Wordlist - Compass Media.xls

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					Extensive Reading A - Word List

            WORD    PARTS                       DEFINITION                                          SAMPLE SENTENCE


Unit 1

                            the representation of a subject, not directly         The author’s statement about knights and chivalry was
allegorical        adj
                            stated, through another similar subject to it         allegorical to Arthurian legend.
                                                                                  The old man felt whimsical as he swayed back
whimsical          adj      quaintly humorous, odd
                                                                                  and forth on the children’s swing.
                            a man subject to uncontrollable amorous               The hopeless romantic satyr thought about the
satyr              n
                            passion                                               woman all day long.
                                                                                  The sword exemplifies the meaning of duty and
exemplifies        v        explain or illustrate by an example
                                                                                  honor in the medieval ages.
                                                                                  Old fables dealt with morality and the correct
morality           n        quality of being virtuous
                                                                                  behavior for life.
                            a system or body of myths concerning a                Ancient stories usually contain many mystical ideas
mystical           adj
                            particular person or race                             about dragons and gods.
                                                                                  The depressed man was on the brink of suicide after
brink              n        on the verge
                                                                                  surviving the car accident.
                            able to cause action, belief, or feeling (syn. well
                                                                                  The novel was so compelling that I decided to find
compelling         adj      supported, forceful, persuasive / ant. weak,
                                                                                  more books by the same author.
                            unsupported, uninspiring)
                                                                                  The cave is inhabited by bats. They come out in
inhabit            v        to live in (syn. reside in)
                                                                                  the evenings and eat all the bugs.
                                                                                  George Washington is lauded as the Father of the
laud               v        praise highly
                                                                                  United States.
                                                                                  Shakespeare is considered to be one of the greatest
playwright         n        a writer of plays; dramatist                          playwrights in modern history, having written
                                                                                  numerous plays and poetry.
                            a dramatic composition, often in verse, dealing       Othello is a tragedy about the destructive nature
tragedy            n
                            with a serious or sombre theme                        of human distrust.
                            one of a class of supernatural beings, generally
                            conceived as having a diminutive human form           The fairy was so small it could not be seen, even
fairy              n
                            and possessing magical powers with which they         when it was playing tricks on humans.
                            intervene in human affairs
haunt              v        to disturb or distress                                There is an old ghost that haunts that house.
                            broad comedy characterized by boisterous              The Three Stooges were professional comedians that
slapstick          adj
                            action                                                specialized in slapstick comedy.
                                                                                  To strive for excellence is seen as a virtue in
virtue             n        moral excellence; goodness; righteousness
                                                                                  many cultures.
                                                                                  His only vice was gambling large sums of
vice               n        an immoral or evil habit or practice.
                                                                                  money on payday.
                                                                                  The great earthquake was a strong testament
testament          n        strong evidence for something
                                                                                  to the power of nature.
                                                                                  The chess master was a genius, always
genius             n        an exceptional natural capacity of intellect
                                                                                  thinking ahead of his opponent.
                            the contemplation or consideration of                 Through speculation we are able to come up
speculation        n
                            some subject                                          with a hypothesis.
Unit 2

                                                                      The story about the man that was trying to
                     humor that takes its effect from stating
irony          n                                                      compliment his boss but somehow kept
                     the opposite of what is meant
                                                                      insulting him was full of irony.
                                                                      Young people who are exposed to the negativity
cynical        adj   incredulous of the goodness of people            of the world usually become very cynical
                                                                      towards others.
                                                                      The theme of the shoe advertisement is to show
theme          n     the topic discussed                              how buying new shoes will help one run
                                                                      faster.
                                                                      Working on tough projects usually takes
considerable   adj   notable; important
                                                                      considerable amounts of time.
                                                                      Many romantic writers write poetic literature
poetic         adj   befitting or pertaining to poetry
                                                                      which shows their feelings.
romanticized   v     given to sentimental or amorous feelings         I romanticized the idea of getting married.
                                                                      Children tend to be more liberal than adults,
liberal        adj   not strict
                                                                      for who likes to be bound by rules?
                     a figure of speech, based on some                Jane’s father used the metaphor of a rose to
metaphor       n
                     resemblance of a literal to an implied subject   compare his daughter to great beauty.
                                                                      scientist had a profound thought that helped
profound       adj   deep, thorough
                                                                      him understand the equation.
                                                                      The relationship between the defendant and the
tenuous        adj   slight , flimsy, weak
                                                                      crime was tenuous at best.
                     evoking or attracting interest, desire,          The short-cut dress is very appealing to many
appealing      v
                     curiosity, sympathy                              men.
                                                                      All this intellectual discussion of philosophy
intellectual   adj   appealing to or engaging the intellect
                                                                      makes me feel curious to learn more.
                     having the form and musical quality of a
lyrical        adj                                                    The song had wonderful lyrical value.
                     song
                                                                      The maze was inextricably challenging for the
inextricably   ad    hopelessly intricate, involved, or perplexing
                                                                      lab rat.
                                                                      The clergyman consoled the members of the
clergyman      n     an ordained Christian minister
                                                                      congregation with quotes from the bible.
                     the state or condition of being subject to       We are all subject to mortality for we eventually
mortality      n
                     death; mortal character, nature, or existence    come to a point in our life, when we must die.
                                                                      We have many issues and complaints with the
issues         n     a point, matter, or dispute
                                                                      human resource department.
                                                                      Many people who want to work with different
priesthood     n     the condition or office of a priest              members of society choose to live a life of
                                                                      priesthood.
                     an excessively favorable opinion of one's        The egotistical man was full of conceit when it
conceit        n
                     own ability                                      came to his perceived abilities.
                     to be more important or significant by           The main theme overshadows all the other
overshadow     v
                     comparison                                       lesser themes.
Unit 3

                        to take in; to retain (syn. ingest, soak up /   The new paper towels I bought were easily able
absorb            adj
                         ant. discharge, repel)                         to absorb the spilled water.
                        with strong interest (syn. enthusiastic,        Paul is an avid tennis fan. He likes to play tennis,
avid              adj
                        eager / ant. indifferent)                       watch tournaments, and read tennis magazines.
                        liking routine; afraid of change (syn.
                                                                        My grandfather is so conservative that he hasn't
conservative      adj   old-fashioned, traditional / ant. liberal,
                                                                        bought new clothes in twenty-five years.
                        avante garde)
                                                                        The girl’s provocative dress caught the attention
provocative       adj   to arouse or stimulate
                                                                        of many men in the club.
                                                                        The performance of the sports player was poor
performance       n     the act of performing, executing
                                                                        after he sprained his ankle.
                                                                        The drunken man’s behavior was intolerably
bawdy             adj   lewd, indecent
                                                                        bawdy.
                                                                        After we started our project, we picked up good
momentum          n     the quantity of motion of a body
                                                                        momentum on our way to completing it.
                                                                        We had to apply for a patent for the new
patent            n     an official document granting a privilege       invention so that no one else could steal our
                                                                        idea.
                                                                        The boy’s good manners gave him a sense of
propriety         n     the quality of being proper or appropriate
                                                                        propriety.
                                                                        I was frantic to find out if we were going to
frantic           adj   frenzied, wild with excitement
                                                                        have a child.
                                                                        The senator made a call to illegalize dangerous
illegalize        v     outlaw
                                                                        drugs.
                                                                        The dictator’s regime held the people of the
regime            n     a government with power
                                                                        country virtually powerless.
                                                                        We can find recent trends in music, clothing,
trends            n     current style
                                                                        and food.
                                                                        The merchant city burgeoned as shipments of
burgeoned         v     to grow or develop rapidly
                                                                        valuable goods came in.
                                                                        We need to get the demographics of the city to
demographics      n     a portion of a population
                                                                        predict how much it will expand in several years.
                                                                        The movie critics sensationalized the movie so
sensationalized   v     to make sensational
                                                                        that people would be encouraged to go watch it.
                        The pattern of events or main story in a        The general plot of the book describes how the
plots             n
                        narrative or drama                              hero rescues the princess from danger.
                                                                        When eating with distinguished guests, it is
prim              adj   particular
                                                                        important to be prim about your attire.
                                                                        At times, language can be the basis of racy
racy              adj   slightly improper or indelicate
                                                                        comments between culture.,
notions           n     a general understanding                         We had the notion that you were taking charge.
Unit 4

                                                                    My friend’s action was absurd when he reacted
absurd         adj   contrary to common sense
                                                                    irrationally in public.
                     violent and without compassion (syn.
                                                                    There was a brutal fight last night between two
brutal         adj   ferocious, vicious / ant. humane, civil,
                                                                    angry men in the casino parking lot.
                     compassionate)
                                                                    The simple idea of the wheel was seminal to
seminal        adj   being the inspiration for future development
                                                                    the development of the car.
                     pertaining to the native or common             The vernacular language in South Korea is
vernacular     adj
                     language of a place or group                   Korean.
inhabit        v     live or dwell in                               Cavemen were known to inhabit caves.
                                                                    After completing the project successfully, Jeff
advancement    n     make progress, improve
                                                                    was up for advancement in the company.
                                                                    The practical use of a hammer is to use it to put
practical      adj   inclined to action rather than theory
                                                                    a nail in the wall.
                                                                    The king needs to practice subjugation if he is
subjugation    n     make subservient
                                                                    to have servants take care of his castle.
                                                                    Sustainable living and economic cooperation are
                     a basic, fundamental idea or belief (syn.
premise        n                                                    the premises of our plan for an intentional
                     principle, tenet)
                                                                    community.
                                                                    Shakespeare used many satires in his plays to
satire         n     the use of irony in writing
                                                                    ridicule human error.
degree         n     extent, measure, scope                         I was only angry with you to a degree.
                     Acceptance or belief based on reasonable       To be a good judge, one must consider all
presumptions   n
                     evidence                                       presumptions in a court case.
offensive      adj   unpleasant or disagreeable to the sense        Your profane language is very offensive to me.
                                                                    My mom was a homebody when I was young.
                     a person who prefers pleasures and
homebody       n                                                    She was always taking care of the chores in the
                     activities that center around the home
                                                                    house.
                                                                    The UN created a resolution to do away with
resolution     n     a resolve or determination
                                                                    world-wide slavery.
                                                                    Birds are said to be reptiles, but they are
disparate      v     distinct in kind; essentially different        disparate from other reptiles since birds have
                                                                    wings.
                                                                    A person needs to have the proper mindset to
mindset        n     an attitude, disposition, or mood
                                                                    play well in certain sports.
                                                                    The founding fathers made the constitution that
transcended    v     to pass beyond the limits of
                                                                    transcended all other governments of its time.
                                                                    The character wasn’t aware of his enemies’
ironically     adv   contrary to plan or expectation                behavior, while ironically, the listening audience
                                                                    was.
remarkable     adj   notably or conspicuously unusual               Life in itself is a remarkable miracle.
Unit 5

                                                                  As soon as the driver saw the cars stop in front
abrupt        adj   changing or terminating suddenly
                                                                  of him, he too came to an abrupt stop.
                                                                  There were many rich aristocrats that lived
aristocrat    n     one who behaves like a nobleman
                                                                  during the French renaissance.
engage        v     to bind to do something (syn. pledge)         The opposing warriors engaged in battle.
                                                                  My great-grandfather grew up on a farm and
siblings      n     a sister or brother                           had twelve siblings: nine brothers and three
                                                                  sisters.
                                                                  Frankenstein is said to be the first science
                    a long narrative portraying fictitious
novel         n                                                   fiction novel about a mad scientist creating a
                    characters and events in a realistic manner
                                                                  monster out of dead body parts.
                                                                  The first publication of that book was made so
publication   n     the act or business of publishing
                                                                  long ago.
                                                                  If you pull on the string, you can feel the
tension       n     the state of being strained or tense
                                                                  tension build up in the middle.
canon         n     any rule, law, or body of law                 Hammurabi’s Code is a canon of ancient law.
                                                                  There are a lot of cultural differences between
cultural      adj   to develop or refine
                                                                  nations.
                                                                  After reading so much, I felt I was a literary
literary      adj   engaged in writing
                                                                  scholar.
                                                                  As teenagers going into a university, they are
careers       n     a profession or occupation
                                                                  faced with the task of choosing their careers.
upbringing    n     the care and training of young children       Poor children come from humble upbringings.
madwoman      n     a woman who is or behaves as if insane        She was raving like a madwoman.
crippled      v     a lame or disabled person                     The car accident crippled the victim.
                                                                  Please come to the manor and have dinner with
manor         n     the main house or mansion on an estate
                                                                  us tonight.
                                                                  The widow was forlorn with the passing away
forlorn       v     lonely and sad
                                                                  of her husband.
estate        n     a piece of landed property                    We bought a nice estate outside the city.
tormented     v     Great physical pain or mental anguish         The man was tormented with guilt.
                                                                  The governess was in charge of the town when
governess     n     a woman who is a ruler or governor
                                                                  the governor was away.
                                                                  There was a multitude of people who showed
multitude     n     a great number
                                                                  up for the event.
Unit 6

                                                                   He was one many advocates of health care reform
                      a person who actively supports or favors
advocate        n                                                  to make health care more affordable for the
                      a cause (syn. exponent)
                                                                   poor.
                                                                   Having tried all forms of standard medicine for
                      different than a standard (syn. another,
alternative     adj                                                my headaches, I decided to try some alternative
                      substitute / ant. standard)
                                                                   medicine instead.
                                                                   I don't like his approach to management. He
                      a method used to complete a task; a
approach        n                                                  doesn't understand that we are working as a
                      manner of working or behaving
                                                                   team.
                                                                   The defender ran to pursue the receiver who
pursue          v     follow with intent to catch
                                                                   had the ball.
                                                                   The Asian culture strongly promotes the aesthetic
aesthetic       adj   the philosophy of beauty or good taste       way of living life, which is to see the beauty of
                                                                   duty and life in all things.
                                                                   The manager was slow to espouse the
espouse         v     adopt or advocate as a cause
                                                                   recommendations of the employees.
                      the doctrine that pleasure or happiness      People who do things for the sake of personal
hedonistic      adj
                      is the highest good                          desire are very hedonistic.
                                                                   The lawyer scrutinized the criminal investigators
scrutinize      v     observe or investigate closely
                                                                   role in the court case.
                                                                   Two intelligent men battled it out with their wits
wit             n     cleverness, intelligence, sense
                                                                   as they played chess.
                                                                   The traitor was lucky – he was simply exiled from
exile           n     expulsion from one’s country
                                                                   his country.
                                                                   The President must be a socialite if he is to take
socialite       n     a socially prominent person
                                                                   on a bigger role in international affairs.
                      of or pertaining to a college, academy,      I received an academic scholarship for my good
academic        adj
                      school, or other educational institution     grades.
                                                                   The villain dressed decadently to humiliate his
decadent        adj   corrupt, immoral, degenerate, debased
                                                                   enemies.
                      A conception of something in its absolute    It is good to have ideals so we can strive for
ideals          n
                      perfection                                   better.
denounced       v     to condemn or censure openly or publicly     The law denounced thieves for their acts.
                      sexual desire or behavior directed toward    Homosexuality and marriage rights is a topic
homosexuality   n
                      a person or persons of one's own sex         constantly debated in politics.
ugliness        n     very unattractive or unpleasant to look at   The ugliness of the crime was evident to everyone.
gross           v     to earn as a total before deductions         The company grossed a million dollars last year.
                                                                   The indecency of the comment is what most
indecency       n     impropriety or immodesty
                                                                   troubled Jane.
shambles        n     the result of destruction                    The bomb’s explosion left the house in shambles.
Unit 7

exclusive       adj   reserved for certain people only                  The party was exclusive to those who were invited.
                      to help or assist someone (syn. assist /          We need to raise funds to facilitate the start-up of
facilitate      v
                      ant. hinder)                                      the business.
                                                                        Adolescence is a confusing time as you are trying to
identity        n     the awareness of who you are                      figure out your identity and your place in the
                                                                        world.
                      very important; necessary (syn. vital,
integral        adj                                                     The engine is an integral part of a car.
                      integral / ant. superfluous)
                      important; of consequence (syn. useful /          There are two main factors that are relevant to t
relevant        adj
                      ant. irrelevant)                                  he geologist: pressure and time.
                                                                        Greek and Roman mythology was created to
                      a body or system of myths concerning a
mythology       n                                                       explain certain human flaws and supernatural
                      particular person or race
                                                                        occurrences.
studio          n     a place for painting, broadcasting, etc..         The painter worked all night in his studio.
                                                                        I was in deep contemplation when the professor
contemplation   n     view or reflect upon attention
                                                                        asked a difficult philosophical question.
revere          v     regard with deepest respect and awe               As a Christian, I deeply revere God.
                                                                        When it comes to religion, one must be attuned to
spirituality    n     pertain to the soul or spirit
                                                                        their own spirituality.
regaled         v     to entertain lavishly or agreeably                The king regaled his guests at the party.
                                                                        My childhood was full of wonderful memories of
childhood       n     the state or period of being a child
                                                                        trips to the park.
folklore        n     the traditional beliefs, legends                  The story of Paul Bunyan is folklore.
                      a natural liking for or attraction to a person,   The parasite had an affinity to water as it
affinity        n
                      thing, idea                                       flourished in it.
                                                                        We all pooled our money together so we
pooled          v     To put into a fund for use by all
                                                                        could buy her a new purse.
                                                                        The revival of the church in the 1970s
revival         n     an awakening
                                                                        continues strong today.
                      a person known to one, but usually not a          I’m not really familiar with that person. He is
acquaintance    n
                      close friend                                      just an acquaintance.
                      title of respect accorded a person who is         The Texas Senator came to our school to
senator         n
                      or has been a member of the Senate                discuss politics with us.
                                                                        The government is supposed to maintain a
secular         adj   of or pertaining to worldly things
                                                                        secular world view.
                                                                        Many religions emphasize the immortal characteristic
                                                                        of the human spirit.
spirit          n     the incorporeal part of humans
Unit 8

                                                                        Many people admit their indiscretions when they
indiscretion   n     error of judgment
                                                                        are found guilty.
                                                                        Many historians believe the civil war was inevitable
inevitable     adj   unavoidable                                        when the population of the United States
                                                                        divided.
                                                                        The witness was very insightful in the criminal
insightful     adj   penetrating discernment
                                                                        investigation.
                     the act of revealing through supernatural          Benjamin had a revelation when he discovered
revelation     n
                     means.                                             lightning was electricity.
                     following after in time (syn. succeeding, next /   The first time he flew by himself he felt OK, but on
subsequent     adj
                     ant. previous, prior)                              subsequent flights he felt more nervous.
                                                                        I wonder who the architect was who built the
architect      n     one who designs buildings                          White
                                                                        House.
                                                                        There is usually a clear resemblance between
resemblance    n     similar in appearance
                                                                        children and their parents.
                                                                        Once a woman is impregnated the child develops
impregnate     v     make pregnant, fertilize                           in
                                                                        the womb.
                                                                        Mother Theresa was sympathetic towards the poor
sympathetic    adj   feeling compassion towards else
                                                                      and helpless.
                                                                      Fatalism is very dangerous to believe in because
                     the belief that all events are predetermined and
fatalism       n                                                      it says we are helpless to the natural order of
                     hence inevitable
                                                                      things.
                     the view of the world that takes account only of Science can take a form of naturalism when it
naturalism     n
                     natural elements and forces                       observes nature in itself.
                                                                       I could hear the child’s footsteps as he was
footsteps      n     imitate what someone else is doing
                                                                       sneaking to the bathroom.
mason          n     a person who dresses stones or bricks             The mason started loading the bricks at the house.
                     being within certain limits that define the range
normalcy       n                                                       Any hope for normalcy was gone after the protest.
                     of normal functioning
                                                                        Surrealists have a mind-expanding way of
                     an artist who is a member of the movement
surrealists    n                                                        viewing
                     called surrealism
                                                                        art.
prevalent      adj   widespread                                         Food culture is prevalent in every population.
                                                                        The American middle class is considered the
bourgeois      n     a member of the middle class
                                                                        bourgeois.
                     a woman who has a continuing,extramarital          The man committed adultery with his mistress when
mistress       n
                     sexual relationship with one man                   his wife wasn’t around.
                     created, taken, or assumed for the sake of         Many science fiction novels deal with fictitious
fictitious     adj
                     concealment                                        characters.
portions       n     A section or quantity within a larger thing        Portions of the meat are still undercooked.
Unit 9

