for the second year grant recipients        for 1986-1988       97% and 85%                             this is not a direct conclusion of   College Access Programs" Brandeis University (ERIC Document
                                                                                                                            this study, but a part of their      Reproduction Service No. ED 461689)
                                                                                                                            literature review
Retention   Last Dollar Scholarship     Columbus I Know I I Know I Can, data for Renewal rate ranged between                Lack of sufficient control group;    Bailis, Lawrence Neil, et al. (June 1995) "A New Field Emerges:
            renewal for the second year Can grant recipients 1988-1990           56% and 17%                                this is not a direct conclusion of   College Access Programs" Brandeis University (ERIC Document
                                                                                                                            this study, but a part of their      Reproduction Service No. ED 461689)
                                                                                                                            literature review
Retention   Making sure students are       Returning Last       CollegeBound, 1994        This is a recommendation to       Lack of sufficient control group;    Bailis, Lawrence Neil, et al. (June 1995) "A New Field Emerges:
            aware of eligibility           Dollar Scholarship                             improve CollegeBound's            not really a studied practice,       College Access Programs" Brandeis University (ERIC Document
            requirements /                 Recipients                                     retention rates                   more of a recommendation for         Reproduction Service No. ED 461689)
            documentation and keeping                                                                                       a potentially best practice
            an open line of
            communication with
            students and financial aid
            staff
Retention   Meeting frequently with an     At-risk, Cleveland   Cleveland Scholarship The more frequently a student         Data collected in conjunction        Bible, Terri. (January 2004) "Analysis of Postsecondary Enrollment
            advisor                        Municipal School     Programs, data        met with their CSP advisor, the       with the Cleveland Municipal         and Retention Rates for 2002 CMSD High School Graduates in
                                           District HS          analysis of retention more likely they were to stay in      School District, no control          relation to CSP Service Levels."
                                           Graduates, 2002                            college through the second            group
                                                                                      year
Retention   Student recruitment, 34-        Low-income,         Posse, Bowman and      Compared with students of        Program selects students who      Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
            week training program, full     underrepresented    Gordon 1998            similar SAT scores and GPAs exhibit potential - "Dynamic           Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
            tuition scholarships, on-       students at                                not involved in Posse, retention Assessment Process"               Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
            campus mentoring, retreats,     prestigious                                of 41 students at Vanderbilt                                       Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
            weekly workshops                universities                               was 7.7% higher                                                    http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf

Retention   Providing college orientation   low-income,         Talent Search, 1999-   73% of college-ready             Lack of adequate control group, Humphrey, John G. et al. (September 2002) "A Profile of the Talent
            activities including test-      underrepresented,   2000                   participants were admitted to,   specificity of group reported   Search Program 1999-2000" Mathematica Policy Research Inc.
            taking and study skills         first generation                           or enrolled in post secondary
            development, counseling,        middle and high                            education
            academic advising, and          school students
            course selection