                                                                   Will you accompany me to my car? I don't like to
accompany     v     to go with; to be connected with (syn. join)
                                                                   walk alone at night.
                    a disagreement; a state of disharmony (syn.    The various conflicts around the world must be
conflict      n
                    argument, clash / ant. agreement, amity)       resolved through peaceful measures.
                    in opposite to what was stated or expected     Everyone thought the team would win, but contrary
contrary      adj
                    (syn. contradictory)                           to expectations, they lost the championship.
                                                                   Abstract concepts like happiness or love are difficult
                    to tell exactly what something is (syn.        to define, even though people generally know
define        v
                    explain, describe)                             what
                                                                   they mean.
                                                                   It may be today, or 100 years from now, but
                    in the end; after a period of time (syn.
eventually    adv                                                  eventually we will have to make some difficult
                    ultimately)
                                                                   choices on this issue.
                                                                   Edgar Allen Poe wrote a lot of poetry on the
macabre       n     gruesome, as suggestive of death
                                                                   macabre, particularly when his wife died.
                                                                   As soon as the man breathed his last breath, Death
bereave       v     take away from by death
                                                                   bereaved him of his physical life.
                                                                   The anonymous caller inexplicitly gave away
inexplicit    adj   not intentionally clear or expressed
                                                                   certain information about a crime.
                                                                   drugs can make you hallucinate and cause a
                    an apparent perception of something not
hallucinate   v                                                    person
                    actually present
                                                                   to see things that really are not there.
                                                                   After being scared by my friend, I had paranoia
paranoia      n     nervousness, sometimes extreme
                                                                   that my friend would do it again.
                    any person, contingent, or force that leads    The founder of the bill spearheaded the vote in
spearhead     v
                    an attack, undertaking                         Congress.
                    a line of verse consisting of five metrical    Middle English literature was mostly written in
pentameter    n
                    feet                                           iambic pentameter form.
repetition    n     the act of repeating                           The music had a lot of repetition of the lyrics.
dreadful      adj   extremely bad, unpleasant, or ugly             The catastrophe was absolutely dreadful.
                    excruciating or acute distress, suffering,
anguish       n                                                    The torture brought much anguish to the inmates.
                    or pain
                                                                   The human sexuality book was written in such a
                    Directed away from what is right or good;
perverse      adj                                                  perverse way that many of the students were
                    perverted.
                                                                   disgusted by it.
                    Of or relating to a style of fiction that
                                                                   Edgar Allan Poe was one of the greatest gothic
gothic        adj   emphasizes the grotesque, mysterious,
                                                                   writers of his time.
                    and desolate.
                                                                   The villain met his demise when he accidentally
demise        n     death or decease
                                                                   electrocuted himself.
lament        v     To express grief for or about                  It is understandable to lament over the dead.
                                                                   The people entombed their dead ruler in his
entombed      v     To make a tomb for                             proper
                                                                   grave.
Unit 10

                    to believe without evidence (syn. suppose,   I haven't seen or read the report yet, but I assume
assume        v
                    presume)                                     that everything in there will be correct.
                    easily distinguished from others (syn.       This civilization's 3rd dynasty was quite distinct,
distinct      adj   unique, clear, manifest, marked / ant.       exhibiting many differences from the 2nd and
                    indistinct, vague, fuzzy)                    4th dynasties.
                    a standard or acceptable behavior (syn.      Not talking loudly in a movie theater is the norm.
norms         n
                    custom)                                      People who do it are considered rude.
                    a way of doing something (syn. procedure,    A new technique has been developed that will
technique     n
                    method)                                      greatly improve artificial heart valves.
                                                                 The man gave an undeniable offer that I could not
undeniable    adj   cannot be rejected
                                                                 refuse.
                                                                 Having experienced a similar situation, my intuition
intuition     n     comprehension without effort of reasoning
                                                                 told me how to go about it.
                                                                 After being in office for two weeks, the President
encumber      adj   burden with obligations or difficulties      was encumbered with all the obligations of the
                                                                 voters.
                                                                 The movie star gained recognition for his part in
recognition   n     the act of acceptance or notice
                                                                 the famous movie.
                                                                 When you partake of the fruit, it will give you
partake       v     have or take a share
                                                                 everlasting life.
facet         adj   aspect; or phase                             That is only one facet of many other situations.
prior         adj   preceding in importance or privilege         Prior to the test, the student studied.
                    proscribed by society as improper or         It is taboo to speak about religion and politics to
taboo         n
                    unacceptable                                 strangers.
                    a well-known, customary, or obvious          Talking about sports or the weather is commonplace
commonplace   n
                    remark                                       in conversation.
                                                                 If you are to persuade your opponent, you must try
asserting     v     To state or express positively
                                                                 to be assertive.
                                                                 The difference between the wars projected in a
unlimited     adj   boundless; infinite                          simulation and the real thing is you have unlimited
                                                                 resources in the simulation.
                                                                 Boundless possibilities are gained when one is
boundless     adj   limitless, endless
                                                                 granted great power.
                                                                 The teacher underscored all the important
underscores   v     To emphasize                                 material
                                                                 on the review.
                                                                 I volunteered myself to help give out food for
                    a person who voluntarily offers himself or
volunteer     n                                                  the
                    herself for a service or undertaking
                                                                 homeless.
                    a person formally educated and trained in    The nurse went through the war-torn field and
nurse         n
                    the care of the sick or infirm               helped the injured.
                    Any of the parts into which something can    It’s impossible to memorize the whole thing. So
segments      n
                    be divided                                   why not break it into segments?
Unit 11

                                                                      We affect those around us with the decisions we
affect           v     to produce change
                                                                      make.
                                                                      It was apparent that the student had not studied
                       easily seen or understood (syn. evident,       for
apparent         adj
                       visible, obvious / ant. obscure, hidden)       the test since she could not answer any of the
                                                                      questions.
                                                                      The controversy over moving the capital caused
controversy      n     public disagreement
                                                                      years of arguments in the legislature.

                                                                      After his exposure to music at an early age via
                       the state of being shown or witnessing         his
exposure         n
                       something                                      grandfather's piano, Daniel showed great interest
                                                                      in saxophone lessons.

                                                                      The subconscious was fundamental to Freud's
fundamental      adj   basic (syn. essential / ant. superfluous)      theory on personality development and his
                                                                      approach to therapy.
                                                                      I wrote a poetic ballad about a knight saving the
ballad           n     a simple narrative poem
                                                                      princess from a fiery dragon.
                                                                      The song had a straight forward cadence for the
cadence          n     rhythmic flow
                                                                      soldiers to march to.
                                                                      Irrespective of his opinion, I am going to carry
irrespective     adj   regardless, independent                        one
                                                                      with my plan.
recluse          n     a person who lives in seclusion                The hermit lived as a recluse in the mountains.

                       a person who is chiefly concerned with his     The girl was very introverted as she kept to herself
introvert        adj
                       or her own thoughts                            during lunch.

advocate         v     to speak or write in favor of                  We must advocate peace in the negotiations.
                       A book, document, or other composition         There are few remaining written manuscripts from
manuscripts      n
                       written by hand                                the medieval era.
                       a person who has withdrawn to a solitary
hermit           n                                                    The hermit lived in a desolate place by himself.
                       place
                       Something that conceals, protects, or
shrouded         v                                                    The dark castle was shrouded in mystery.
                       screens
                                                                      The investigators had a list of inquiries for them to
inquiry          n     an investigation, as into an incident
                                                                      work on.
                                                                      The evidence was circumstantial because it didn’t
circumstantial   adj   pertaining to conditions of material welfare
                                                                      necessarily pertain to the case.
                                                                      For all my hard work and studies, I received a
scholarship      n     learning; knowledge acquired by study
                                                                      scholarship award.
                                                                      For their honeymoon, they went to a reclusive
reclusive        adj   shut off or apart from the world
                                                                      beach.
                                                                      Authors usually capitalize all their letters to
capitalized      v     to write or print in capital letters           express
                                                                      something important.
security         n     freedom from danger, risk                      Security was tight when the celebrity arrived.
Unit 12

                                                                     The student passed the class albeit by a very small
albeit        conj   although, not withstanding that
                                                                     margin.
                                                                     A person who speaks ambiguously will be difficult
ambiguous     adj    open to various interpretation
                                                                     to understand.
                                                                     We had a limited budget because of the money
constraints   n      bind and confine
                                                                     constraint.
                     to assume; to believe without strong            Where's Gary? I presume he's at work, but I don't
presume       v
                     evidence                                        really know for sure.
                                                                     Letters recently uncovered have revealed new
                     to show something previously hidden (syn.
reveal        v                                                      details
                     disclose, unveil)
                                                                     on the life of the former president.
                                                                     Even famous people become subject to obscurity
obscurity     n      lack of fame or recognition
                                                                     when time rages on.
                                                                     The enemy tried their best to thwart the hero’s
thwart        v      prevent from accomplishing a purpose
                                                                     advancement to victory.
                                                                     The painters stood on a scaffold as they painted
scaffold      n      a temporary supporting platform                 the
                                                                     building.
                                                                     Love is more prevalent in the spring for some
prevalent     adj    of wide use or occurrence
                                                                     reason.
                                                                     The husband and wife communed before the altar
commune       v      interchange thoughts and feelings
                                                                     when they got married.
                                                                     The evil sin of one man affected everyone around
sin           n      transgression of divine law
                                                                     him.
                     the state or condition of having little or no
poverty       n                                                      Poverty is prevalent in low-income areas.
                     money, goods, or means of support
                     a feeling of responsibility or remorse for      She felt an incredible sense of guilt for telling the
guilt         n
                     some offense                                    lie to her mother.
                                                                     After the murder of his son, the father sought
revenge       n      to take vengeance for
                                                                     revenge.
departure     n      The act of leaving                              The departure time for the airplane is 5:15.
                                                                     The man committed adultery with a woman he
                     voluntary sexual intercourse between a
adultery      n                                                      met
                     married person
                                                                     at work.
infamous      adj    having an extremely bad reputation              Serial killers are infamous for their crimes.
                                                                     During the tornado, the locals sought refuge from
refuge        n      shelter or protection from danger
                                                                     the weather.
                                                                     Feminists usually believe in stronger
                     A person whose beliefs and behavior are
feminist      n                                                      independence
                     based on feminism
                                                                     for the female gender.
mysterious    adj    of obscure nature, meaning                      The mysterious man walked quietly in the shadows.
Unit 13

                      to leave behind (syn. discard, forsake / ant.    The man abandoned his wife and children to go
abandon         v
                      keep, rescue)                                    off in search of adventure.
                      to make complete; to make harmonious             She looked very nice, but still needed a few
complement      n
                      (syn. harmonize / ant. clash)                    accessories to complement the outfit.
                                                                       The decline in the value of the US dollar means
                      a lowering in worth (syn. drop, fall / ant.
decline         v                                                      that
                      improvement, upswing)
                                                                       the Korean won is worth a lot more now.
                                                                       The findings in the experiment were insignificant.
                      very small; not important (ant. crucial,         They didn't indicate a relationship between the
insignificant   adj
                      significant)                                     two
                                                                       variables.

                                                                       His instructions were not completely clear, but I
                      to construe or take a certain meaning from
interpret       v                                                      interpret his words to mean he wants us to work
                      something
                                                                       until the project is completed.

                                                                       The Native Americans were the indigenous people
indigenous      adj   originating from a particular region
                                                                       of North America.
                                                                       The federal government overarches the state and
overarch        n     to span with or over like an arch
                                                                       local government.
                                                                       By the late 1800’s, the United States had become an
                      organizing manufacturing capabilities of a       industrialized nation manufacturing every
industrialize   adj
                      place                                            product
                                                                       within its domestic regions.
quest           n     search, pursuit                                  King Arthur was on a quest for the Holy Grail.
                                                                       The scrivener recorded all that happened in the
scrivener       n     a scribe                                         days
                                                                       of the king.
                                                                       Going through hardships is one of the many
hardships       n     Extreme privation; suffering
                                                                       realities of life.
formative       adj   giving form or shape                             The rectangle could be seen as a formative square.
                      the associated or secondary meaning of a         The author had sophisticated connotation, using
connotation     n     word or expression in addition to its explicit   advanced vocabulary to give his words an
                      or primary meaning                               underlying meaning.
noteworthy      adj   worthy of notice or attention                    Abraham said a lot of noteworthy quotes.
                                                                       For many years, my mind wandered with vagrancy,
vagrancy        n     mental wandering
                                                                       in search of answers.
                                                                       The new tenants that will be living here will arrive
tenants         n     A dweller in a place; an occupant
                                                                       in a couple hours.
                                                                       An absurdist believes in some of the most
absurdist       n     an adherent of absurdism                         unusual
                                                                       things.
                                                                       The love-struck man ambitiously sought out the
ambitious       adj   requiring exceptional effort
                                                                       love of his woman.
                      an economic system based on private              Capitalism is the economic basis for the United
capitalism      n
                      ownership of capital                             States’s economy.
                                                                       It was seemingly possible that what his friend
seemingly       adv   apparent; appearing                              was
                                                                       saying was true.
Unit 14

                                                                    The scientist will conduct research on the matter
                    to direct or take part in the operation or
conduct       v                                                     of
                    management of
                                                                    gravity.
                                                                    This civil case will create a new precedent for those
precedent     n     an identical previous example
                                                                    who go through an in-just arrest.
manufacture   v     the making of goods                             Chevrolet manufactures cars.
                    a state in which light rays exhibit different   The design of the new pair of sunglasses polarizes
polarize      v
                    qualities in different directions               the light away from the eyes.
                                                                    President Lincoln inspired many to push forward
inspire       v     stimulate to activity
                                                                    during difficult times.
                                                                    Many candidates have to appease their constituents
bolster       v     prop up or support
                                                                    to bolster their popularity among the populace.
                    relating to behavior in accordance with an
                                                                    The committee is in place to ensure the ethical
ethical       adj   idea of right conduct (syn. moral / ant.
                                                                    treatment of all research animals.
                    immoral, unethical)
                                                                    Some countries are imposing economic sanctions
                                                                    on
impose        v     to force upon
                                                                    the nation to pressure them to comply with
                                                                    international standards for human rights.
                    to spend money with the expectation of          We're going to invest some money into a college
invest        v
                    earning more money back (ant. divest, sell)     savings plan for our son.

                    the larger part; more than half                 The majority of the class wanted the professor to
majority      n
                    (ant. minority)                                 delay the exam by a week, but she refused.

raging        adj   angry fury                                      A raging tsunami struck the southeast coast.
                                                                    Many people got together to protest the new bill
protests      n     To object to                                    that
                                                                    was introduced.
                                                                    Slavery in some countries still exists today
slavery       n     the condition of a slave; to be in bondage      because it
                                                                    provides an inexpensive labor force.
viable        adj   capable of living                               It is still viable that he will recover.
                    to move or pass in a swift but stately          She was swept away by the man’s handsome
swept         v
                    manner                                          appearance.
horrific      adj   causing horror                                  The death scene was horrific.
                                                                    There have been reported many unjust police
brutality     n     the quality of being brutal; cruelty            brutality against normal civilians in high-crime
                                                                    areas.
                                                                    Stealing and murdering are both considered conducts
immorality    n     immoral quality, character, or conduct
                                                                    of immorality.
sole          adj   being the only one                              He was the sole beneficiary of his parents will.
                                                                    The United States in the past century illegalized
segregation   n     the act or practice of segregating              segregation, so that whites and other ethnic
                                                                    minorities can live together.
Unit 15

                         to gain use of (syn. enter / ant. forfeit,     After a lot of searching, I was finally able to access
access             n
                         depart)                                        the correct file.
                         an interactive system or process; the
                                                                        My financial success has added a new dynamic to
dynamic            adj   workings and structure of a relationship
                                                                        my relationships with my old friends.
                         (syn. aspect)
                         contrary to the law; against the rules (ant.   It is illegal to operate a vehicle while under the
illegal            adj
                         legal)                                         influence of alcohol.
                                                                        When she started vomiting blood after the accident,
                         acting or effective within the body            I suspected internal bleeding and rushed her to
internal           adj
                         (syn. inner / ant. external)                   the
                                                                        hospital.
lecturer           n     one who delivers a speech                      Our lecturer spoke with a clear voice to us.
                                                                        With so many problems to deal with, the people
strife             adj   conflict or discord
                                                                        had much strife.
traverse           v     pass across, over, or through                  The horse traversed the shallow waters.
                                                                        Baptism ranges from a sprinkle on the head to total
immersion          n     the act of plunging into
                                                                        body immersion.
                         native or indigenous to the region in
vernacular         adj                                                  The Texas accent is vernacular to native Texans.
                         relevance to language
                                                                        With such a difficult math problem, I was at a state
quandary           n     a state of bewilderment or perplexity
                                                                        of quandary.
                                                                        Authors used pen names so they could hide their
pen name           n     A pseudonym used by a writer
                                                                        real identity.
                                                                        The kid was a runaway, when they found him
runaway            n     a person who runs away; fugitive
                                                                        sleeping on the park bench.
                                                                        Steamboats were the most effective means of
                                                                        travel
steamboat          n     a steam-driven vessel
                                                                        on water, when the fuel powered engine didn’t
                                                                        exist.
                         something that binds a person or persons
bond               n                                                    The bond between the two friends was unbreakable.
                         to a certain circumstance
                                                                        He was very reserved when it came to money,
reserve            n     the act of keeping back                        always
                                                                        putting aside some money into savings.
                                                                        The drunken man spouted many derogatory words
                         tending to lessen the merit or reputation      to
derogatory         adj
                         of a person or thing                           the people that were dragging him out of the
                                                                        bar.
                                                                        We banned the toys because they were
banned             v     to prohibit, forbid, or bar                    dangerous to
                                                                        little children.
                         of, pertaining to, or characteristic of        The topic was still controversial despite it being
controversial      adj
                         controversy                                    argued for many hours.
                                                                        Since the scientists didn’t have enough evidence,
quandaries         n     a state of perplexity or uncertainty
                                                                        they had many quandaries about their theory.
                                                                        There are many famous people that wrote their own
                         marked by or dealing with one's own
autobiographical   adj                                                  autobiographical experiences about the times
                         experiences or life history
                                                                        they lived in.
Unit 16

                                                                  The number one movie showed much acclaim by
acclaim       n     with general approval
                                                                  viewers.
                    a certain quality or feature (syn. trait,     One interesting aspect of the zebra is that no two
aspect        n
                    characteristic, facet)                        have exactly the same stripe pattern.
                    to cause to feel certain; to remove doubt     I felt better because he assured me that I would
assure        v     (syn. encourage, soothe / ant. worry,         get
                    doubt)                                        paid on time this month.
                                                                  One's first high school reunion usually takes place
decade        n     a period of ten years
                                                                  one decade after graduation.
                                                                  The secret agent had a device that would allow him
device        n     a tool; an instrument (syn. gadget)
                                                                  to listen through walls.
                                                                  The President of the United States has a prominent
prominent     adj   standing out
                                                                  role in international affairs.
                                                                  We need a formative way to create a computer
formative     adj   shaping, forming                              language so anyone can understand its
                                                                  programming.
                                                                  The professor was very adamant, maybe to the
adamant       adj   hard-hearted, unyielding
                                                                  point of stubborn, about his answer.
                    one living, as though permanently, away       Many ambassadors have to live as expatriates for
expatriate    n
                    from his or her country                       the purpose of better foreign relations.
                                                                  My depiction of death is a skeleton wearing a
depiction     n     portray by picture or words                   black
                                                                  cape holding a big scythe.
                                                                  All his nerves sensitized when she stroked him
sensitized    v     to render sensitive                           with
                                                                  a feather.
honing        v     To perfect or make more intense               With good practice, one can hone his skills.
latter        n     being the second mentioned of two             The latter half of the speech concluded his message.
democratic    adj   pertaining to or of the nature of democracy   We must all do our democratic duty and vote.
                                                                  Michelangelo created many masterpieces, both in
masterpiece   n     An outstanding work of art or craft
                                                                  art and architecture.
                    A woman noted for courage and daring          The Valkyrie is known as the heroine in Norse
heroines      n
                    action                                        mythology.
                    the ordinary form of spoken or written        In poetry, one doesn’t necessarily have to make
prose         n     language, without metrical structure, as      every piece of prose rhyme. It can be written in
                    distinguished from poetry or verse            free verse.
subtlety      n     the state or quality of being subtle          The loud obnoxious man lacked any subtlety.
brash         adj   impertinent; impudent; tactless               The crude comment was a bit brash.
forte         n     a strong point                                The kind man’s compassion was his forte.
Unit 17

                                                                       To maintain a proper collection of anything, one
accumulation     n     collect or bring together                       must have a large accumulation of the thing they
                                                                       desire.
attain           v     reach or achieve                                A student must work hard to attain good grades.
                                                                       The temperature fluctuated in the room as the
fluctuate        v     change continually                              little
                                                                       child played with the thermostat.
                                                                       The witness’s testimony was valid considering the
valid            adj   well supported by fact
                                                                       evidence produced by the police.
                                                                       The school curriculum has to encompass every
encompass        v     contain
                                                                       subject the school board requires.
                                                                       During birthing inception, the mother must
inception        n     initiation                                      breathe
                                                                       and push to help get the baby out.
                                                                       The guy was so embarrassed; his psyche regressed to
regress          v     to return
                                                                       an infantile state.
                       in accordance to a proposition that             Most of what philosophy describes is purely
theoretical      adj
                       describes an operation and cause                theoretical for it lacks empirical evidence.
                                                                       Med students must follow strict curricula by
curricula        n     a regular course of study
                                                                       studying intensively the art of biology.
                                                                       The satellite orbited around the earth
                       a device designed to orbit around a celestial
satellite        n                                                     transmitting
                       body
                                                                       data from one end of the country to the other.
                                                                       The professor oversimplified the situation, which
oversimplified   v     to simplify to the point of error               in
                                                                       turn made the entire experiment a failure.
discipline       n     training to act in accordance with rules        Practicing daily takes a lot of discipline.
countless        adj   too numerous to count                           There was so many of them; they were countless.
contribution     n     the act of contributing                         The people gave their contributions to the church.
                       any remains, impression, or trace of a
fossil           n                                                     They found dinosaur fossils in the European region.
                       living thing of a former geologic age
                       the person or persons controlling and           Money management is crucial when it comes to
management       n
                       directing the affairs of a business             financing.
                       a science concerned with using                  The class learned about geomatics as they saw
geomatics        n     mathematical methods on data about the          math
                       earth's surface                                 equations to interpreting the earth’s crust.
                       the handing down of statements, beliefs,        Bowing to your elders is a timeless tradition among
tradition        n
                       legends, customs, information                   Asian cultures.
                                                                       Money just doesn’t materialize from trees. You
materialize      v     To cause to become real or actual               have
                                                                       to work for it.
                       the process by which the surface of the
                                                                       The water’s force can create erosions to the earth’s
erosion          n     earth is worn away by the action of water,
                                                                       surface, thus creating rivers.
                       glaciers, winds, waves
Unit 18

                                                                     The archer shot his arrow at the target with great
accuracy        n     correctness, precision
                                                                     accuracy.
                                                                     Since I had nothing to do during the weekend, I was
available       adj   obtainable, at one’s disposal
                                                                     available to work an extra shift.
                                                                     The author used a lot of descriptive words to express
imagery         n     imaginative thought or expression
                                                                     thoughtful imagery in his writing.
                                                                     With the turning of the modern century, math
                                                                     teachers saw the importance of incorporating the
incorporate     v     combine or introduce as an integral part
                                                                     standard usage of calculators into their
                                                                     curriculum, as the difficulty of math increased.
                                                                     I had to survey the land before I could get my
survey          n     determine the boundaries of a piece of land    client
                                                                     to make a purchase.
navigation      n     sail over or on                                The navigation by the captain was expert.
                                                                     The stars and the moon were known as celestial
celestial       adj   pertain to the sky
                                                                     beings to the ancient astrologers.
density         n     thickness and compactness                      We can measure density by calculating volume.
                                                                     The function of the word-processing program is
                      proper action in which anything fulfills its
function        n                                                    for
                      purpose
                                                                     typing documents.
unknown         adj   not discovered, determined, or identified      The cause of the disease is unknown.
                                                                     Water is ubiquitous; however, drinking water is
ubiquitous      adj   existing or being everywhere
                                                                     very limited.
cartography     n     the production of maps                         Mapsco is one company that deals with cartography.
                                                                     It was merely a coincidence that both people met
merely          adv   only as specified and nothing more
                                                                     each other.
                                                                     We ran around the circumference of the circle
circumference   n     the outer boundary of a circular area
                                                                     shaped field.
                                                                     Before an actual car model is put into mass
                      the original or model on which something       production, companies create a prototype to see
prototype       n
                      is based or formed                             how
                                                                     well it might do on the market.
                                                                     One can use a sextant to find the position of
                      an astronomical instrument used to             where
sextant         n     determine latitude and longitude at sea by     they are at in the middle of the ocean by angling
                      measuring angular distances                    it
                                                                     to stars.
                      of or pertaining to a movement espousing
                      a broad range of philosophies and practices    The new age movement de-emphasizes research
new age         n
                      traditionally viewed as occult,                and experiments.
                      metaphysical, or paranormal
                      to impose, place, or set over, above, or on    The President superimposed the law so that
superimposed    v
                      something else                                 everyone would know and abide by it.
                      a comprehensive view of the world and          The worldview on international conflict leans
worldview       n
                      human life                                     generally towards peaceful diplomacy.
atlas           n     a bound collection of maps                     The atlas showed every place on the continent.
Unit 19

benefit       v     advantage or profit                              It was to our benefit that we studied before the test.
                                                                     Handheld games are becoming quite the commodity
commodities   n     an article of commerce
                                                                     among children these days.
                                                                     The computer is comprised of many parts that
comprise      v     consist of
                                                                     simultaneously work together.
                                                                     Among the human species, you can easily see a
diverse       adj   essentially difference
                                                                     diverse mixture of cultures and races.
                                                                     It is very unique to find the perfect diamond that
unique        adj   unusual, rare                                    is
                                                                     grown straight from nature.
                                                                     Human beings come from the same homogeneous
homogeneous   adj   having the same origin
                                                                     origin.
                                                                     The gold mine had a plethora of the valuable
plethora      n     superabundance
                                                                     mineral.
                                                                     I was mesmerized by the necklace because it had
mesmerize     adj   hypnotism
                                                                     such a beautiful lustre to it.
                                                                     Be careful not to replete the water container. You
replete       adj   completely filled
                                                                     might spill it when you pick it up.
                                                                     Hawaii, because of its tropical climate, is considered
exotic        adj   of foreign origin or character
                                                                     one of the exotic locations for tourists to go.
                    figured or expressed on the basis of a rate      They say that ten percent of your paycheck should
percent       n
                    or proportion per hundred                        always go towards savings.
                                                                     The outdoor landscape was beautiful with all the
landscape     n     a section or expanse of rural scenery
                                                                     mountains and lakes.
steep         adj   having an almost vertical slope or pitch         The steep mountain side was difficult to climb.
                    to change continually; shift back and forth;
fluctuate     v                                                      The inconsistent student had fluctuating grades.
                    vary irregularly
                    a small drum consisting of a circular frame
                    with a skin stretched over it and several
                                                                     They used tambourines to maintain the beat
tambourine    n     pairs of metal jingles attached to the frame,
                                                                     while singing.
                    played by striking with the knuckles,
                    shaking, and the like
                    an art of sound in time that expresses ideas
                    and emotions in significant forms through
music         n                                                      We listen to music.
                    the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony,
                    and color
                    a reed instrument consisting of a melody
                    pipe and one or more accompanying drone
                                                                     The Scottish people use bagpipes to perform songs
bagpipe       n     pipes protruding from a windbag into
                                                                     of the dead.
                    which the air is blown by the mouth or a
                    bellows
                    A thick, flammable, yellow-to-black
                    mixture of gaseous, liquid, and solid
petroleum     n                                                      We use petroleum as fuel source.
                    hydrocarbons that occurs naturally beneath the
                    earth's surface
                                                                     The oil reserves are there in case the main
reserves      n     something kept or stored for use or need         supplies
                                                                     run out.
                                                                     The failure of the potato crop lead to widespread
famine        n     extreme and general scarcity of food
                                                                     famine in Ireland.
Unit 20

                                                                    Despite her nervousness about bungee jumping,
                                                                    she
                      in contrast to what might be expected (syn.
despite        prep                                                 looked quite calm as she stood on the edge of
                      in spite of, although, even though)
                                                                    the
                                                                    platform.
                                                                    As soon as the miners discovered ore, they
extraction     n      a point of forceful removal                   immediately searched for an extraction point to
                                                                    start digging.
                                                                    Despite his sickness, Ralph persisted to learn in
persist        v      to endure
                                                                    school.
                                                                    The cowboy woke up early and went to the stable to
stable         adj    a building for horses and cattle.
                                                                    get his horse ready for the days work.
                      the process in which one reaps, gathers,      In ancient times, farmers would manually garner all
garner         v
                      and stores.                                   the wheat by hand.
stellar        adj    starlike                                      The actor performed a stellar audition for the part.
                                                                    European and Japanese vehicles are usually imported
import         v      bring in as wares from another country
                                                                    from their respected countries to the US.

                                                                    Shakespeare’s portrayal of Julius Caesar is quite
portrayal      n      describing vividly
                                                                    different from what actually happened in real life.

                                                                    The sprain seriously hindered the athlete from
hinder         v      preventing from acting
                                                                    running as fast as he could.

                                                                    Early colonialism proved very useful to many
                      the idea of settling into a new country but
colonialism    n                                                    growing empires, such as the UK because many
                      remain subject to the mother country
                                                                    valuable trade items made them very prosperous.

mainland       n      the principal land of a country, region       Australia’s mainland contains mostly desert.
                      the people who read or are thought to read    The magazine went out of business because the
readership     n
                      a particular book, newspaper, magazine        readership base dwindled to almost nothing.
                      an area of land almost completely
                                                                    The southern landmass of Florida is a peninsula to
peninsula      n      surrounded by water except for an isthmus
                                                                    the United States.
                      connecting it with the mainland
isolate        v      to set or place apart; detach or separate     We isolated the bacteria so that it wouldn’t spread.
                      using or able to speak several or many        The person was multilingual. He spoke four
multilingual   adj
                      languages with some facility                  languages.
                                                                    New York is said to be the most cosmopolitan area
                      sophisticated as to be at home in all parts
                                                                    in the US as it contains many shopping centers
cosmopolitan   n      of the world or conversant with many
                                                                    and
                      spheres of interest
                                                                    art galleries.
                                                                    I can’t see the two lines. I think they are
overlap        v      to cover and extend beyond
                                                                    overlapping.
render         v      to cause to be or become                      The poison rendered the victim paralyzed.
                                                                    We use the printing press to mass produce the
                      a machine, as a cylinder press or rotary
press          n                                                    daily
                      press, for printing on paper
                                                                    newspaper.
                      commendation or honor given for some
credit         n                                                    We will give him credit for his good deeds.
                      action
Unit21

                                                                  I had to confirm the facts with three different
confirm         v     establish more firmly
                                                                  people before I could believe my friend.
                                                                  If I study, the consequence is a good grade;
                      that which follows as the result of some
consequence     n                                                 however, if I don’t study, the consequence is a
                      preceding act.
                                                                  bad grade.
                                                                  The displacement of the people was caused by
displacement    n     the state of being out of place.            the
                                                                  hurricane.
                      a washing or wearing away of the earth’s    A water path has enough power to create erosions,
erosion         n
                      surface.                                    eventually turning that path into rivers.
                                                                  The scientist hypothesized that the two liquids
hypothesize     v     A testable assertion to a problem           would
                                                                  create another chemical.
                                                                  The wedding is one of the oldest ceremonial events
ceremonial      adj   pertains to a ceremony or formal ritual
                                                                  in history.
arid            adj   lacking moisture, parched with heat         The desert is naturally an arid habitat.
                                                                  Two rivalling nations usually have adverse goals
adverse         adj   contrary in purpose
                                                                  towards dealing with each other.
rural           adj   country life                                The rural farm life can be quite calming and quiet.
                                                                  My grandparents bought a small tract of land so
tract           n     an expanse of land or water
                                                                  they can live quietly and settle down.
                      one of the original or earliest known       The Native Americans were aboriginal people
aboriginal      adj
                      inhabitants of a country or region          before the discoverers found the Americas.
otherwise       adj   under other circumstances                   Press the blue button, otherwise, press the yellow.
                      the contemplation or consideration of       My views are only speculation because they are
speculation     n
                      some subject                                based only on my observations.
                                                                  Deforestation was a big issue when paper
                                                                  companies
deforestation   n     to divest or clear of forests or trees      destroyed entire forests to keep up with the
                                                                  demand
                                                                  of paper.
                      the introduction of harmful substances or
pollution       n                                                 Car exhaust emits a lot of pollution.
                      products into the environment
                                                                  Every year, the grazier will select the choice cattle
grazier         n     a person who grazes cattle for the market
                                                                  and take it into market.
outback         n     located in the back country                 The outback of Australia is nothing but desert.
                      a method for removing a person or thing     Because the injured victim was surrounded by water,
airlift         n
                      by air                                      we needed an airlift to get him out of there.
                                                                  Texas land has so many nutrients in the soil that
                      capable of producing crops; suitable for
arable          adj                                               farmers considered Texas one of the most arable
                      farming
                                                                  lands in the US.
gatherers       n     a person who gathers, collects              We need gatherers to collect the material.
Unit 22

external      adj   located outside and apart                       Skin is external to the inner organs of the body.
                                                                    Supermodels usually have very delicate, yet beautiful
feature       n     a distinctive or prominent characteristic
                                                                    facial features.
phenomena     n     an odd or notable thing                         Shooting stars are a wonderful phenomena to see.
                                                                    It’s very predictable that the mouse will come
predictable   adj   foretell, prophesize                            after
                                                                    the cheese, if I leave the cheese on the floor.
                    a hot spring that periodically spouts hot
geyser        n                                                     Old Faithful is the most popular geyser.
                    water and steam
awe           v     fear mingled with admiration                    The father looked at his newborn in awe.
                                                                    King Arthur and his knights make up the Celtic
myth          n     a legendary story
                                                                    myths.
                                                                    The beautiful sculpture of David was sculpted by
sculpt        v     to carve or shape
                                                                    the hands of Michelangelo
                                                                    Intense geothermic heat provokes volcanoes to
geothermic    adj   to create heat from the earth
                                                                    erupt.
fantastic     adj   unreal and hardly possible                      Pigs flying?! That is absolutely fantastic!
                                                                    The Grand Canyon has many spectacular steep
canyon        n     a deep valley with steep sides
                                                                    sides.
                    a land area having a relatively level surface
plateau       n     considerably raised above adjoining land        We’ll land on the flat plateau over there.
                    on at least one side
                                                                    With no rain for several months, we were facing a
drought       n     a period of dry weather
                                                                    serious drought.
                                                                    Before they went public, the scientists had to do
extensive     adj   of great extent; wide
                                                                    extensive research to make sure they were right.
                    the place to which a person or thing travels
destination   n                                                     The train’s final destination is Dallas, Texas.
                    or is sent
                                                                    Because of the interruption, I had to recount the
recount       v     to count again
                                                                    entire thing over again.
                                                                    I was astounded by the number of people that
astound       adj   to overwhelm with amazement
                                                                    showed up for his birthday party.
flora         n     Plants considered as a group                    Flora is the term that relates to plants and flowers.
                                                                    In the woods, many types of fauna can be found,
fauna         n     all the animal life in a particular region
                                                                    such are squirrels, and birds.
treasure      n     wealth or riches stored or accumulated          The pirate hid his treasure.
Unit 23

                                                                    To create a good research paper, I must collect and
compile       v     collect from various sources
                                                                    compile my resources and thoughts onto paper.
                                                                    As age progresses, the body slowly diminishes to a
diminish      v     make less or smaller by any means
                                                                    weaker state as well.
                                                                    The guide indicated where the tourist would go
indicate      v     to point out; direct attention to               on
                                                                    the map.
                                                                    Some say love is the only factor to a relationship.
factor        n     any contributing cause or element
                                                                    I think there are many others.
                                                                    Soldiers in the army need great persistence to
persistence   n     to endure
                                                                    endure the rigorous training.
                                                                    In San Francisco, the hills have a high gradient,
gradient      n     the amount or angle of slope
                                                                    making it very difficult to build houses.
                                                                    The weather forecast predicted three days of
forecast      n     prediction                                      straight
                                                                    rain.
                                                                    Because Houston is located close to the ocean, the
humidity      n     dampness, amount of moisture in the air
                                                                    city has much humidity.
                                                                    The math pattern was easy to pinpoint. It was
pattern       n     a model to be copied                            going
                                                                    up by even numbers.
                                                                    With so much pollution, global warming is
global        adj   worldwide
                                                                    inevitable.
                    the ensemble or effect created by such
makeup        n                                                     We need to see the genetic makeup of his DNA.
                    application
                                                                    Spring, summer, fall, and winter constitute the four
season        n     one of the four periods of the year
                                                                    seasons.
                                                                    The airplane travelled faster thanks to some
jet stream    n     A high-speed stream of air
                                                                    powerful jet streams.
pronounce     v     to enunciate or articulate                      I pronounce you husband and wife.
                    an interface or zone of transition between
front         n                                                     The cold front is coming in soon, so dress warmly.
                    two dissimilar air masses
                    A common burrowing rodent of northern           When the groundhog sees his shadow, spring is
groundhog     n
                    and eastern North America                       right around the corner.
                    any instrument that measures atmospheric        Go grab the barometer to see if the air pressure is
barometer     n
                    pressure                                        high.
                    an instrument that is carried aloft by a
                    balloon to send back information on
                                                                    The radiosonde gave the weather crew all the
radiosonde    n     atmospheric temperature, pressure, and
                                                                    weather information they needed.
                    humidity by means of a small radio
                    transmitter
                                                                    You’ve got a 103 temperature on the thermometer.
thermometer   n     an instrument for measuring temperature
                                                                    You’re definitely sick.
                    all the parts of a thing taken together, so     We collected the ensemble and put it in the
ensemble      n     that each part is considered only in relation   garage
                    to the whole                                    to work on it.
Unit 24

                                                                   English, French, and Spanish are all analogous to
analogous     adj   corresponding; similar
                                                                   Latin.
collapse      v     break, fall in, or give way                    Since the bridge was built incorrectly, it collapsed.
                                                                   The Michelangelo da Vinci art exhibit was open to
exhibit       v     offer to view
                                                                   the public at the museum.
                                                                   Because all of the players in the game were strong,
intense       adj   existing in high degree
                                                                   the game was very intense.
                                                                   After bothering him so much, he finally erupted in
erupt         v     burst forth suddenly
                                                                   a fit of rage.
                                                                   I had to wear a mantle to shield myself from the
mantle        n     a cover
                                                                   snow.
                    a mass of molten material below the earth’s    Once magma flows out of the earth’s surface, it
magma         n
                    crust                                          turns into lava.
                                                                   I can’t believe the earth’s continents are supported
                    slablike sections of the earth that support    by eight tectonic plates that are constantly
tectonic      n
                    continents                                     grinding
                                                                   with each other.
seismic       adj   an earthquake                                  California experiences a lot of seismic activity.
                                                                   The fork on the road created a divergent crossing
divergent     adj   branch off in different directions
                                                                   between two different paths.
                    an opening or passage by which anything        We all need emotional outlets, because bottling
outlet        n
                    is let out; vent; exit                         those feelings can do more damage sometimes.
hotspot       n     areas of intense pressure                      The new jazz café was the hotspot for the teenagers.
                                                                   The train remained stationary until all the guests
stationary    adj   standing still
                                                                   were on board.
                                                                   That piece of wood was a fragment chipped off
fragment      n     a part broken off or detached
                                                                   from the coffin.
                                                                   The ideas of the man and his wife typically are
convergent    adj   tending to come together
                                                                   convergent.
hardened      v     made or become hard or harder                  The water will harden when it’s cold.
                    a vast area of ancient crustal rocks which,
                                                                   The shield volcano forms with layers upon layers
shield        n     together with a platform, constitutes a
                                                                   of molten lava.
                    craton
                    a large, basinlike depression resulting from   The scientist went to the caldera to do some
caldera       n     the explosion or collapse of the center of     research to see what caused the volcano to
                    a volcano                                      explode.
                    composed chiefly of fragments of volcanic      The volcano’s explosion was so massive,
pyroclastic   adj
                    origin                                         huge pyroclastic pieces flew for miles.
lessened      v     To make less; reduce                           I lessened my grip knowing it was okay.
Unit 25

                                                                           Eating right, and exercising is beneficial for a
beneficial         adj   helpful, profitable
                                                                           healthy style of living.
                                                                           Having a degree in computer programming made
capable            adj   having the ability
                                                                           Ryan capable of doing his job.
                                                                           Due to the number of flaws, the detective requested
investigation      n     examine in detail
                                                                           a more thorough investigation.
                                                                           The two lovers had a mutual affection for each
mutual             adj   reciprocated respect for the other
                                                                           other.
                                                                           Martin Luther King Jr. envisioned a less prejudice
envision           v     contemplate in imagination
                                                                           and less racial America
                                                                           The northwest US experiences a lot of precipitation
precipitation      n     rain, sleet, or snow
                                                                           during its rainy season.
                                                                           Working out your body is ultimately working out
vascular           adj   pertain to bodily ducts that convey fluid
                                                                           your vascular system.
pollinate          v     fertilize                                         Bees and other insects help pollinate flowers.
severe             adj   serious, austere                                  Watch out for severe thunderstorm.
                                                                           Many organisms use their unique camouflage to
camouflage         n     disguise of objects
                                                                           hide from predators.
                                                                           The wind in the desert shifts the sand turning them
sand dune          n     a ridge of sand created by the wind
                                                                           into hills and sand dunes.
                                                                           The scorching heat of the sun made the travel
scorching          v     burning; very hot
                                                                           difficult.
                         all the plants or plant life of a place, taken
vegetation         n                                                       Plant vegetation in Africa is extraordinarily diverse.
                         as a whole
                         Of or relating to a temperature scale that
                         registers the freezing point of water as 32°      The normal body temperature is about 98.7 degrees
Fahrenheit         n
                         and the boiling point as 212° at one              Fahrenheit.
                         atmosphere of pressure
                                                                           Motor oil is a viscous substance that prevents car
viscous            adj   Having relatively high resistance to flow
                                                                           engines from overheating.
                                                                           The small piece of bread was sparsely distributed
sparse             adj   thinly scattered or distributed
                                                                           among the eight kids.
                                                                           The cactus is a wonderful example of the
xerophytes         n     A plant adapted to living in a dry arid habitat   xerophytes, as they can survive the hottest days
                                                                           of the desert.
resilient          adj   springing back; rebounding                        He was resilient to the opposing team’s force.
quenching          v     To put out                                        Water quenches one’s thirst on dry hot summer days.
                                                                           Coaches are advised to pay attention to
                                                                           thermoregulation among their players, so that
thermoregulation   n     the regulation of body temperature
                                                                           none
                                                                           of them faint from dehydration.
Unit 26