Summary     SUMMARY Gandara: Key          At-risk               many                   Capable of at least doubling the Lack of adequate control          Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
            Practices from Gandara -                                                   rate of college-going            groups, baseline data, lack of    Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
            key contact who is                                                                                          specificity of outcomes and       Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
            consistent over a long                                                                                      measurement, attrition, lack of   Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
            period of time; high quality                                                                                costs associated with             http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
            instruction through                                                                                         outcomes
            challenging courses
            ("untracking"), special
            coursework, or curriculum re-
            vamping; long-term
            programs; paying attention
            to the cultural background of
            students; supportive peer
            group; financial assistance
            and incentives
Summary     SUMMARY Gullatt: high         Underrepresented      Many (Literature       10 Principles of Practice        Pointless                         Gullatt, Yvette and Wendy Jan. (2003) "How Do Pre-Collegiate
            standards for program staff students                Review Conclusions)                                                                       Academic Outreach Programs Impact College-Going among
            and students; personalized                                                                                                                    Underrepresented Students?" Washington, DC: Pathways to
            attention to each student;                                                                                                                    College Network Clearinghouse.
            adult role models; peer
            support; integrated with K-
            12 schools; strategically-
            timed interventions; long
            term investments in
            students; provide bridge
            between school and society;
            scholarship assistance;
            evaluations that contribute
            results to interventions
Support   Having a consistent leader     A class or group of   I Have a Dream         High School graduation rates of   Research evaluated 2 out of        Gandara, Patricia. (September 2001) "Paving the Way to
          (program coordinator) to       very low-income,      (IHAD), Kahne and      76% and 69% compared to           160 IHAD programs and those        Postsecondary Education: K-12 Intervention Programs for
          create strong relationships    very high-risk        Bailey, 1997           37% and 34% among control         two were unique because they       Underrepresented Youth" National Center for Education Statistics.
          with students, staff, and      students                                     group. (Two groups evaluated      had a consistent program           Retrieved July 21, 2005, from NCES Publications database:
          sponsors over a long period                                                 compared to prior years'          coordinator. Also, some            http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001205.pdf
          of time (elementary through                                                 students who were not involved    students were placed into
          high school)                                                                with IHAD.)                       parochial schools through the
                                                                                                                        program and the effect may be
                                                                                                                        because of the schools' efforts.


Support   Collecting demographic and N/A                       N/A                    N/A                               very insubstantial research,       McCants, Johanna (January 2004) "How Can Pre-College Outreach
          achievement data on                                                                                           Pathways-termed "promising         Programs Use Data to Make Decisions?" Pathways to Improving
          programs                                                                                                      practice"                          Practice . National TRIO Clearinghouse and Pathways to College
                                                                                                                                                           Network.
Support   Collaborating with Schools     Underrepresented      College Summit, El     None specified                    Very insubstantial research,       McCants, Johanna (January 2004) "How Can Schools Develop
                                         students              Paso Collaborative for                                   Pathways-termed "promising         Relationships with Pre-College Outreach Programs?" Pathways to
                                                               Academic Excellence                                      practice"                          Improving Practice . National TRIO Clearinghouse and Pathways to
                                                                                                                                                           College Network.
Support   Creating an integrated          All Students         No specific program,   None specified                    Literature Review, Review of       Tierny, William G. and Linda Serra Hagedorn. (March 2002) "A
          organizational structure (i.e..                      CHEPA's collective                                       Needs, and Experience              Guide for Improving College Preparation Programs." CHEPA:
          Relationships with schools,                          result                                                                                      Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.
          colleges, and universities)

Support   Developing a coordinated      All Students           No specific program,   None specified                    Literature Review, Review of       Tierny, William G. and Linda Serra Hagedorn. (March 2002) "A
          public funding structure that                        CHEPA's collective                                       Needs, and Experience              Guide for Improving College Preparation Programs." CHEPA:
          enables practitioners to                             result                                                                                      Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.
          concentrate on program
          improvement
Support   Implementing rigorous         All Students           No specific program,   None specified                    Literature Review, Review of       Tierny, William G. and Linda Serra Hagedorn. (March 2002) "A
          program evaluations                                  CHEPA's collective                                       Needs, and Experience              Guide for Improving College Preparation Programs." CHEPA:
                                                               result                                                                                      Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.
Support   Developing a coordinated       All Students          No specific program,   None specified                    Literature Review, Review of       Tierny, William G. and Linda Serra Hagedorn. (March 2002) "A
          system that keeps track of                           CHEPA's collective                                       Needs, and Experience              Guide for Improving College Preparation Programs." CHEPA:
          the student from the senior                          result                                                                                      Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.
          year in high school through
          the end of the first term in
          college
Support   Undertaking studies of cost    All Students          No specific program,   None specified                    Literature Review, Review of       Tierny, William G. and Linda Serra Hagedorn. (March 2002) "A
          effectiveness                                        CHEPA's collective                                       Needs, and Experience              Guide for Improving College Preparation Programs." CHEPA:
                                                               result                                                                                      Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.

				
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