                                                                       The car mechanic accidentally displaced the oil with
displace        v     to put out of place
                                                                       the cleaner.
                                                                       The student formulated his reply in his head
formulate       v     put into definite words                          before
                                                                       he spoke.
induce          v     lead by persuasion or influence                  The people were easily induced by the propaganda.
                                                                       The man that was found with the bloody shirt was
prime           adj   of highest quality
                                                                       the police’s prime suspect.
                                                                       My best friend is very reliable with even the menial
reliable        adj   reliable, trustworthy
                                                                       tasks I ask him to do.
                                                                       The magnitude of the earthquake was so
magnitude       n     physical greatness                               powerful
                                                                       it destroyed tall buildings.
catastrophe     n     a sudden disaster                                The US experienced a huge catastrophe on 9/11.
                      a sea wave caused by a submarine
tsunami         n                                                      Tsunamis show the destructive power of water.
                      earthquake
                                                                       The atomic bomb decimated the population of
decimate        v     destroy a great number of
                                                                       Japan during World War II.
                                                                       With modern physics and technology, we have
devastating     adj   lay waste
                                                                       invented some devastating weaponry.
                      existing, situated, or operating below the       They built subterranean tunnels, so the enemy
subterranean    adj
                      surface of the earth                             wouldn’t see them in the air.
                      importance or significance attached to a         I cannot stress to you how important this next
stress          n
                      thing                                            objective is.
                      a scale, ranging from 1 to 10, for indicating    The horrific earthquake measured a 7.2 on the
Richter scale   n
                      the intensity of an earthquake                   Richter scale.
                                                                       The extent of the damage was severe. It would
                      the space or degree to which a thing
extent          n                                                      take
                      extends
                                                                       many years to rebuild.
detected        v     To discover or ascertain the existence           We detected other life forms in space.
tidal           adj   of or relating to or caused by tides             Surfers use small tidal waves to ride on their boards.
                                                                       The number of soldier fatalities during the war was
fatalities      n     a disaster resulting in death
                                                                       great.
pummeled        v     to beat or thrash with or as if with the fists   The man pummelled his opponent to the ground.
                                                                       The lawyer scathed the witness with all sorts of
scathed         v     to attack with severe criticism
                                                                       questions.
                      To set down for preservation in writing or
recorded        v                                                      The recorded message was from my mom.
                      other permanent form
Unit 27

                                                                      The insurance agent came out and assessed the
assess          v     estimate the value of
                                                                      damage from the car accident.
                                                                      I had to clarify my main point to the puzzled
clarify         v     make clear to the sight or understanding
                                                                      children.
                                                                      The knight equipped himself with armor and a
equip           v     fit out for what is needed
                                                                      sword for combat.
pose            v     propound as a question                          I will pose the first question, and you shall answer.
                                                                      Through process of elimination, I concluded that
process         n     a series of operations                          C
                                                                      was the correct answer.
                                                                      The disease was widespread and everyone at
widespread      adj   covering a great area                           school
                                                                      was sick.
                                                                      Topography allows for the creation of maps
                                                                      have
topography      n     the surface configuration of anything
                                                                      bumps on them to signify an increase in
                                                                      elevation.
                                                                      The hero did so many amazing feats, I’m sure he’ll
legendary       adj   a widely accepted but unverified story
                                                                      be legendary.
                                                                      Many people in the medieval era feared deep holes
abyssal         adj   bottomless pit
                                                                      fearing that the hole might be abyssal.
                                                                      The movie star was allegedly spotted at the local
alleged         adj   declare positively
                                                                      coffee shop.
                                                                      I don’t think you understand the immensity of
immensity       n     vastness; enormous extent
                                                                      damage you caused for that family.
                      a scientist who studies physical and
oceanographer   n                                                     The oceanographer charted the undersea life forms.
                      biological aspects of the seas
                      something that causes wonder, admiration,
marvel          v                                                     People marvel at the beauties nature presents.
                      or astonishment
                      a person who directs or assists in the
mariner         n                                                     The mariner travelled all over the earth on his ship.
                      navigation of a ship
                      a specialist in the branch of biology dealing
zoologist       n                                                     The zoologist is now studying monkeys.
                      with animals
                      a part or an individual taken as exemplifying
specimen        n                                                     This particular specimen is the leader of the herd.
                      a whole mass or number
angler          n     One who fishes with a hook                      The angler caught one of the biggest fish.
                                                                      Check the salinity of the soup. If it’s too salty, add
salinity        n     the relative proportion of salt in a solution
                                                                      a little bit more water.
                      the act or process of forming or the state      The soldiers went into formation as they did
formation       n
                      of being formed                                 inspections.
                      a substance produced by or used in a            We use this chemical to neutralize any toxic
chemical        n
                      chemical process                                substances.
Unit 28

alter        v     make some change in                                 One can alter bad habits through hard to work.
                                                                       We all came to a consensus that we would all go
consensus    n     agreement in opinion                                to
                                                                       McDonald’s for lunch.
                   the means of proving or disproving an               There was much evidence against the suspect that
evidence     n
                   alleged fact                                        made him look guilty.
                                                                       The beginner’s orchestra played at a steady interval
interval     n     the time between two events
                                                                       so that they could all play together.
                                                                       The counselor closely monitored the camper’s
monitor      v     to oversee a particular activity
                                                                       activity.
                                                                       Good catches and strong offensive line were few
proponent    n     the one who proposes                                of the proponents to why the team won the
                                                                       football game.
exacerbate   v     embitter                                            My sister’s constant naggin exacerbated my mother.
                                                                       Due to the rain, there were many water deposits in
deposit      n     lay down, precipitate
                                                                       the meadow.
                                                                       We turned on the flashlight to illuminate the dark
illuminate   v     furnish with a light
                                                                       room
tropic       adj   the region among the equator                        Hawaii’s hot weather is due to its topic location.
                   A cold period marked by episodes of
                                                                       The ice age supposedly killed off the dinosaurs
ice age      n     extensive glaciation alternating with episodes of
                                                                       because they could not preserve their own heat.
                   relative warmth
                   the act of defining or making definite,             In order to use the word properly, you must
definition   n
                   distinct, or clear                                  understand its definition.
                   a fact, occurrence, or circumstance                 The creation of life is a phenomenon which even
phenomenon   n
                   observed or observable                              scientists don’t fully understand.
                   a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and
                   cold water; a strong oxidizing agent; can           The ozone is vital to our health because it
ozone        n     be produced by electric discharge in                prevents
                   oxygen or by the action of ultraviolet radiation    UV rays from hitting our skin.
                   on oxygen in the stratosphere
                                                                       The blockages in the toilet made the water come
blockage     n     an obstructed condition
                                                                       back up.
                   To change from a frozen solid to a liquid           Don’t cook the frozen meat. I’m thawing it so
thawing      v
                   by gradual warming                                  it’ll be easier to cook later.
                   to move or travel around in an orbital or
orbit        v                                                         The satellite orbits around the earth.
                   elliptical path
contend      v     to struggle in opposition                           The teams will contend for the title and trophy.
                                                                       The ice age brought a huge climatic change in
climatic     adj   of or pertaining to climate
                                                                       the weather.
glacier      n     a slowly moving mass of ice                         The huge glacier melted its way to the ocean.
Unit 29

                                                                 My friend and I debated over the topic of abortion
debate        v     to engage in discuss or argument
                                                                 all night.
                                                                 The liar denied any claim that was brought upon
deny          v     refuse to admit the truth
                                                                 him and his crime.
                                                                 We had to eliminate the possibility of failure,
eliminate     v     get rid of                                   when
                                                                 we began to get the machine to work.
                                                                 As soon as the dye touched the water, a color
reaction      n     a response
                                                                 reaction took place.
                                                                 The cat survived the jump that was three stories
survive       v     continue to live
                                                                 high.
                                                                 The child put an odd trinket on top of the drawer.
trinket       n     a trifling ornament
                                                                 It was his sister’s lucky rabbit foot.
fatal         adj   causing death                                The car accident was fatal to the driver.
                                                                 Due to viral adaptation, it is getting more difficult
immunity      n     exempt from a disease
                                                                 for humans to develop natural immunities.
                                                                 Committing petty crimes is a serious disservice to
disservice    n     opposing a duty or service
                                                                 the community.
                                                                 Before church service starts, the clergy will produce
knell         n     the sound of a bell
                                                                 the knell with the church bell.
Undoubtedly   adv   not called in question                       I undoubtedly believed you.
                                                                 The lingering ghost scared the guests of the
lingering     v     To be slow in leaving
                                                                 haunted hotel.
                                                                 Joe was cleaning the rooms. Meanwhile, Julie
meanwhile     adj   in the intervening time
                                                                 was washing the dishes.
                    a person who conducts explorations by
navigator     n                                                  The navigator directed the ship to the port.
                    sea
                                                                 The seafarer recorded his logs on what went on
seafarer      n     a traveller on the sea
                                                                 during the sea voyage.
nearby        adj   close at hand; not far off                   Japan is nearby the coast of Korea.
                    hereditary or natural character, tendency,   We need to get a clear DNA strain to get a genetic
strain        n
                    or trait                                     makeup.
disregard     v     to pay no attention to                       The mother disregarded her son’s constant nagging.
ownership     n     the state or fact of being an owner          I claim ownership of the vehicle after I buy it.
Polynesian    adj   A native or inhabitant of Polynesia          Polynesians have a tropical way of life.
Unit 30

                                                                  The human body is very complex because it has so
complex       adj   composed of many intricate parts
                                                                  many parts that work differently.
                                                                  His friend had a very dynamic personality because
dynamic       n     full of force and energy                      he approached people with a smile and
                                                                  friendliness.
                    suggest or indicate without expressing        I didn’t directly tell him that I liked him, but with
imply         v
                    directly                                      my actions, I might have implied it.
                    move from one region to another
migrate       v                                                   Birds migrate when the climate begins to change.
                    periodically
                                                                  Helping the sick and needy was completely
voluntary     adj   done from one’s free choice
                                                                  voluntary.
                                                                  After hearing his powerful speech, I was impelled to
impel         v     drive onward
                                                                  help out the community.
                    the study of structure and development of     To understand the acoustics of the vocal signal,
linguistics   n
                    language                                      one must study linguistics.
                                                                  Because the water was running, the rate of diffusion
diffusion     n     pour out and spread
                                                                  of the dye was faster than expected.
                                                                  A person who is flexible can assimilate to a new
assimilate    v     take in or incorporate
                                                                  culture more quickly.
                                                                  Military armor has evolved over the centuries,
mobility      n     easily moveable                               allowing the soldier to have more mobility in
                                                                  combat.
transplant    v     to move from one place to another             The man with a bad heart needs a heart transplant.
                                                                  Because the business is setup in many locations,
relocation    n     to move to a different location
                                                                  you will be susceptible to relocation.
                                                                  We transposed the locker combination so that
                    to change the relative position, order, or
transposed    v                                                   no
                    sequence of
                                                                  one would steal it.
                    food and drink considered in terms of its
                                                                  We need to consider your diet before we place you
diet          n     qualities, composition, and its effects on
                                                                  on an exercise routine.
                    health
assortment    n     a collection of various kinds of things       He had an assortment of various collectible cards.
tinged        v     to impart a slight taste or smell to          Blood has a slight tinge of iron.
                    continuing without termination or
ongoing       adj                                                 It was an ongoing tradition.
                    interruption
host          n     One that furnishes facilities and resources   He was a good host at the party.
vanish        v     to disappear from sigh                        The magician vanished inside the box.
                                                                  Wheat products are usually the staple diet for
staples       n     A basic or principal element or feature
                                                                  every culture.
Unit 31

                                                                       When teaching science, it is more productive to
demonstrate      v     describe or explain by use of example
                                                                       demonstrate than it is to teach.
                                                                       We had to give even distributions to the hungry
distribution     n     spread out
                                                                       because we were low on food rations.
                                                                       Food, water, and air are a means to subsistence,
subsistence      n     have the means to live                          but there is also the will to want to survive that
                                                                       helps as well.
                                                                       I was stricken with love at first sight when I saw
stricken         v     strongly affected
                                                                       her walking into the room.
                                                                       Due to political chaos, the government had a lot
instability      n     unsteadiness, lack of firmness
                                                                       of instability.
                                                                       Before getting to the main piece of music, the
interlude        n     an episode of such time
                                                                       orchestra played the interlude.
                                                                       We must eradicate all dangerous parasites from
eradicate        v     pull out by the root
                                                                       the body.
                                                                       I was ladened with the most difficult task of
laden            v     load or burden
                                                                       carrying huge blocks of wood.
                                                                       Genesis accounts the telling of the deadly plagues
plague           n     a pestilential epidemic
                                                                       that brought disaster to Eygpt.
                                                                       Modern prisons put more restrictions on food
restriction      n     to attach restrictions                          utensils for fear of violent breakouts and
                                                                       escapes.
                       a personification of the forces of nature
mother nature    n     as a controlling and regulating maternal        Mother Nature takes care of the circle of life.
                       being
                                                                       There was slight rainfall as the monsoon season
rainfall         n     a fall or shower of rain
                                                                       came to a close.
                       an act or instance of failing or proving
failure          n                                                     When he didn’t pass the test, he felt like a failure.
                       unsuccessful
                       pertaining to meteorology or to phenomena       Determining weather patterns is a meteorological
meteorological   adj
                       of the atmosphere or weather                    study.
wreak            v     to inflict or execute                           The monster wreaked destruction among the city.
                                                                       There was great havoc as the monster destroyed
havoc            n     great destruction or devastation
                                                                       buildings.
                       the careful utilization of a natural resource   We need to have a conservation stance on fuel as
conservation     n
                       in order to prevent depletion                   it is a limited resource.
breed            n     to produce (offspring); procreate; engender     Animals breed to continue the process of life.
protract         v     to draw out or lengthen                         He protracted the song to the point of exhaustion.
                       the act of combining or the state of being
combination      n                                                     I’ll have the chicken and steak combination.
                       combined
Unit 32

                                                                     The two equations were written differently, but the
equivalent    adj   the same in magnitude, meaning, and effect
                                                                     answers were equivalent .
opposing      v     set against or opposite to                       The two opposing teams battled it out on the field.
                                                                     The teacher accidentally wrote on the soft erase
                                                                     board with the permanent marker. The mark
permanent     adj   lasting, and fixed
                                                                     didn’t
                                                                     come off.
                                                                     The father thought the responsible young man was
suitable      adj   appropriate, becoming
                                                                     a suitable guy to go out with his daughter.
tend          v     be inclined or disposed; to work with            The doctor tended to the sick patients needs.
thrive        v     prosper, flourish                                Plants thrive with proper care.
barren        adj   incapable of producing offspring                 The desert is a barren place to plant crops.
                                                                     Humans are terrestrial beings in that we survive
terrestrial   adj   pertain to earth and land
                                                                     through the fruitfulness of the earth.
                                                                     Through animal husbandry, humans were able to
                                                                     domesticate certain animals for their own
husbandry     n     farming, agriculture
                                                                     personal
                                                                     use.
                                                                     The lawyer’s conjunction was dismissed as soon
                    an opinion not founded on sufficient             as
conjunction   n
                    evidence                                         the judge figured out his theory lacked sufficient
                                                                     evidence.
                                                                     The human chocolate consumption rate is about
consumption   n     the act of consuming                             45
                                                                     lbs. in a year.
                                                                     In central and south America, the Native Americans
maize         n     corn
                                                                     depended on their maize supply for food.
manure        n     excrement, or other refuse used as fertilizer    We use cow manure to fertilize the plants.
                    the aggregate of passively floating, drifting,
                                                                     There is one species of whales that eat plankton by
plankton      n     or somewhat motile organisms occurring
                                                                     the tons everyday.
                    in a body of water
hatcheries    n     a place for hatching eggs                        Hen’s have a hatchery to lay their eggs.
                                                                     We have formulated a way to convert heat into
formulated    v     to express in precise form
                                                                     energy.
mutton        n     the flesh of sheep                               If we charbroil the mutton, it will taste soft.
                    A wind system that influences large
                                                                     We had a great deal of rainfall during the monsoon
monsoon       n     climatic regions and reverses direction
                                                                     season.
                    seasonally.
                    An artificial waterway or artificially           We need to use canals to spread the water to
canals        n     improved river used for travel, shipping,        areas
                    or irrigation.                                   where water is lacking.
aquaculture   n     the cultivation of aquatic animals and plants    Aquaculture is important to grow aquatic life.
Unit 33

                                                                    The Titanic was the greatest ship ever assembled
assemble        v     bring together or fit together
                                                                    by man.
                                                                    Since there were so many different kinds of birds,
category        n     a comprehensive division or class             scientists had to put them into categories according
                                                                    to their species.
                                                                    To convert water into ice, one must simply put
convert         v     change into another form                      ice
                                                                    in the freezer.
                                                                    The burly man remained rigid, as the small boy
rigid           adj   stiff and inflexible
                                                                    pushed against him.
                                                                    The spy was out of the visible scope of the enemy
visible         adj   capable of being seen
                                                                    soldiers.
                                                                    The thin membrane filtered the water from any
membrane        n     a sheet of thin tissue
                                                                    dangerous particles.
                      cells that create energy through consuming    Most bacteria are prokaryotic as they feed off of
prokaryotic     adj
                      other cells                                   other cells.
                                                                    Plants cells are all eukaryotic because they get
eukaryotic      adj   cells that can create its own energy
                                                                    their energy from the sun.
                      a cell that unites with another for           The sperm and egg are perfect examples of sexual
gamete          n
                      reproduction                                  reproductive gametes.
                                                                    A city without walls is susceptible for an enemy
susceptible     adj   capable of being affected
                                                                    invasion.
                      A large mass of similar cells that make up
                                                                    We can grow skin tissue to help burn victims
tissues         n     a part of an organism and perform a
                                                                    recover their skin.
                      specific function
multicellular   adj   composed of several or many cells             Animals are multicellular creatures
                      the colloidal and liquid substance of which
protoplasm      n                                                   Extract the protoplasm before the cells form.
                      cells are formed
                      A soft, semisolid food substance with a       Fruit jelly makes a good dessert because its fun
jelly           n
                      resilient consistency                         squishing it around your mouth.
                      the cell substance between the cell
cytoplasm       n                                                   The cytoplasm gives the space for all the organelles.
                      membrane and the nucleus
                      being in a position or direction
Vertically      adv                                                 The elevator goes up vertically to the next floor.
                      perpendicular to the plane of the horizon
                      The process in which to one-celled
                                                                    The conjugation of the two organisms allowed
conjugation     n     organisms unite to transfer nuclear
                                                                    them to reproduce.
                      material
                      the cell produced by the union of two         Zygote needs to further fertilize in order to be
zygote          n
                      gametes                                       an embryo.
                                                                    We need a stable medium to keep the variable
medium          n     a middle state or condition
                                                                    constant.
                      identical or consistent; without variations   The cells are aligned in a uniform manner to be
uniform         adj
                      in detail                                     shaped as skin.
Unit 34

                                                                   The president’s decision was crucial to the overall
crucial        adj   decisive, critical
                                                                   plan of the company’s growth.
                                                                   The internet was a new innovation in the
innovation     n     introduce something new
                                                                   communications industry.
                                                                   The chameleon, when camouflaged, appears
invisible      adj   not be seen
                                                                   invisible to the naked eye.
                                                                   The wine connoisseur was extremely specific in
specific       adj   a particular kind
                                                                   picking the next wine to be tasted.
                                                                   The airline controller transmitted the new
transmit       v     communicate or emit
                                                                   coordinates to the flight pilot.
                                                                   Washing your hands helps a lot when being exposed
microbes       n     a germ or bacteria
                                                                   to microbes.
                                                                   The land was fertile with vast plains of green
fertile        adj   abundant, fruitful                            grass,
                                                                   and water.
                                                                   The product we are selling is the new improved
product        n     the result from something produced
                                                                   smaller sized laptop.
                     a substance that tends to destroy harmful     We treat bacteria diseases with an antibiotic
antibiotic     n
                     organisms                                     vaccination.
                                                                   The rainbow has a nice array of colors in its
array          adj   regular order or arrangement
                                                                   spectrum.
                     A three-dimensional surface, all points of    The game of pool requires 12 spheres, including
sphere         n
                     which are equidistant from a fixed point      the cue ball.
rod            n     a stick, wand, staff, or the like             We used the rod to measure how deep the water was.
                     a plane curve generated by a point moving
spiral         n     around a fixed point while constantly         The rotating spiral made all of us dizzy.
                     receding from or approaching it
                                                                   Cockroaches are ubiquitous because they can
ubiquitous     adj   existing or being everywhere                  adapt
                                                                   quickly to any environment.
                     Any of a large group of single-celled,
protozoan      n                                                   I believe the paramecium is a protozoan.
                     usually microscopic, eukaryotic organisms
                                                                   The reed is an instrumental piece that allows the
instrumental   adj   serving or acting as an instrument or means
                                                                   player to blow on the oboe.
                     any large, brown, cold-water seaweed,
kelp           n     used as food and in various manufacturing     Kelp feeds many aquatic herbivores in the ocean.
                     processes.
                     primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly
                                                                   Some forms of algae produce vast amounts of
algae          n     aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true
                                                                   chemicals that are beneficial for humans.
                     stems and roots and leaves
                                                                   We must watch out for dangerous microbes that
microbe        n     a microorganism
                                                                   enter the body.
                     capable of being transmitted by bodily        His sickness was contagious to the people around
contagious     n
                     contact with an infected person or object     him.
Unit 35

                                                                       Cancers cells are cells that are abnormal in genetic
abnormal       adj   not ordinary, unusual
                                                                       structure.
acquire        v     obtain, gain                                      The millionaire acquired a lot of material wealth.
attach         v     fasten, affix                                     The man attached the name tag to his shirt.
                                                                       At the same time, the man inserted the electrical
insert         v     to put in
                                                                       plug into the socket.
transform      v     change in form, appearance, or condition          The caterpillar transformed into a butterfly.
                                                                       We encased the diamond in a bulletproof case
encase         v     enclose in                                        so it
                                                                       would be well protected.

                                                                       After the hero manifested himself with the ancient
manifest       v     readily perceived                                 art of warfare, he was unstoppable in the
                                                                       battlefield.

                                                                       If we don’t neutralize the acid, it will start eating
neutralize     v     render inactive
                                                                       away everything around it.
                                                                       Airborne combat was discovered as soon as
airborne       adj   supported by the air                              man
                                                                       began to conquer the skies.
                                                                       The time my sister was bitten by a dog was an
incidence      adj   frequency of occurrence
                                                                       isolated incident. .
                     the central, innermost, or most essential         We must setup a core system of knowledge for
core           n
                     part of anything                                  people to understand better.
                                                                       We must lysing cancer cells so they do not
                     the dissolution or destruction of cells by
lysing         v                                                       spread
                     lysins
                                                                       throughout the body.
                                                                       Some scientists believe we can use viruses for our
                     the transfer of genetic material from one         benefit. We need to go through a transduction
transduction   n
                     cell to another by means of a virus.              process so the genetic material to something
                                                                       harmless.
                     built so as to be an integral and permanent       It’s hard to change the part because it’s already
built-in       adj
                     part of a larger construction                     built-in the device.
                     an assembly of moving parts performing a          I don’t know what triggered the mechanism to
mechanism      n
                     complete functional motion                        work all of a sudden.
                                                                       We localized the number of incidents to this
                     to gather, collect, or concentrate in one
localized      v                                                       general
                     locality
                                                                       area.
                     any preparation used as a preventive
vaccine        n     inoculation to confer immunity against a specific We prepared a vaccine to cure the disease.
                     disease
                                                                       The patient with scurvy is suffering from vitamin-c
deficiency     n     lack; incompleteness; insufficiency
                                                                       deficiency.
                     Small, rounded structures along the small
                     vessels of the lymphatic system that
                                                                       When lymph nodes develop, it shows the body is
lymph nodes    n     produce disease-fighting white blood
                                                                       battling hard against a disease.
                     cells and filter out harmful microorganisms
                     and toxins from the lymph
                     the blood flowing through a circulatory           When we breathe in air, the oxygen flows through
bloodstream    n
                     system                                            the bloodstream.
Unit 36

                                                                            The main dish was served adequately with the
adequate           adj   equal to requirement
                                                                            proper dishes and utensils.
                                                                            The laptop consists of many components. Some of
component          adj   forming a part
                                                                            these are the hard-drive and the mother-board.
                                                                            Many wonderful musicians compose beautiful
compose            v     form by putting parts together
                                                                            music.
                                                                            School grades no longer consist of just behavior
consist            v     be composed of
                                                                            and work, but also attendance as well.
                         a substance that causes injury or death            The rat died as soon as it ate the poisonous
poisonous          adj
                         upon contact                                       mushrooms.
                                                                            These organic vegetables have a better taste
organic            adj   derived from plant or animal matter                than
                                                                            the factory-cleaned brand.
                         an organism that lives off the nutrients           The parasitic worm gave a lot of health problems
parasitic          adj
                         from a host                                        to the cow.
germinate          v     begin to grow, sprout                              We must wait for the wheat to germinate.
maturity           n     complete in natural growth                         The horse has grown to maturity over the years.
                                                                            The car’s trunk made it easy to compartmentalize
compartmentalize   v     divide into compartments
                                                                            the luggage.
dissolve           v     to break up                                        The alka-seltzer dissolved in water.
                         a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide,              Insects have a hard chitin armor that encases
chitin             n
                         related chemically to cellulose                    the organs.
germinate          v     to begin to grow or develop                        The seed germinated to a flower.
                         a growth of minute fungi forming on                Leaving bread out too long may cause mold to
mold               n
                         vegetable or animal matter                         grow.
                         a fungus that produces a superficial
mildew             n                                                        Mildew grew from the dead carcass.
                         growth on organic matter
                         any of several subterranean, edible,
truffle            n                                                        Many people enjoy eating mushrooms and truffles.
                         ascomycetous fungi
                         any of several antibiotics of low toxicity,
penicillin         n     produced naturally by molds of the genus           Penicillin was one of first bacterial vaccines.
                         Penicillium
                         Any of various chiefly aquatic, eukaryotic,        Algae grew from the ocean surface to capture
algae              n     photosynthetic organisms, ranging in size          the
                         from single-celled forms to the giant kelp         sunlight.
                         A fungus, usually of the class Ascomycetes, that
                                                                            Lichens latched onto the algae so that it would
lichen             n     grows symbiotically
                                                                            flourish with it.
                         with algae
                         a system formed by the interaction of a            The ecosystem is a complex system of all
ecosystem          n     community of organisms with their                  mammals
                         environment.                                       and nature working together.
Unit 37

                                                                       Mixing two or many elements together will
compound       v     form by mixing and joining
                                                                       eventually create a new compound.
                     suggest or indicate without expressing            The professor seemed to imply the answer in his
imply          v
                     directly                                          explanation.
                     the relation of one thing to another in respect to The circle, when cut in half, is proportional on
proportional   n
                     size, degree, or quantity                          both sides.
                                                                       In Free Willy, the young boy released the shamu
release        v     set free or unfasten
                                                                       whale into the open waters.
                                                                       As I placed the mirror against the sun, the light
reflect        v     throw back as rays of light
                                                                       was reflected off the mirror.
abundant       adj   copious in supply                                 We have an abundant amount of grain to trade.
pigment        n     coloring matter                                   His skin pigment was light brown.
molecule       n     the smallest possible physical unit               These molecules make up the water atom.
                                                                       After we got into that fight, he dissociated himself
dissociate     v     sever the connection of
                                                                       from me.
                     not contingent on something else for              After living by myself for many years, I’m quite
independent    adj
                     existence                                         independent on household chores.
photon         n     a quantum of electromagnetic radiation            Plants use light photons to convert it to energy.
                     the distance, measured in the direction of
                                                                       Depending on the wavelength, you can manipulate
wavelength     n     propagation of a wave, between two successive
                                                                       the pitch of the sound.
                     points in the wave
                     the green coloring matter of leaves and           Within the chlorophyll, the light photons are
chlorophyll    n     plants, essential to the production of            converted into energy packets for the plant to
                     carbohydrates by photosynthesis                   use.
                                                                       As soon the chemical hit the reactant, it triggered
trigger        v     to initiate
                                                                       a reaction.
                                                                       Chloroplast contains the chlorophyll of which
chloroplast    n     a plastid containing chlorophyll
                                                                       energy is made.
                                                                       Sunlight is the most abundant source of energy
sunlight       n     the light of the sun
                                                                       on earth.
                     an elementary particle that is a fundamental
electron       n     constituent of matter, having a negative          Electrons are present outside of the atomic nucleus.
                     charge
                     the act of reducing or the state of being         When people are situated in one place, muscles go
reduction      n
                     reduced                                           through reduction to minimize the use of energy.
                     pertaining to or characterized by cellules or     There was a lot of cellular activity as soon as we
cellular       adj
                     cells                                             fed him vitamins.
                                                                       Our atmosphere is what helps us survive the
atmosphere     n     the gaseous envelope surrounding the earth
                                                                       dangerous sunlight.
Unit 38

                                                                     The Native American’s utilized every part of the
utilize        v     make use of, put to service
                                                                     buffalo to make efficient use of it.
burst          v     break from internal pressure                    The bomb burst as soon as the fuse shorted.
                                                                     When the sperm meets the egg, they both unite to
fertilize      v     make productive
                                                                     fertilize in creating life.
                                                                     The cookie dough was edible enough to be eaten,
edible         adj   fit to be eaten as food
                                                                     but we all waited for the real cookies.
evolve         v     form gradually                                  Scientists believe apes evolved into humans.
secrete        v     produce by glandular activity                   The duck-billed platypus secretes a deadly poison.
                                                                     The scientific method ensures a consistent and
method         n     systematic procedure
                                                                     accurate result with each test.
                                                                     The bee flies into the flower and, while doing so,
stigma         n     part of the flower that receives pollen         touch the stigma to spread the gametes for
                                                                     fertilization.
                                                                     The common seed that falls on the ground from trees
ovules         n     a rudimentary egg or seed
                                                                     can be called ovules.
emergence      adj   rise out, or become apparent                    The dying man was sent to the emergency room.
interrelated   v     to bring or enter into reciprocal relation.     Food and exercise are interrelated to our health.
                                                                     The carpel supports the pistil for insects and
carpels        n     One of the structural units of a pistil         birds
                                                                     to see.
                     the enlarged lower part of the pistil in        The ovary is where the fertilization of eggs or
ovary          n
                     angiospermous plants                            seeds takes place.
grain          n     any small, hard particle                        Grain of sand

                                                                     Angiosperms are the biggest phylum in all living
angiosperm     n     a plant having its seeds enclosed in an ovary
                                                                     plants. They are your typical flowering plants.

                     an extensive, continuous part of a surface,     There are many regions in the world that have
region         n
                     space, or body                                    diverse cultures.
                     the saccharine secretion of a plant, which
nectar         n     attracts the insects or birds that pollinate the  Insects love to feed off the nectar.
                     flower
                     A minute structure in seed plants, containing the
                     embryo sac and surrounded by the nucellus that The ovules of angiosperms are contained in a
ovules         n
                     develops into a seed                              structure called the ovary within in the flower.
                     after fertilization
                                                                        The filament of a flower is what extends the
                     the stalklike portion of a stamen, supporting the
filament       n                                                        sperm
                     anther.
                                                                        to touch the insect when it pollinates.
                     the fine, soft, thick, hairy coat of the skin of a
fur            n                                                        The dog’s fur was soft.
                     mammal.
Unit 39

                                                                     The extra large hallway made it more accessible
accessible    adj   means of approach and admission
                                                                     for people to walk through.
                                                                     We first explored the school grounds to see
                    travel through a region for purpose of
explore       v                                                      where
                    observation and discovery
                                                                     our classes were.
                                                                     We walked through shallow waters for we were
shallow       adj   not deep
                                                                     scared of drowning in the deep waters.
                                                                     The wonders of the universe are fascinating
fascinating   v     attract irresistibly
                                                                     to learn about.
nourishment   n     feeding                                          The mother cow provided nourishment to her babe.
                                                                     The marine life is full of fish and oceanic
marine        adj   pertain to the sea
                                                                     organisms.
                                                                     Most polar animals have a thick layer of blubber,
blubber       n     fat
                                                                     so they can survive the bitter cold.
                                                                     Polar animals also have natural antifreeze so
                    a substance that reduces the freezing point of
antifreeze    n                                                      their blood can be constantly warm and
                    water
                                                                     circulating.
scavenge      v     devouring refuse                                 Rats love to scavenge through trash.
tubular       adj   being or pertaining to tubes                     The huge sewer pipes were shaped in a tubular way.
thrive        v     to grow or develop vigorously                    Bacteria thrive in damp, warm places.
                                                                     The anemone look beautiful, but it has
                    marine polyps that resemble flowers but have
anemone       n                                                      dangerous
                    oral rings of tentacles
                                                                       tentacles.
                    Any of various marine crustaceans of the
                    subclass Cirripedia that in the adult stage form a Many ships that stay in the water have barnacles
barnacles     n
                    hard shell and remain attached to submerged        on the hull.
                    surfaces
                    Any of various marine fishes of the order
                    Rajiformes or Batoidei, having cartilaginous
rays          n                                                      Sting rays seem to glide underwater.
                    skeletons, horizontally flattened bodies, and
                    narrow tails.
                                                                     The thorns on the rose are meant to sting anyone
stinging      v     to prick or wound with a sharp-pointed
                                                                     that tries to touch it.
                    An elongated flexible unsegmented extension
                                                                     Tentacles have many functions. They can secrete
tentacles     n     used for feeling, grasping, or
                                                                     poison or help an animal grasp onto something.
                    locomotion
                                                                     Krills and planktons are what make up the diet
                    shrimp-like planktonic crustaceans; major source
krill         adj                                                    for
                    of food for baleen whales
                                                                     the baleen whales.
                    pertaining to, dependent on, or accompanying
                                                                     Some types of seafood are seasonal because they
seasonal      adj   the seasons of the year or some particular
                                                                     are not available all year long.
                    season
                                                                     The man grabbed the hatchet to go cut some
hatchet       n     a small, short-handled ax                        wood
                                                                     for the fire.
habitat       n     the natural environment of an organism           Every animal lives in its own particular habitat.
Unit 40

dominate      v     govern, control                                   The winner dominated the losers in the game.
emerge        v     come forth from something that conceals           The resurrected hero emerged from the ashes.
                                                                      Some scientists theorize that human beings
originate     v     begin, initiate
                                                                      originated in Africa.
                                                                      The submarine submerged as it approached the
submerge      v     sink below the surface
                                                                      target.
                                                                      The magician vanished out of thin air as he
vanish        v     fade from sight, disappear                        covered
                                                                      himself with his cape.
                                                                      When the moon isn’t shining above, the water
recede        v     withdraw, fall away
                                                                      recedes.
                                                                      The stone axe is considered one of the most
primitive     adj   simple, crude
                                                                      primitive human weapons.
                                                                      We can elongate the tape measure to measure
elongate      v     extend                                            the
                                                                      corners of the hall.
                                                                      Kings and emperors can identify their ancestry
ancestry      n     line of descent                                   easier than most people because they usually
                                                                      had scholars recording their reign.
larval        adj   the youngest stage in metamorphosis               The caterpillar is the larval stage of the butterfly.
                    Any of various warm-blooded vertebrate            Humans are mammals because we create our own
mammals       n
                    animals                                           heat.
moist         adj   moderately or slightly wet                        The towel was moist after putting it in water.
tadpoles      n     The limbless aquatic larva of a frog or toad      Tadpoles turn into frogs when they mature.
reptilian     n     belonging or pertaining to the Reptilia.          Birds are said to be of reptilian descent.
                    The respiratory organ of most aquatic
gill          n                                                       The fish has gills to breathe underwater.
                    animals that breathe water to obtain oxygen
                    A person, animal, or plant whose descent
                                                                      The Arabs and Jews are both said to be descendents
descendents   n     can be traced to a particular individual or
                                                                      from Abraham in the bible.
                    group.
                    having a space or cavity inside; not solid;
hollow        adj                                                     The dead tree was hollow inside.
                    empty
wingspan      n     the distance between the wing tips                The eagle’s wingspan is incredibly long.

                    An organism in its early stages of                The embryo must be kept safe if the mother is to
embryo        n
                    development                                       give birth to it.

                    Any of various extinct, often gigantic,
                    carnivorous or herbivorous reptiles of the
                                                                      Dinosaurs are said to have died due to a great
dinosaur      n     orders Saurischia and Ornithischia that
                                                                      climatic change.
                    were chiefly terrestrial and existed during the
                    Mesozoic Era.
Unit 41

                                                                    Since the U.S. has abundant resources, it is able to
abundant       adj   copious supply or quantity
                                                                    enjoy many luxuries.
                                                                    The little kid contrived a clever way to building
contrive       v     devise or bring about with clever planning     his
                                                                    train set.
                                                                    Because hunters killed so many buffalos all at once,
deplete        v     exhaust by drawing away                        the buffalo population was depleted to near
                                                                    extinction.
resemble       v     have similarity to                             The child resembled his parents in appearance.
                                                                    I roamed the uncharted territories for years, and
roam           v     travel aimlessly
                                                                    still I found nothing.
                                                                    You must grip the ball tightly so that you won’t
grip           v     a firm grasp
                                                                    lose it.
                                                                    Monkeys have prehensile hands and feet so they
prehensile     adj   fitted for grasping
                                                                    can easily hold onto trees.
grasp          v     seize or hold                                  Climb up the tree, and grasp the fruit.
                                                                    The dog’s behavior is very interesting because
behaviour      n     manners, habits, or tendencies                 most
                                                                    animals do not exhibit loyalty to humans.
                                                                    The American buffalo is endangered. It may be
endanger       v     expose to loss or injury
                                                                    completely wiped out.
                                                                    Humans have opposable thumbs to help grasp
                     capable of being placed opposite to
opposable      adj                                                  onto
                     something else
                                                                    things.
                                                                    Monkeys love manipulating twigs so they can use
                     to manage or influence skilfully, esp. in
manipulating   adj                                                  it
                     an unfair manner
                                                                    to scratch themselves.
                                                                    Bats are nocturnal creatures as they come out
nocturnal      adj   Most active at night
                                                                    during the night.
                     a person or thing that protects; defender;     The female plays both the motherly role and a
protector      n
                     guardian                                       protector of her children.
                     a thing with the will, courage,
                                                                    The male usually plays the role as the fighter,
fighter        n     determination, ability, or disposition to
                                                                    fending off his possession.
                     fight, struggle, resist
                     to dwell permanently or for a considerable
reside         v                                                    We reside in that house over there.
                     time
upright        adj   erect or vertical, as in position or posture   Humans walk upright.
                                                                    Our ancient ancestors are said to have been cave
dweller        n     a person who inhabits a particular place
                                                                    dwellers.
                                                                    The gypsy population is considered a nomadic
nomadic        adj   migratory
                                                                    culture for they can never settle in one place.
Unit 42

                                                                  We ensured our financial success by carefully
ensure          v     make certain
                                                                  analyzing the stock markets.
                                                                  We gave forage to the cows, because the grass in
forage          n     food for livestock
                                                                  the field was gone.
                                                                  The man gulped down the water quickly after
gulp            v     swallow hastily
                                                                  being left in the desert for 3 days.
                                                                  Injecting a needle is no easy task. You have to
injecting       v     put in by driving force
                                                                  first find the vein.
                                                                  The spear pierced the enemy so quickly, he died
pierce          v     force a way into
                                                                  instantly.
                                                                  We put a strainer on the water so we could get
strainer        n     a filter or sieve
                                                                  clean water.
                                                                  The armadillo has a natural armor to cover from
armour          n     anything that protects
                                                                  dangerous predators.
                                                                  The lawyer made a good defense for his defendant
defense         n     resistance against assault
                                                                  in the trial.
routine         n     course of procedure                         It is routine for us to eat at least three meals a day.
prefer          v     choose rather than the other                I prefer the red shoes, over the black ones.
                      One who habitually takes advantage of the
                                                                  The worm parasite is dangerous when it makes its
parasites       n     generosity of others without making any
                                                                  nest in your intestines.
                      useful return.
                                                                  Cows are the best examples of herbivores for all
herbivores      n     An animal that feeds chiefly on plants.
                                                                  they eat is grass.
                                                                  As you can see, cows are constantly grazing the
grazing         v     to feed on growing grass and pasturage
                                                                  grass for food.
                      Any of various predatory, flesh-eating      However, the tiger is a carnivore, as it loves the
carnivores      n
                      mammals                                     taste of meat.
                      An organism that eats both plants and       We humans are omnivores because we consume
omnivores       n
                      animals.                                    both meat and vegetation.
                      An animal that lives by capturing and
predators       n                                                 The predator flew down to catch its prey.
                      eating other animals.
nests           n     A place affording snug refuge or lodging    The birds built a nice nest to grow their young.
                      Any small, leafless branch of a woody       The male bird went out to find little twigs to build
twigs           n
                      plant.                                      its nest with its spouse.
                                                                  I was just free-floating in the water because the
free-floating   adj   capable of relatively free movement.        water on my back and the sun shining down felt
                                                                  so good.
scalding        adj   Causing a burning sensation                 The coffee was scalding hot.
Unit 43

descend          v     move downward                                    Rain descends from the clouds above.
                                                                        Food, water, and air are essential to the well-being
essential        adj   absolutely necessary
                                                                        of a human.
harmful          adj   physical or moral injury                         Drinking poison is definitely harmful to your body.
                                                                        There are few people in the world that can write
simultaneously   adv   operating at the same time
                                                                        simultaneously with both hands.
                                                                        Spraying cold water on someone will stimulate them
stimulate        v     excite to action
                                                                        to shiver.
                                                                        There is a necessity for humans to not only
necessity        adj   something essential to existence                 survive,
                                                                        but to thrive as well.
hormone          n     any substance secreted from glands               Hormones help regulate some of the bodily functions.
                                                                        When you do crunch exercises, you are working out
abdomen          n     the part between the thorax and pelvis
                                                                        your abdomen.
                                                                        After your stomach digests all the food, it then
intestine        n     the bowel                                        pushes the food to the intestines for disbursement
                                                                        throughout the body.
                                                                        You saliva is an enzyme that immediately starts
enzyme           n     a catalyst to metabolism
                                                                        breaking down food,
                       a soft, fatty, vascular tissue in the interior
                                                                        The bone marrow transplant is critical for people
marrow           n     cavities of bones that is a major site of
                                                                        who can’t produce their blood cells quickly.
                       blood cell production.
                       either of a pair of bean-shaped organs in
                       the back part of the abdominal cavity that       The two kidneys are found opposite from each
kidney           n     form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and       other
                       electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine        among the abdominal region.
                       glands.
                       a large, reddish-brown, glandular organ
                       located in the upper right side of the           The liver cleans out all the impurities of the
liver            n     abdominal cavity, divided by fissures into       blood,
                       five lobes and functioning in the secretion      which is a very arduous task.
                       of bile and various metabolic processes.
                       the main trunk of the arterial system,
                       conveying blood from the left ventricle of       The main artery that’s connected to the heart is
aorta            n
                       the heart to all of the body except the          the aorta.
                       lungs.
                       part or member of an animal body distinct        The child hung on to his father’s limb like a
limb             n
                       from the head and trunk                          monkey on a tree.
                       One of the small terminal branches of an
                                                                        The blood flows to the arterioles which lead to the
arterioles       n     artery, especially one that connects with
                                                                        capillaries.
                       a capillary.
                       one of the minute blood vessels between          The capillaries are the conversion point from
capillaries      n     the terminations of the arteries and the         artery
                       beginnings of the veins.                            to vein.
                                                                           The venules are small veins that are connected to
                       A small vein, especially one joining capillaries to
venules          n                                                         a
                       larger veins.
                                                                           larger vein.
                       either of the two upper chambers on each
                                                                           The two atriums of the heart pump the blood
                       side of the heart that receive blood from
atrium           n                                                         from
                       the veins and in turn force it into the
                       ventricles.                                      the vein to the other two chambers of the heart.
                                                                        The blood system is often called the circulatory
                       move or pass through a circuit back to the
circulatory      adj                                                    system in which the blood flows in a circular
                       starting point
                                                                        pattern.
Unit 44

                                                                            The stomach has many digestive acids that break
digestive       adj   act or process of assimilating food
                                                                            down food.
                                                                            The man elongated the rope so that his partner
elongate        v     make longer, extend
                                                                            could climb it up.
                                                                            Many ancient gods were depicted from animals
entity          n     something that has real existence
                                                                            and other entities.
                                                                            It is always wise to have a diverse set of nutrients
nutrients       n     nourishment, food
                                                                            for the body to maintain itself.
                                                                            Thermos bottles insulate hot water from getting
insulate        v     to shield a material from heat, sound, etc..
                                                                            cold.
                                                                            If you apply electricity to a neuron, you will see
neuron          n     a nerve cell
                                                                            a reaction.
                                                                            The lazy boy really needs to make a conscious
conscious       adj   aware of one’s existence, feelings, and thoughts
                                                                            effort to apply himself.
                                                                            We bought facial makeup for Sally so she can
facial          adj   of the face
                                                                            look pretty for the prom.
                      a vital part of a microscopic organism that does      The mitochondrion is an organelle in the cell
organelle       n
                      vital work                                            that produces power.
                      disposal of waste matter from an organic
excrete         v                                                           Animals excrete waste everyday.
                      body
                      a substance thought to be the essential
                                                                            Chicken meat has high amounts of protein for
protein         n     nitrogenous component of all organic
                                                                            the body to process.
                      bodies.
                      a person who is in charge of the records,
                      correspondence, minutes of meetings, and
secretaries     n                                                           I left a memo for your secretary to give to you.
                      related affairs of an organization, company,
                      association
                      an attorney's assistant, not admitted to the
                                                                            The paralegal informed the lawyer of all his
paralegal       n     practice of law but trained to perform certain
                                                                            findings.
                      legal tasks.
                      any animal tissue that covers a surface, or lines a
                      cavity or the like, and that, in addition, performs
                                                                            The epithelial skin was moist from all the sweat
epithelial      adj   any of various secretory, transporting, or
                                                                            the boy released.
                      regulatory
                      functions.
cavities        n     A hollow; a hole.                                     The kid had a cavity from eating too much candy.
                      a highly vascular, glandular, ductless organ,
                      situated in humans at the cardiac end of the
                      stomach, serving chiefly in the formation of    The man ruptured his spleen when he got tackled
spleen          n
                      mature lymphocytes, in the destruction of worn- by his son.
                      out red blood cells, and as a
                      reservoir for blood.
                      a pear-shaped, muscular sac attached to the
                                                                            One should drink plenty of water to clean out the
gallbladder     n     undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, in
                                                                            gallbladder to avoid developing gallstones.
                      which bile is stored and concentrated.
                      the comparatively straight, terminal section of       You store all the bodies waste in the rectum before
rectum          n
                      the intestine, ending in the anus.                    you release it out.
                                                                            The soft, yet hard part of the tip of each bone
cartilaginous   adj   of or resembling cartilage.                           contains cartilaginous tissue, so that movement
                                                                            would be smoother.
                      clear yellowish, slightly alkaline, coagulable fluid,
                      containing white blood cells in a liquid
                      resembling blood plasma, that is derived from
lymph           n                                                           Lymph’s are large groups of white blood cells.
                      the tissues of the body and conveyed to the
                      bloodstream by the lymphatic
                      vessels.
Unit 45

                                                                          Without any measuring tool, we can approximately
approximately   adv   nearly correct or precise
                                                                          guess how much there is.
                                                                          Larger animals tend to eat enormously to maintain
enormously      adv   greatly exceeding the usual size
                                                                          their large size.
flexible        adj   easily bent                                         The gymnast was very flexible.
                                                                          We had to terminate the program because it
terminate       v     bring to an end
                                                                          contained many flaws.
                      the part of the leg that is between the hip and     The thigh is responsible for lifting the leg to the
thigh           n
                      the knees                                           body.
                                                                          The 13” laptop is miniscule compared to the 17”
miniscule       adj   small to relevance
                                                                          laptop.
permeate        v     seep through pores                                  Sweat permeates from the skin when the body is hot.
                                                                          After falling in an awkward way, the player was
ligament        n     a band of tissue that connects body parts           told he tore his ligament. He couldn’t run for the
                                                                          rest of the game.
tendon          n     a band of tough fibrous tissue                      A torn tendon can take months to recover.
                                                                          The processor of a computer is intricately made.
intricate       adj   perplexingly tangled
                                                                          It’s impossible to create with just bare hands.
                                                                          As soon as you are 18 years old, you have reached
adulthood       n     having attained full size and strength
                                                                          adulthood.
mandible        n     the bone of the lower jaw.                          Insect mandible
                      a bone in the human leg extending from the
                      pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest,
femur           n                                                         The large bone in your thigh is called the femur.
                      and strongest in the body;
                      thighbone.
                                                                          We need to make a perforation through the bone
                                                                          so that we may put a bolt to sustain the position
perforation     n     a hole made or passing through a thing.
                                                                          of
                                                                          the bone itself.
                                                                          The pelvis holds the bottom part of the
                      the basinlike cavity in the lower part of the
pelvis          n                                                         abdominal
                      trunk
                                                                          area intact.
sturdily        adv   strongly built; stalwart; robust                    The tree grew sturdily in size and in grandeur.
                                                                          I cracked my scapula when the hammer hit my
scapula         n     shoulder blade
                                                                          shoulder bone.
                                                                          The girdle supports both the lower and the
                      the bony framework that unites the upper or
girdle          n                                                         upper
                      lower extremities to the axial skeleton
                                                                          region of the abdominal area.
skullcap        n     the dome of the skull                               The skullcap protects the brain.
                      Any of the bones or cartilaginous segments          Humans have long vertebrae that contain the
vertebrae       n
                      forming the spinal column.                          peripheral nervous system.
Unit 46

analyze         v     examine critically                                We already got a fax and he is analyzing it.
                                                                        Blood circulates across the blood vessels in the
circulate       v     to move amongst a route
                                                                        body.
                                                                        He had to elaborate so that we could get a better
elaborate       adj   worked out with great care
                                                                        picture of his idea.
                                                                        Every organ integrated becomes the body as
integrate       v     form into a whole
                                                                        a whole.
                                                                        I had to locate the school on the map before I
locate          v     discover or describe the place
                                                                        could drive over there.
                                                                        The sensory security system picked up on the
sensory         adj   pertain to sensation
                                                                        movement of the intruder.
                                                                        The woman goes through contractions when she
contraction     n     a shrinkage
                                                                        delivers the baby.
hemisphere      n     half of a sphere                                  The brain has two hemispheres: Left and right.
                                                                        The person with the heart problem went through
cardiac         adj   pertain to the heart
                                                                        cardiac arrest.
rhythm          n     a movement characterized by equal beats           The song had a typical rhythm and beat.
                      a building of exceptional height completely       New York has many skyscraper buildings that
skyscraper      n
                      supported by a framework                          seem to reach the sky.
                                                                        The cerebral part of the brain is the biggest part
cerebral        adj   of or pertaining to the cerebrum or the brain.
                                                                        of the brain.
                      The outer layer of gray matter that covers the    The cerebral cortex uses surface area to maximize
cortex          n
                      surface of the cerebral hemisphere.                 brain effectiveness.
                      A subdivision of a bodily organ or part bounded
                                                                          There are four different lobes of the brain that
lobes           n     by fissures, connective tissue, or other structural
                                                                          deal with different bodily activities.
                      boundaries.
                      sudden, involuntary inclination prompting to      I had an impulse to call you to see how you were
impulse         n
                      action                                            doing.
                      The trilobed structure of the brain that is
                      responsible for the regulation and coordination
                                                                        Without a cerebellum, we would not be able to
cerebellum      n     of complex voluntary muscular movement as
                                                                        maintain our balance.
                      well as the
                      maintenance of posture and balance.
                                                                        It is important for doctors to understand the
anatomical      adj   of or pertaining to anatomy.
                                                                        anatomical structure of their patients.
                      something that incites to action or exertion or   We fed the brain some electrical stimuli to see how
stimuli         n
                      quickens action, feeling, thought                it would respond.
                      ring of interconnected structures in the midline
                      of the brain around the hypothalamus, involved The limbic system is important for storing
limbic system   n     with emotion and memory and with                 memor,
                      homeostatic regulatory                           and expressing emotion.
                      systems.
                      The part of the brain that lies below the
                      thalamus, functioning to regulate bodily          A lot of the automatic functions of the body are
hypothalamus    n
                      temperature, certain metabolic processes, and     controlled by the hypothalamus.
                      other autonomic activities.
Unit 47

enable       v     make able                                           The switch enables the light to come on.
                                                                       In order to maintain a car, one must care for the
maintain     v     preserve, keep in condition
                                                                       engine and interior.
                                                                       In order to neutralize an acid, one could simply
neutralize   v     render inactive
                                                                       add some base.
                                                                       The fencer made a series of successive thrusts at
successive   adj   following in order
                                                                       his opponent.
renew        v     make new again                                      A good night’s sleep helps renew our strength.
                                                                       We must grind the blocks of salt so we can
grind        v     subject to friction, to wear away
                                                                       distribute them more easily.
                                                                       A person who has a runny nose will produce a lot
mucus        n     the fused secreted from mucous membrane
                                                                       of mucus.
dehydrate    v     to deprive of water                                 After sweating so much, I felt dehydrated.
                                                                       The scientist analyzed the fecal matter to
fecal        adj   pertains to feces
                                                                       understand the diet of rabbits.
                                                                       When heat increases, the absorption rate increases
absorption   adj   act of assimilation
                                                                       as well.
                   the opening at the lower end of the alimentary
anus         n     canal, through which the solid refuse of            We release all of our bile through the anus.
                   digestion is excreted.
                                                                       We lubricated the engine so that it would run
lubricated   v     to make slippery or smooth
                                                                       smoother.
                   a muscular passage connecting the mouth or
                                                                       The food, after being swallowed, travels down the
esophagus    n     pharynx with the stomach in invertebrate and
                                                                       esophagus into the stomach.
                   vertebrate animals; gullet.
                   a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes
                   a digestive fluid into the intestine through one    People who have diabetes have a damaged
pancreas     n
                   or more ducts and also secretes the hormone         pancreas.
                   insulin.
                   Any of numerous proteins or conjugated
                                                                       The enzymes help break down protein and other
enzymes      n     proteins produced by living organisms and
                                                                       chemical compounds.
                   functioning as biochemical catalysts.
chiefly      adv   primarily; essentially                              He was chiefly appointed to the high position.
                   an extended pouch found within the large            Many scientists are still perplexed by the appendix.
appendix     n
                   intestines                                          It technically serves no real purpose.
semi-        adj   Partial; partially                                  He drew a semi-circle.
                                                                       When we eat cellulose, our bodies cannot digest
                   a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of   it,
cellulose    n
                   all plant tissues and fibers                        so it just passes right through our digestive
                                                                       system.
                   a way for passing into, through, or out of          I found a passageway that leads to another room
passageway   n
                   something                                           behind the fireplace.
Unit 48

adjacent        adj   lying near or contiguous                          The store was adjacent to the street corner.
                                                                        My three day absence was due to the fact that I
absence         n     period of being away
                                                                        was sick.
                                                                        His information ceases to exist on the computer.
cease           v     stop doing an action, come to rest
                                                                        I can’t find it anywhere.
parallel        adj   in the same direction of                          The two roads run north, parallel to each other.
                                                                        If you don’t have food, your chances for survival
survival        n     continuing to live
                                                                        are low.
                                                                        The railroad was the power of locomotion during
locomotion      n     the power to move from place to place
                                                                        the industrial era.
                                                                        Tires have striate patterns to grip the ground
striate         adj   a groove or ridge
                                                                        during precipitous weather.

                                                                        Ligaments are connective tissue that connect bone
connective      adj   establish a junction
                                                                        and muscle.

                                                                        Material for clothes is interwoven during
interweave      v     to combine through various fibers, and strands
                                                                        production..
                                                                        The light bulb has a fine filament so the electricity
filament        n     a fine threadlike fiber
                                                                        can burn to create light.
involuntarily   adv   independent of one's will                         When the doctor hit my knee, it jerked involuntarily.
                      membranous sac or organ serving as a              Before I use the restroom, I store all the urine in
bladder         n
                      receptacle for a fluid or air.                    my bladder.
                      the enlarged, muscular, expandable portion of
                      the oviduct in which the fertilized ovum
                                                                        The fetus is developed inside the uterus, until it
uterus          n     implants and develops or rests during prenatal
                                                                        is ready to come out.
                      development; the womb of certain
                      mammals.
                                                                        The police officer was regulating the flow of
regulating      v     to adjust so as to ensure accuracy of operation
                                                                        traffic at the busy intersection.
                      the act of combining parts or elements to form a The composition of an atom consists of protons,
composition     n
                      whole.                                            neutrons, and electrons.
                      a mass of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord
                                                                        The nuclei interpret the electrical message before
nuclei          n     in which nerve fibers form
                                                                        sending it off to the next nerve cell.
                      connections.
                      Any of the threadlike fibrils that make up the
                                                                        Myofibrils are cylindrical organelles found within
myofibrils      n     contractile part of a striated muscle
                                                                        muscle cells.
                      fiber
sacromere       n     smaller units of myofibrils                       Sarcomeres are divided into bands of filaments.
                                                                        Myosin is important for your muscle to move
myosin          n     the principal contractile protein of muscle.      and
                                                                        bend.
lengthwise      n     in the direction of the length.                   The pants have to be shorter lengthwise.
Unit 49

                                                                         The archer shot his arrow with great accuracy at
accuracy          n     correctness
                                                                         the target.
                                                                         The two children on the see-saw alternated the up
alternate         v     following by turns
                                                                         and down motion.
                                                                         The numbers are clearly discrete. That’s a six and
discrete          adj   separate
                                                                         the other is a 9.
                                                                         At school the ratio between males to females was
ratio             n     the relation between two quantities              an
                                                                         astounding two males to every five girls.

                                                                         Any physical traits children have are hereditary,
hereditary        adj   passing naturally from parent to offspring
                                                                         given from their parents through genetic mixture.

                                                                         The eldest son was given all of his father’s
inheritance       n     to acquire by gift from succession
                                                                         inheritance when he passed away.
                                                                         The younger sibling is usually recessive to the
recessive         adj   tending to yield
                                                                         older one.
                                                                         The survival principle simply states you either live
principle         n     a fundamental truth
                                                                         or you die.
                                                                         The probability that the ball will land on the red
probability       n     likelihood
                                                                         square is very slim.
                                                                         The modern car is now equipped with a radio
modern            adj   the present or recent time                       and
                                                                         air conditioning.
                        The genetic transmission of characteristics from Physical appearance is a hereditary trait that’s
heredity          n
                        parent to offspring.                             passed from their parents DNA.
                                                                         He used his brother’s leadership to govern the
govern            v     control
                                                                         newly created city.
                        a right, immunity, or benefit enjoyed only by a
                                                                         Getting an education is a privilege not many people
privilege         n     person beyond the advantages of
                                                                         can enjoy later in life.
                        most:
                        the act or an instance of disappearing; a ceasing The disappearance of their daughter shocked the
disappearance     n
                        to be seen or to exist.                           entire community.
                        capable of being easily perceived or
apparent          adj                                                     It is apparent that you did not read the book.
                        understood
                        constantly adhering to the same principles,      Times are consistently changing due to
consistently      adv
                        course, form                                     technological advances.
                                                                         The product is still in its experimentation phase.
                        the act, process, practice, or an instance of
experimentation   n                                                      We found there were more variables we had to
                        making experiments.
                                                                         deal with.
                        To produce by the mating of individuals of       One could crossbreed to create completely
crossbreeding     v     different breeds, varieties, or species;         different
                        hybridize.                                       species.
                                                                         You’ll have to finish the book to know the outcome
outcome           n     a final product or end result
                                                                         of it.
                        The body of rules and principles governing the   It is clearly written in the law that you shouldn’t
law               n
                        affairs of any form or system                    have done that.
Unit 50

                                                                           Many cult and extremist movements usually come
distort         v     twist out of shape, severely misinterpret
                                                                           about because someone distorts a doctrine.
                                                                           I picked the colors randomly without paying
randomly        adv   out of casual selection
                                                                           attention to detail.
                                                                           In kung-fu, it is more important to know the
sequence        n     order of succession                                  sequence of attacks than trusting in single
                                                                           strikes.
                                                                           Since my friend wasn’t there to teach class, I was
substitution    n     in place of another
                                                                           here for substitution.
                                                                           There are many variant changes that occur when
variant         adj   tending to change
                                                                           a caterpillar turns into a butterfly.
                                                                           Opera and such arts were the primrose to upper
primrose        n     devotion to pleasure
                                                                           class society.
                                                                           The word digital was originated from the Greek,
digital         adj   a finger or toe                                      as children would count with their fingers and
                                                                           toes.
webbed          adj   the skin connecting the toes                         Ducks have webbed feet.
                                                                           Cancer cells are the mutagen comparative to
mutagen         n     the changed substance
                                                                           normal cells.

                                                                           Cancer is normal cells that have changed in their
cancer          n     a malignant tumor
                                                                           genetic nature.

                                                                           I had to abruptly stop his speech because of an
abruptly        adv   sudden or unexpected
                                                                           emergency.
                                                                           The dog put his paw in my hand as a sign of
paw             n     the foot of any animal.
                                                                           obedience.
                                                                           Any alterations to the system can cause a
alteration      n     a change; modification or adjustment
                                                                           malfunction.
                      Any of various compounds consisting of a
                      nucleoside combined with a phosphate group           The different combinations of nucleotides create
nucleotides     n
                      and forming the basic constituent of DNA and         different strands of DNA.
                      RNA.
constructive    adj   Serving to improve or advance                        We must be constructive to excel.
                                                                           Excessive exposure to the sun can be dangerous
exposure        n     the act of exposing.                                 to
                                                                           your skin’s health.
                      Of or relating to the range of invisible radiation
                                                                           The ultraviolet rays from the sun can cause skin
ultraviolet     adj   wavelengths from about 4
                                                                           cancer.
                      nanometers
                      the process in which energy is emitted as            The radiation leak from the nuclear power plant
radiation       n
                      particles or waves.                                  almost killed the local residents.
                                                                           My dad used the insecticide to kill the ants in the
insecticides    n     A chemical substance used to kill insects.
                                                                           garden.
                                                                           We placed the heart in a preservative so that it
preservatives   n     Something used to preserve
                                                                           could be cleaned and replaced.
Unit 51

                      measure in one direction, length, breadth, or
dimension       n                                                          A rectangle has two dimensions: length and width.
                      thickness
                                                                           Steroids enhance muscle growth in humans by
enhance         v     raise to a higher degree
                                                                           increasing the recovery rate.
link            n     something that connects                              The fingerprint was the final link to the puzzle.
                                                                           The company made radical changes because it
radical         adj   drastic
                                                                           wanted a fresh start.
                                                                           Honda’s have high reliability because they seldom
reliability     n     dependability, trustworthy
                                                                           break down.
                                                                           Let’s put up the Christmas ornaments on the tree,
ornament        n     anything that beautifies or adorns
                                                                           honey.
                                                                           Santa Claus is symbolic to children in that he
symbolic        adj   an object representing something else                represents the gift giver of those who have been
                                                                           good.

                                                                           Cell phones are transmittal devices that send voice
transmittal     adj   send onward or along
                                                                           information through waves.

forefront       n     foremost place or front                              The brave warrior was at the forefront of the fight.
                                                                           The scary thing is most instantaneous food is
instantaneous   adj   done in a short interval of time
                                                                           microwaveable.
                                                                           It’s hard to analyze something when it is not
analyze         v     to examine critically
                                                                           willing to interact.
                      capable of being heard; loud enough to be
audible         adj                                                        Yes, you’re speaking loud enough to be audible.
                      heard
                                                                           I must convey a clear message to the members
convey          v     to carry, bring, or take from one place to another
                                                                           of
                                                                           Symbols are easy to comprehend and even
                      Something that represents something else by
symbols         n                                                          easier
                      association, resemblance, or convention
                                                                           to misinterpret.
                                                                           The European immigrants set up settlements to
settlements     n     A small community
                                                                           fend off the natives.
                      of or pertaining to the post office or mail
postal          adj                                                        We dropped our mail at the local postal service.
                      service
century         n     a period of 100 years                                We live in the twenty-first century.
                                                                           We sent vital transmissions over the radio so
transmission    n     the act or process of transmitting                   people
                                                                           would know of what happened.
subsequent      adj   occurring or coming later or after                   Eating is subsequent to preparation.
                      the action or process of moving or of changing       The automobile goes into motion as soon as I hit
motion          n
                      place or position                                    the accelerator.
Unit 52

                                                                        Building a concept is usually the first step to
concept          n     a mentally conceived image
                                                                        making the real thing.
                                                                        The teacher asked us for the context in which the
context          n     setting in which something occurs
                                                                        author was writing.
                                                                        We had to evaluate the damages from the car
evaluate         v     ascertain the value                              accident before we gave her the reimbursement
                                                                        check.
                       something suggested or indicate without          She finally understood my body language as an
implication      n
                       expressing directly                              implication to flirting.
                                                                        Instead of being selfish, why don’t you look at it
standpoint       n     point of view
                                                                        from your brother’s standpoint?
crucial          adj   decisive, critical                               It is crucial that we do well on this test.
                                                                        When we are debating over a topic, it is required to
semantic         adj   pertains to meaning of language                  have a good sense of semantic knowledge of your
                                                                        opponent’s case.
                                                                        Since we were underground, my cell phone had a lot
interference     n     act of being obstructive
                                                                        of interference.
                                                                        I checked my inbox to see if I had any emails sent
inbox            n     where one’s electronic mail is kept
                                                                        to me.
presuppose       v     assume in advance                                I presuppose we’ll be having spaghetti for lunch.
                       a band of frequencies for sending or receiving   We went through the TV channels for something
channel          n
                       signals                                          interesting to watch.
                       a social scientist who studies the               Sociologists have theorized the problems that
sociologist      n     institutions and development of human            drive
                       society                                          modern day society.
                       a social scientist who specializes in            The anthropologist found traces of an ancient
anthropologist   n
                       anthropology                                     tribal civilization in Africa.
                                                                        The candidate ran for a political campaign for
political        adj   of, pertaining to, or concerned with politics
                                                                        presidency.
                                                                        The psychologist came in to analyze the mentally
psychologist     n     a specialist in psychology.
                                                                        ill patient.
                                                                        The spy decoded the message and sent his
                       to translate from a code into the original
decoded          v                                                      findings
                       language or form.
                                                                        back to headquarters.
                       relying on someone or something else for aid,    She was dependent upon her parent’s finances,
dependent        adj
                       support                                          when she went to college.
                       consideration or examination by argument,
discussion       n                                                      We led a long discussion on the topic of abortion.
                       comment
                                                                        The recipient of the prize goes to a person
recipient        n     a person or thing that receives                  named
                                                                        Janice.
                                                                        We incorporated the new computer system in
incorporate      v     to take in or include as a part or parts         the
                                                                        company.
Unit 53

appropriate        v     take possession of                                 We gave the dog back to its appropriate owner
                                                                            If we change one variable in a science experiment,
circumstance       n     factors influencing a decision                     there is a possibility that we have changed the
                                                                            circumstance as well.
                                                                            Since I didn’t understand the teacher, I asked her for a
clarification      n     become clear
                                                                            clarification to the question.
                                                                            I had to derive my hypothesis from my simple
derive             v     draw from a source
                                                                            observations.
                                                                            She placed a lot of emphasis on specific topics,
emphasis           n     stress laid upon anything
                                                                            such as greed, and corruption.
                                                                            Deciding when our next appointment will be is a matter
temporal           adj   pertains to time
                                                                            of temporal judgement.
                                                                            Analyzing art through aesthetics increases your spatial
spatial            adj   pertains to existing in space
                                                                            intelligence.
                                                                            Cars have gone through tremendous evolution
evolution          n     continuous modification                            seeing that companies are constantly upgrading
                                                                            the design and engine.
                                                                            It is wise to have a bigger scope in life so that
scope              n     outlook, intellectual range
                                                                            you’ll have more opportunities.
cluster            n     a closely grouped number of things                 My mom brought home a cluster of grapes.
fashion            v     to give a particular shape or form to              It was cut in a V-shaped fashion.
                         To express or pronounce with a broken,
gurgle             v                                                        The baby gurgled happily.
                         irregular, bubbling sound
                         to utter the deep, guttural sound characteristic
grunt              v                                                        He grunted in agreement..
                         of a hog.
                                                                            We took body supplements to maintain all the
                         supply a deficiency, or reinforce or extend a
supplement         n                                                        vitamins and minerals our body needed to be
                         whole
                                                                            healthy.
                                                                            It was instinctual for us to look for food, when
instinctual        adj   of, pertaining to, or of the nature of instinct.
                                                                            we were hungry.
                                                                            Since we were tight on time, we were all pretty
impatience         n     lack of patience.
                                                                            impatient.
                         highly excitable; unnaturally or acutely uneasy    He was overwhelmed with nervousness as he stood
nervousness        n
                         or apprehensive                                     up on stage.
                         apart from concrete realities, specific objects, or He abstracted the evidence from the overall
abstraction        n
                         actual instances.                                   report to create his own theory.
incomprehensible   adj   impossible to understand or comprehend              He spoke so fast that is was incomprehensible.
                         Something that exists as a particular and          Persons and corporations are equivalent entities
entities           n
                         discrete unit                                      under the law.
Unit 54

                                                                       The internet is slowly becoming a conventional
conventional    adj   conforming to custom
                                                                       means to global communication.
equate          v     state the equality of                            You can equate five pennies to one nickel.
                                                                       The computer programmer was an expert in
expert          adj   having great knowledge or skill
                                                                       analyzing computer codes.
                                                                       It was obvious the fault lied in the foundation of
obvious         adj   plainly seen or understood
                                                                       the house when the earthquake hit.
primary         adj   coming first                                     The primary objective to a game is usually winning.
suffice         v     be enough, adequate                              The paper sufficed in meeting all the requirements.
authority       n     the right to control or command                  The president has much authority over the company.
                      the relation between a pitch and the accepted    The intonation of the instrument sounded like it
intonation      n
                      musical standard                                 was out of tune.
                      a system of government to which things are       Our federal government is known for its
bureaucratic    adj
                      operated through administrators                  bureaucratic method of administration.
                                                                       The history of our presidents and their written
archive         n     a place where documents are kept                 documents are placed in the national archives in
                                                                       Washington D.C.
dispute         n     to engage in argument or debate.                 We must dispute the nature of the crime.
                                                                       We need to get a transcription of today’s court
transcription   n     a transcript; copy.
                                                                       hearing.
                      any system of characters or signs with which a
alphabet        n                                                      Every language has a basic format of an alphabet.
                      language is written
                      any sound other than the sound of greatest       All the other letters besides the vowels are
consonant       n
                      sonority in the syllable                         considered consonants.
                                                                       A, E, I, O, U are the five common vowels in the
vowel           n     the sound of greatest sonority
                                                                      English language.
                      the practice or system of using certain
                      conventional marks or characters in writing or  We use punctuation to emphasize the flow of the
punctuation     n
                      printing in order to separate elements and make writing.
                      the meaning clear
                      designating or pertaining to a pictographic
                      script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians,
                                                                          The Egyptians used hieroglyphics as their written
hieroglyphics   n     in which many of the symbols are
                                                                          system of language.
                      conventionalized, recognizable pictures
                      of the things represented.
                      the process or technique of improving or         The study of mnemonics is important to the
mnemonics       n
                      developing the memory.                           development of intelligence among humans.
                                                                       The tribe of Levi was of the lineage of priesthood
priesthood      n     the condition or office of a priest.
                                                                       in the bible.
                                                                       You can manipulate your tongue to produce
tongue          n     manner or character of speech
                                                                       various sounds.
Unit 55

                                                                      Sign language is a form of code used by the
code         n     a system of signals for secret communication
                                                                      listening impaired to communicate with others.
                                                                      The goal statement constituted the prospect of
constitute   v     form as a necessary part
                                                                      the company for the future.
                                                                      Before we start building the table set, we read
manual       adj   a book of instructions
                                                                      the instruction manual.
                   any evidence of someone or something formerly
trace        n                                                   I found no trace of evidence at the crime scene.
                   present
                                                                      My friend has a very versatile personality. He
versatile    adj   having ability in many different fields
                                                                      can approach all kinds of people.
                                                                      The police officer gestured us to keep moving
gesture      n     something said or done for effect only
                                                                      in traffic.
                                                                      The airplane landed on the tarmac as it arrived
tarmac       n     a paving substance used for roads
                                                                      at the airport.
                                                                      Listening to very loud music can make a person
deaf         adj   unable to hear
                                                                      deaf.
mute         adj   unable to speak                                    I was mute from yelling so much the other day.
                                                                      There were a lot of onlookers as the magician
onlooker     n     spectator
                                                                      performed on the street.
                   to emit air or breath suddenly, forcibly, and
sneeze       v     audibly through the nose and mouth by              His allergic reaction caused him to sneeze.
                   involuntary, spasmodic action.
                   to raise and contract the shoulders,               He shrugged because he didn’t have a clue what
shrug        v
                   expressing indifference, disdain                   was being asked of him.
                   to contract the brow, as in displeasure or deep
frown        v                                                        He frowned at the idea of pain.
                   thought
                                                                      There was a barrier between the girl and boy.
barrier      n     any natural bar or obstacle
                                                                      That barrier was the girl’s father.
                   a person who travels or has travelled in distant
traveler     n                                                        The traveler visited all different kinds of places.
                   places or foreign lands.
                                                                      The gorgeous woman was desirable to just about
desirable    adj   worth having or wanting
                                                                      every man in the room.
                                                                      You need the technical skills to operate that piece
technical    adj   skilled in or familiar in a practical way
                                                                      of machinery.
                                                                      The scientific method is a systematic way of
systematic   adj   given to or using method
                                                                      performing experiments.
cued         v     anything that excites to action                    The director cued the stage men for the next scene.
                   A unit of sociopolitical organization
                   consisting of a number of families,
                                                                      The tribes met together once a year as a sign of
                   clans, or other groups who share a
tribes       n                                                        good friendship, and to honor their similar
                   common ancestry and culture and
                   among whom leadership is typically                 ancestry.
                   neither formalized nor permanent.
Unit 56

                                                                   After my sister scared me, my awareness to my
awareness       n     to be alert
                                                                   surrounding shot up.
                                                                   I use to go to the beach and create sand castles
create          v     bring into being
                                                                   in the sand.
                      that of which anything is in party           Creeping up on someone silently is the basic
element         n
                      composed                                     element of surprise.
                      to a people distinguished by race,
ethnic          adj                                                My ethnic race is Korean.
                      language, etc.
                                                                   Older people almost always think the younger
ignorance       n     having little or no knowledge
                                                                   generation is suffering from ignorance.

                                                                   The tone of the opera singer was beautiful as she
tone            n     any resonant sound
                                                                   sang her song.

                                                                   She deliberately spilt her milk just to grab her
deliberate      adj   reflect carefully, considerably
                                                                   mother’s attention.
stereotype      n     something conforming to a standard pattern   Asian people having small eyes is a rude stereotype.
                                                                   One aspect to looking at the current war is to
                      one way in which a thing may be viewed
aspect          n                                                  see
                      or perceived
                                                                   how your enemies view it.
tendency        adj   disposition to act in a particular way       He has an outgoing tendency when he’s in public.
                                                                   I observed the little child’s behavior to determine
observe         v     to see, watch, perceive, or notice
                                                                   what psychological disorder he might have.
                      to derive by reasoning; conclude or judge    I can only infer from the evidence that you are
infer           v
                      from premises or evidence                    correct.
                                                                   Everyone paid their respects to the man who
                      esteem for or a sense of the worth or
respect         n                                                  saved
                      excellence of a person
                                                                   them all.
                      nonverbal communication consisting of
                                                                   Public speakers know how to use kinesics to their
kinesics        n     body movements, gestures, facial
                                                                   advantage.
                      expressions, and eye contact
                                                                   Sometimes nonverbal expressions are more
nonverbal       adj   without speech                               powerful
                                                                   than spoken words.
                                                                   They’ve been married for 20 years now. I would say
marital         adj   pertain to marriage
                                                                   their marital status is healthy.
                      the state of being a member, as of a         As the club got popular, membership shot up as
membership      n
                      society or club.                             well.
                                                                   He had a speech impediment that made it difficult
impediment      n     obstruction; hindrance; obstacle
                                                                   for him to speak in public.
                                                                   While the main group has a broad objective, each
subgroup        n     a subordinate group                          subgroup works on different parts of that broad
                                                                   objective.
                                                                   The Nazi party, during World War II, believed in
                      the belief in the inherent superiority of    a strong sense of ethnocentrism, thinking that
ethnocentrism   n
                      one's own ethnic group or culture.           blonde hair, blue eyes were the superior genetic
                                                                   traits.
Unit 57

                      a position or manner indicative of feeling,
                                                                     Exercising in the morning can change your attitude
attitude        n     opinion, or intention toward a person or
                                                                     for the rest of the day.
                      thing
                                                                     Honesty is always a good attribute to have in a
attribute       v     consider as belonging
                                                                     relationship.
                                                                     You can only circle male or female when you get to
gender          n     the classification of sex
                                                                     the gender question.
illustrate      v     make clear with example                        Can you illustrate for me a cat on the blackboard?
                                                                     We must facilitate all prison inmates with a
facilitate      v     make easier                                    decent
                                                                     way of living.
multiple        adj   having many parts                              There are multiple flavors to that candy bar.
ensue           v     follow in order                                Two must ensue after one.
                                                                     My mother always tells me to have good body
posture         n     bodily position
                                                                     posture.
                                                                     The scared man feigned death as the bear
feign           v     pretend
                                                                     approached him.
aggression      adj   an act of hostility                            Most angry people have problems with aggression.
awareness       n     alert; knowledgeable                           Once you feel scared, your awareness shoots up.
                      the condition of a person or thing, as
state           n                                                    I am in a state of peril. The enemy is all around me.
                      with respect to circumstances or attributes
                      the position of an individual in relation to
status          n                                                    What is your status soldier? Is everyone else ok?
                      another or others
                                                                     You need to do your tire alignment so that the tires
alignment       n     An arrangement or positioning
                                                                     won’t lose their tread.
stock           n     investment                                     It is wise to save your money and invest in stocks.
                                                                     The stubborn man’s unwillingness made it hard for
unwillingness   n     not willing; reluctant; loath; averse
                                                                     people to befriend him.
                      to rise above or go beyond; overpass;
transcend       v                                                    His wise words transcended our hearts.
                      exceed
                                                                     Warring nations usually show large amounts of
aggression      n     hostile or destructive behavior or actions.
                                                                     aggression towards each other.
                                                                     The big man put the drunken person in submission
submission      n     an act or instance of submitting
                                                                     so that he wouldn’t hurt anyone.
                      to open the mouth somewhat involuntarily
                      with a prolonged, deep inhalation and          The bear let out a big yawn, showing that he was
yawn            n
                      sighing or heavy exhalation, as from           tired.
                      drowsiness or boredom.
Unit 58

                                                                 I had to acquaint myself with my new team mates
acquaint     v     make familiar with
                                                                 before I could start working with them.
                                                                 After graduating with a computer science degree,
adept        n     one who has attained proficiency
                                                                 Chris was adept at programming.
                                                                 The lawyer had to ascertain the suspect’s story
ascertain    v     find out by examination                       with
                                                                 questions to pry at the truth.
                                                                 The mother had a disdained look on her face when
disdain      v     look down upon                                she saw her little son rummaging through the
                                                                 trash.
                                                                 Sex is always a subtle topic when it comes to
subtle       adj   delicate refined                              parents
                                                                 talking about it to children.
                                                                 They say the sword was forged in the mystical
forge        v     shape out in any way                          realm
                                                                 of the elves.
                                                                 The civil court cannot place judgment on criminal
venue        n     the jurisdiction of a court
                                                                 cases. It’s out of their venue.
trivial      adj   of little importance                          Don’t worry. That trivial fact won’t be on the test.
                                                                 The two opponents exchanged pleasantries before
pleasantry   n     banter
                                                                 they met in the ring.
                                                                 It is wise for actors to rehearse their parts before
rehearse     v     practice for public performance
                                                                 the actual performance.
happening    v     of occurrence or event.                       I happened to turn around when you showed up.
                   a person who is receiving the benefits,       The client paid for his benefits through the
client       n
                   services                                      insurance company.
                                                                 His argument was so engaging that everyone felt
engaging     v     to occupy the attention or efforts
                                                                 compelled to speak.
diner        n     a person who dines.                           The waitress served food to the two diners.
                   freedom from the demands of work or
leisure      n                                                   We watch TV at our leisure.
                   duty
steady       adj   even or regular in movement                   We talked in a slow steady pace.
                   a fixed compensation periodically paid to a   His salary increased as his performance at work
salary       n
                   person for regular work or services.          improved.
                   a person with the ability or power to use,
master       n                                                   The master taught his pupils all he knew.
                   control, or dispose of something
                                                                 In the past decade, we faced some of the most
decade       n     a period of ten years
                                                                 difficult human conflicts.
                   the ceremony of conferring degrees or         His graduation ceremony congratulated over a
graduation   n
                   diplomas                                      hundred students.
Unit 59

                                                                   I appreciate my mother taking care of me so
appreciate     v     recognize the worth of                        many
                                                                   times.
                                                                   On one instance, the girl leaned over and kissed
instance       n     an event that is one of many
                                                                   the boy.
                                                                   I had to perceive more than that met the eye
                     become aware of through the senses or
perceive       v                                                   when
                     the understanding
                                                                   it comes to solving riddles.
                                                                   This work project took a lot of time and energy
project        n     a plan or scheme
                                                                   to
                                                                   The answer was derived from another similar
derive         v     deduce, infer
                                                                   looking equation.
hysterical     adj   one subject to violent emotional outbreaks    The man laughed hysterically and scared us.
sensual        adj   carnal, pertains to the senses                Sex is a very physical and sensual activity.
discord        n     lack of agreement                             After a long battle, a discord still existed.
                                                                   July 4th is celebrated to commemorate the
commemorate    v     honor the memory of in a formal manner
                                                                   independence of this country.
                                                                   It is an art to be able to understand the process
art            n     the application of knowledge and skill
                                                                   of things.
utilized       v     to put to use; turn to profitable account     We utilized all the resources for our profit.
                     the sum total of the physical, mental,
                                                                   His personality was quite eccentric when it came
personality    n     emotional, and social characteristics
                                                                   to interacting with others.
                     of an individual
                     a period of time marked by distinctive        This marked the end of the disastrous era in human
era            n
                     character, events                             history.
                     Something that occupies a position or
                                                                   His brother wore a small while his other brother
medium         n     represents a condition midway between
                                                                   wore a large. He wore a medium.
                     extremes.
storytelling   v     the telling or writing of stories.            He was good at storytelling to young kids.
cinema         n     A film or movie.                              We went to the cinema to watch the new movie.
                     the purging of the emotions or relieving of   You must be at a state of catharsis when you’re
catharsis      n
                     emotional tensions                            dealing with the judgement of others.
                                                                   The sport of golf can be quite elitist at time,
elitist        n     practice of or belief in rule by an elite.
                                                                   because only certain members can play.
evoke          v     to call up or produce                         It is dangerous to evoke the dead spirits.
                     of, pertaining to, or concerned with the
                                                                   We must strive to be moral beings so that we can
moral          n     principles or rules of right conduct or
                                                                   all live peacefully.
                     the distinction between right and wrong
Unit 60

                                                                    When approaching an intersection, one must
differentiate   v     make or observe a difference
                                                                    differentiate the green light to the red light.
significant     adj   the real or implied meaning                   His girlfriend had a significant place in his heart.
                                                                    Apparently, the king has a higher status than his
status          n     relative standing
                                                                    subjects.
                                                                    To clean your teeth properly, you must undergo
undergo         v     be subjected to
                                                                    an intense brushing process.
                                                                    There was a lot of note variation in Beethoven’s
variation       n     the act of change or modification
                                                                    music.
                                                                    When women reach a certain age, they feel the urge
espouse         v     take in as a spouse
                                                                    to espouse.
                                                                    In the medieval era, power was exchanged not
kinship         n     of family relationship                        through a democratic method, but through blood
                                                                    and kinship.
                      a matter used to change the color of
dye             n                                                   I used dye to turn my hair from black to blonde.
                      something else
tense           n     stretched tight                               When I get nervous, my muscles tense up.
                      the vocabulary of terms peculiar to a         The old college professor used difficult
terminology     n
                      particular subject                            terminology. I couldn’t understand him.
                      acquaintance with facts, truths, or
                                                                    In school, we gain the knowledge to become
knowledge       n     principles, as from study or investigation;
                                                                    smarter.
                      general erudition
                      something believed; an opinion or
belief          n                                                   It is my belief that God exists.
                      conviction
                                                                    The role of the parents is to take care of the
role            n     a part or character played
                                                                    children.
custom          n     a habitual practice                           It is custom for males to pursue the females.
                      an acquired behavior pattern regularly
habit           n     followed until it has become almost           Some habits are hard to overcome.
                      involuntary
                      the study of the way the sentences of a       Using proper English grammar is difficult because
grammar         n
                      language are constructed                      of all the exceptions and rules.
                                                                    The young boy aspired to become a doctor like his
aspire          v     to long, aim, or seek ambitiously
                                                                    father.
                      the habits, attitudes, tastes, moral
                      standards, economic level that together       His lifestyle was horrible. His room was trashy,
lifestyle       n
                      constitute the mode of living of an           and he didn’t take care of himself well.
                      individual or group.
                      the surroundings or environment of
setting         n                                                   The setting of the play was downtown London.
                      anything
                                                                    It is important to have a good vocabulary when
vocabulary      n     the words of a language.
                                                                    discussing in depth topics.
Unit 61

                                                                     You have to be very accurate if you want to hit the
accurate        adj   correct, true
                                                                     center of the target.
                                                                     Abraham Lincoln achieved greatness for the deeds
achieve         v     execute successfully
                                                                     he accomplished as president.
                                                                     We must define our terms so that we can
define          v     sets the limits of                             understand
                                                                     each other.
                      the same in magnitude, meaning, and
equivalence     n                                                    Four quarters has the equivalence of a dollar.
                      effect
                                                                     There are so many nuances to fashion. It’s hard to
nuance          n     shade of difference
                                                                     keep up with it.
                                                                     When you read this book, don’t analyze it for its
overtone        n     additional meaning                             face value you. Try looking for the overtone in
                                                                     which the author is conveying.
                                                                     Your brother is disparate from you because he’s
disparate       adj   essentially different
                                                                     quiet and you’re loud.
                                                                     ‘He kicked the bucket’ is an idiom for someone
idiom           n     a form of expression peculiar to a language
                                                                     who just died.
                                                                     Silk is a fine material that is easily interwoven into
interwoven      v     to weave together
                                                                     lovely garments.
imitation       n     the act of counterfeit                         It’s not real gold. It’s only an imitation.
                      to change something into a different form      How can we convert this into efficient usable
convert         v
                      or properties                                  energy?
                      in accordance with, involving, or being the
literal         adj   primary or strict meaning of the word or       I was shocked that he took my words literally.
                      words
                      a grayish red-brown to dark blackish-
burgundy        adj                                                  The burgundy colored bag.
                      purple color
mauve           adj   a pale bluish purple.                          The mauve colored dress.
intent          n     purpose; intentional                           What is the intent of the author when he wrote this?
                      esulting from originality of thought,
creative        adj                                                  We need to be creative when we’re creating art.
                      expression
corresponding   v     similar in position, purpose, form             He was corresponding the information to his leader.
                      the ability, coming from one's knowledge,
skill           n                                                    He had a lot of skill in his job.
                      practice, aptitude to do something well
                                                                     We need to judge the sensitivity of the equipment
sensitivity     n     The quality or condition of being sensitive.   to
                                                                     get an accurate reading.

                                                                     Consequently, the result from his actions weren’t
consequently    adv   as a result, effect, or outcome
                                                                     pleasant.
Unit 62

                                                                  Modern military is organized with a hierarch of
hierarchy     n     a body of persons organized by rank
                                                                  higher and lower ranks.
                                                                  We must identify the problem so that we can
identify      v     recognize as being particular                 come
                                                                  to a solution.
                                                                  As the teacher, I initiate the conversation with a
initiate      v     begin
                                                                  question so my students can discuss.
                                                                  The advertisement tried to promote the latest cell
promote       v     encourage the growth
                                                                  phone.
                                                                  The wise man had great perception in dealing with
perception    n     the act of perceiving
                                                                  difficult matters.
                                                                  The ‘thumbs up’ gesture is a universal sign for
universal     n     pertains to the universe
                                                                  ‘good job’.
                    making musical notes by forcing air
whistle       n                                                   Whistle while you work. It’ll help pass the time.
                    through a pursed area
                                                                  The class was silent because no one knew the
silent        v     making no sound                               right
                                                                  answer.
foreign       adj   relating to other countries                   Sony is a foreign electronics company.
                                                                  The framework for the Constitution was set up
framework     n     an outline or basic plan                      so
                                                                  that no one branch had too much power.
                                                                  There were many categories of classes to choose
categories    n     any general or comprehensive division
                                                                  from.
anchored      v     A source of security or stability.            His thoughts were anchored by the truth.
                                                                  The political parties are set up so the voice of
                    a group gathered for a special purpose or
parties       n                                                   many could be represented rather than the
                    task
                                                                  individual.
                    conveying, or representing in words, art,     I could understand the pain he was going through
expressions   n
                    music, or movement                            by his facial expressions.
                                                                  The professor used many pauses so that the
pauses        n     To cease or suspend an action temporarily.    students
                                                                  could digest what he was telling them.
                                                                  Only fate can tell if he was destined for the
fate          n     something that unavoidably befalls a person
                                                                  consequences.
                    receiving, enduring, or submitting without    He stood passively. Many thought it was a sign
passively     adv
                    resistance                                    of weakness.
                    compassionate or kindly forbearance
mercy         n                                                   He showed mercy to the losers.
                    shown toward an offender
foster        v     to promote the growth or development of       We must foster the growth of the smaller nations.
                                                                  He addressed some of the issues the company
address       v     to direct to the attention                    was
                                                                  facing.
Unit 63

                                                                   Cockroaches adapt very quickly to their
adapt         v     make suitable                                  surroundings, hence, why you can find them just
                                                                   about anywhere.
                                                                   The professor demonstrated circular motion by
demonstrate   v     describe by visual example
                                                                   swinging a rope around.
generate      v     bring into life                                The body naturally generates a lot of heat.
                                                                   The criminal was so hungry that was enough of a
motive        n     a mental force that induces an act
                                                                   motive for him to steal.
                                                                   He has so much potential, but he just doesn’t
                    something that has the possibility of
potential     n                                                    apply
                    becoming actual
                                                                   himself.
                    something undertaken: a project, a mission,    Microsoft has become a huge enterprise for
enterprise    n
                    etc..                                          businessmen to invest in.
                                                                   The injury is detrimental to your health if you
detrimental   adj   an injury or loss
                                                                   don’t try to fix it.
                                                                   Schools are getting expensive for one person to pay
financial     adj   management of monetary affairs
                                                                   for their own. So try looking for financial help.
                                                                   The number one movie was popular among the
popular       adj   generally liked
                                                                   younger crowd.
                                                                   The romantic guy brought a rose to his lover
romantic      adj   given into sentimental or amorous feelings
                                                                   during class.
                    the legislature of certain British colonies    The British parliament is setup in two houses: the
parliament    n
                    and possessions                                house of commons, and the house of lords.
                                                                   The governor gave licensing rights to the bureau
licensing     adj   permission to do or not to do something.
                                                                   to allow the rights to hunting.
                                                                   You have to pay a small fee in order to drive on
fee           n     a sum paid or charged for a privilege
                                                                   the toll way
                                                                   The time span in which he was late was about an
span          n     to extend or reach over
                                                                   hour.
                                                                   The advent for Christ’s return is often viewed as
advent        n     a coming into place, view, or being; arrival
                                                                   the apocalypse in some Christian circles.
                                                                   Some of this new age stuff doesn’t make any sense.
classics      n     basic; fundamental
                                                                   The best comes from the classics.
                                                                   Some national holidays originated from some
religious     adj   imbued with or exhibiting religion
                                                                   religious institution.
                    a story or account of events, experiences,
narrative     n                                                    I wrote a narrative about a young boy and his dog.
                    or the like
                    the action or process of forming such
imagination   n                                                    Use your imagination when you draw.
                    images or concepts.
                    any comic or humorous incident or series       Comedies are nice to watch when you want
comedies      n
                    of incidents.                                  something to perk up your day.
Unit 64

animate       v     give life to                                  I animated a character as I drew him on paper.
                                                                  Two cars going fast can create enough impact to
impact        n     the striking of one body against another
                                                                  kill the drivers.
                                                                  We must analyze every perspective before we can
perspective   n     point of view
                                                                  cast judgement.
revolve       v     move about the center                         The Earth revolves around the Sun.
                                                                  The student surpassed the teacher, when the
surpass       v     be greater than                               student
                                                                  beat him at his own game.
                                                                  King George’s coronation was beautiful. All of
coronation    n     the crowning of a king or queen
                                                                  England watched him become king.
axis          n     the line about which a rotating body turns    The earth spins on its axis in 24 hour increments.
                                                                  The death of the great leader was broadcasted on
broadcast     n     widely published
                                                                  every channel.
                                                                  The moon landing was a great feat for the US
landing       n     a place where persons or goods are landed
                                                                  space program.
                                                                  The audience applauded as the show came to an
audience      n     an assembly of spectators
                                                                  end.
                    An event, usually for the benefit of a
                                                                  The county fair is a wonderful event where the
fair          n     charity or public institution, including
                                                                  entire county gets together in celebration.
                    entertainment and the sale of goods
hundredfold   n     a hundred times as great or as much.          What you did for me, I will return a hundredfold.
                    the person responsible for the interpretive
                                                                  The director based the film on a tragic event in
director      n     aspects of a stage, film, or television
                                                                  history.
                    production
                                                                  The sitcom was based on the humorous events
                    a humorous drama based on situations
sitcom        n                                                   of
                    that might arise in day-to-day life
                                                                  married life.
                    hand clapping as a demonstration of
                                                                  They applauded the orchestra for their beautiful
applause      n     approval, appreciation, acclamation, or
                                                                  music presentation.
                    the like.
                    Characterized by or expressive of the         He magician had a dramatic entrance so he could
dramatic      adj
                    action or emotion                             grab the audience’s attention.
                                                                  The Olympic Games are the perfect time for
                                                                  countries to show off the best talents their
Olympic       adj   of or pertaining to the Olympic Games
                                                                  country
                                                                  has to offer.
                    A soccer tournament held every four years
                                                                  Every four years, all the nations get together to
world cup     n     in which qualifying national teams compete
                                                                  play the universal game of soccer in the World Cup.
                    to determine a world champion.
                                                                  The student surpassed the teacher after many
surpass       v     to go beyond in excellence or achievement     years
                                                                  of hardwork.
                                                                  The soundtrack to the movie is available at your
soundtrack    n     the sound recorded on a motion-picture film
                                                                  nearest music store.
Unit 65

diversity     n     variety                                       There’s a lot of diversity at a multi-ethnic school.
                                                                  If you drink a lot of water, you can expand the
expand        v     increase in extent
                                                                  size of your stomach.
objective     n     goal                                          The objective to this game is to win.
                                                                  The neighbourhood was restricted to watering their
restrict      v     attach limitations to
                                                                  plants to only Sundays.
                                                                  It is vital that your grandfather receives a heart
vital         adj   essential to existence
                                                                  transplant. He has a weak heart.

                                                                  The pamphlet that was being passed around told
pamphlet      n     a small printed tract
                                                                  us how to get rich in 2 months.

                                                                  The marbles disseminated across the deck of the
disseminate   adj   scatter abroad
                                                                  ship when the child dropped them.
                                                                  All the affairs in the white house are being
affair        n     a matter requiring attention or effort        recorded
                                                                  so the public will be aware of what goes on.
detention     n     prevent from proceeding                       The inmate was put in detention for starting a fight.
                                                                  The word that there would be no school tomorrow
circulate     v     move amongst people
                                                                  circulated among the students quickly.
                                                                  After a full recovery, the man decided to live a more
vibrant       adj   vigorous; energetic
                                                                  vibrant life than being bed-ridden.
                    a small, temporary structure used by          During the fair, there were many booths setup for
booth         n
                    voters at elections.                          people to be entertained.
attest        v     to bear witness to                            The witness attested to the murder.
                                                                  To protect children from harmful media, the
censorship    n     deleting parts of publications
                                                                  government called for media censorship.
                    the state, condition, or quality of being     The problem was so large that it created a sense of
immediacy     n
                    immediate.                                    immediacy.
                    not aligned with or supporting any side or    Many countries want to remain neutral when other
neutral       n
                    position in a controversy                     nations go to war with each other.
mere          adj   being nothing more nor better than            It was a mere diversion.
                    the return or yield from any kind of          We must generate more revenue if the company is
revenue       n
                    property, patent, service                     to run efficiently.
                    an investigation of the component parts of
                                                                  With a body analysis, we may now know what is
analysis      n     a whole and their relations in making up
                                                                  wrong with you.
                    the whole
                    a form of government in which the supreme
                    power is vested in the people
                                                                  The United States government is setup as a
democracy     n     and exercised directly by them or by
                                                                  democracy.
                    their elected agents under a free electoral
                    system.
Unit 66

                                                                      There were many sponsors that contributed to the
contribute    v     give with others as a charity
                                                                      charity event.
                                                                      Knowledge is infinite. There is always something
infinite      adj   without limit
                                                                      new to learn.
                                                                      The dating service allows people to interact with
interact      v     act on each other or one another
                                                                      others easily.
                                                                      It is standard procedure that we take our shoes
                                                                      off
procedure     n     customary process
                                                                      when we go into the metal detector in the
                                                                      airport.
                                                                      His suit case was transferred to the next flight
transfer      v     move or convey from one place to another
                                                                      because the carriers missed it the first time.
                                                                      The department of transportation is responsible
department    n     a separate part of division of a complex system
                                                                      for your driver’s license renewal.
                                                                      The computer network consisted of four
network       n     anything of intersecting lines resembling a net   computers
                                                                      connected together.
commercial    n     suitable or designed for sale                     The program is now available for commercial sale.
route         n     a course or line of travel                        We took the quicker route through the highway.
                                                                      The reason why your internet is not working is
connection    n     a state of being associated closely               because there is no connection between your
                                                                      computer and the router.
                                                                      The physicist measured the velocity of the
physicist     n     a scientist who specializes in physics.
                                                                      spacecraft that was heading to space.
                    A collection of data arranged for ease and        The company has vast amounts of databases to
databases     n
                    speed of search and retrieval.                    store information.
                    a computer that makes services, as access to      We have to run the server 24 hours because
                    data files, programs, and peripheral devices,
server        n                                                       people
                    available to workstations on a
                    network.                                          go online at different times of the day.

                    to bring to or make of an established standard    The standardized test reflects the status quo of
standardize   adj   size, weight, quality, strength, or               the
                    the like                                          nation’s intelligence.
query         n     a question; an inquiry.                           We have a query for you.
                    A set of coded instructions that enables a
                                                                      There are many programs that let you do all sorts
programs      n     machine, especially a computer, to perform a
                                                                      of different things on your computer.
                    desired sequence of operations.
                    A collection of related data or program records
files         n                                                       Search your hard drive for your lost files.
                    stored as a unit with a single name.
                    a software program that allows the user to find
                                                                      The browser allows you to venture through the
browser       n     and read encoded documents in a form suitable
                                                                      internet.
                    for display
                    A computer or program that can download files
                    for manipulation, run applications, or request    You need to subscribe as a client to use that
clients       n
                    application-based services from a                 servers services.
                    file server.
                    a document connected to the World Wide Web
                                                                      There are many webpages with useful information
webpage       n     and viewable by anyone connected to the
                                                                      on the internet.
                    internet who has a web browser
Unit 67

curiosity           n     a state of being inquisitive                         The cat’s curiosity caused it to wander off again.
excavate            v     dig into                                             The scientists excavated the area for dinosaur bones.
                                                                               We made an inquiry to the oracle in hopes of a
inquiry             n     search for information
                                                                               spiritual answer.
                                                                               Nations go to war so that they can preserve their
preserve            v     keep safe or free from harm
                                                                               own lives.
                                                                               The waiter was prompt to bringing out our drinks
prompt              adj   quick to act
                                                                               because we were really thirsty.
                                                                               We had to censure the rough draft because there
censure             n     reprove
                                                                               were a lot of mistakes.
canine              n     a long, pointed tooth                                Dogs have canines to bite their victim.
                                                                               We bought a bulk set of toilet paper to last us the
bulk                adj   a large quantity
                                                                               entire year.
                                                                               The wedding dress code is formal: Business suit
formal              adj   adhearing to establish form
                                                                               and tie.
proof               n     evidence that establishes a fact                     I need proof that you did not commit that crime.
                          not hesitating or fearful in the face of actual or
boldly              adv                                                        He boldly stated his own ideas for the project.
                          possible danger or rebuff
                          a natural process resulting in the evolution of      Natural selection states that the strong survive,
natural selection   n     organisms best adapted to the                        and
                          environment                                     the weak are killed off.
                          A mammal of the order Primates characterized
                          by refined development of the hands and feet, a Evolution states that humans evolved from
primates            n
                          shortened snout, and a                          primates.
                          large brain.
                          replace organic with mineral substances in the       The pressure of the earth fossilized the dinosaur
fossilized          v
                          remains of an organism.                              remains in good condition.
bipedal             adj   Having two feet; two-footed.                         Human are bipedal walking mammals.
                                                                               Genus is another classification method to get
                          a class or group of individuals, or of species of
genus               n                                                          more
                          individuals.
                                                                               specific about a group of living things.

                          The portion of the vertebrate central nervous
                          system that is enclosed within the cranium. It is
                          the primary center for the regulation and control
                          of bodily activities, receiving and interpreting  The brain is responsible for all of the body’s
brain               n
                          sensory impulses, and transmitting information activity.
                          to the muscles and body organs. It is also the
                          seat of consciousness, thought, memory, and
                          emotion.

                                                                               Palaeontologists discovered some remains of
palaeontologists    n     a specialist in palaeontology                        what
                                                                               looked like the first human tribe.
                                                                               When he hit his head against the rock he created
cranial             adj   pertaining to the cranium or skull.
                                                                               some cranial damage.
                          of or pertaining to Neanderthal man or the           They found the first traces of the Neanderthal man
Neanderthal         adj
                          ancient ancestor of humans.                          in a frozen cave in Europe.
Unit 68

                                                                            There are a lot of criteria to be met when it comes
criteria          n     a standard for comparison
                                                                            to getting an A in the class.
                                                                            We have to work efficiently if we want to make a
efficiently       adj   adequate in performance
                                                                            lot of cars in one day.
                                                                            Scaring little babies can permanently damage their
permanently       adj   lasting
                                                                            behavior towards strangers.
                                                                            My grandmother’s necklace is the only remnant I
remnant           n     a small reminder
                                                                            have of her after she died.
                                                                            You need to stave off the grass because the sign
stave             n     avert, keep off
                                                                            said so.
                                                                            We acquired a lot of money through our last
acquire           v     obtain, gain
                                                                            investment.
                        wild, undomesticated animals living in their        We need to try to preserve the wildlife because all
wildlife          n
                        natural habitat                                     this pollution will eventually kill off everything,
                                                                            Humans have lived long because of their intelligence
                                                                            has caused them to adjust to their surroundings. And
adaptation        n     alter to fit
                                                                            to believe intelligence is in itself an adaptation
                                                                            capability, who would have thought?
ritual            n     a prescribed form or manner                         It is a Catholic ritual to attend Mass.
                                                                            Many ancient civilizations believed in a fertility
fertility         n     producing offspring
                                                                            god who would grant them children.
                        the total number of persons inhabiting a            The population of the United States is growing
population        n
                        country, city, or any district or area.          rapidly.
                        The physiological adaptation of an animal or     Cockroaches have an amazing acclimatization to
                        plant to changes in climate or environment, such
acclimatization   n                                                      their surroundings. They can survive just about
                        as light, temperature,
                        or altitude.                                     anything.
overworking       v     To force to work too hard or too long.              Workaholics have a bad tendency of overworking.
                        not having enough food to develop or function       Being abandoned by his owner, the sick dog had
malnourishment    n
                        normally                                            a long list of malnourishment.
                                                                            Because he hadn’t eaten in several days, the man
starvation        n     the act or state of starving; extreme hunger
                                                                            was facing starvation.
                        a certain quantity or amount of one thing
                                                                            I don’t want a credit card because of the high
rates             n     considered in relation to a unit of another thing
                                                                            interest rate.
                        and used as a standard or measure
                                                                            I extended his warranty just in case something
extended          v     continued or prolonged
                                                                            happened to it.
period            n     any specified division or portion of time           We had to wait for a long period of time.
impulse           n     a psychic drive or instinctual urge.                I had a sudden impulse to buy that $300 bag.

feminine          adj   having qualities traditionally ascribed to women The gay man had many feminine traits about him.
Unit 69

ignore                 v     pass by without notice                               Just ignore my sister when she bothers you.
                                                                                  Many governments use propaganda to manipulate
                                                                                  the populations mind to however the
manipulate             v     handle with skill
                                                                                  government sees
                                                                                  fit.
                                                                                  My mom cooked the most delicious meal. I wonder
replicate              v     to reproduce with an exact copy
                                                                                  if my wife can replicate it just the same.

                                                                                  Agriculture has been an important part of
                                                                                  human
agriculture            n     cultivation of the ground to raise food
                                                                                  life because it provided humans with a consistent
                                                                                  means of food.

                                                                                  The straight A student received the scholastic
scholastic             adj   pertains to education
                                                                                  award in school.
                                                                                  It was painstaking to do, but it had to be done
painstaking            adj   very careful
                                                                                  right the first time.
                                                                                  If you do research in biology, in the end all humans
                             an element in a cell, that deals with the
gene                   n                                                          are made up of genes handed down from their
                             transmission of hereditary material
                                                                                  parents.
                             one versed in the principles and practices of
                                                                                  The engineer found a new way of burning fuel
engineer               n     making practical application of scientific
                                                                                  more efficiently.
                             knowledge
                                                                                  Our predecessors contributed much to the
                             one who preceded another in the same
predecessor            n                                                          expansion
                             position
                                                                                  of the country.
                                                                                  The chemical gave a creepy mutation where
mutation               n     a sudden change in characteristic
                                                                                  humans turned into monsters.
advances               v     to move or bring forward                             He advanced rapidly in the company.
                                                                                  The man downtown looked sophisticated but was
humble                 adj   low in rank, importance, status, quality
                                                                                  actually very humble.
                                                                                  We will go to the village and see what we can do
village                n     A small group of dwellings in a rural area
                                                                                  to help.
                             the study of the microscopic appearance of           In order to understand cells, one must study
cytology               n
                             cells                                                cytology.
                             an extremely long macromolecule that is the
DNA                          main component of chromosomes and is the             DNA evidence is the strongest evidence in a
                        n
(deoxyribonucleic acid)      material that transfers genetic characteristics in   criminal investigation.
                             all life forms
                             of the nature of a problem; doubtful; uncertain;
problematic            adj                                                        If we don’t fix this now, it will be problematic later.
                             questionable.
curing                 v     To restore to health.                                The doctor is curing his health.
                             to deteriorate, disintegrate, fall, or become weak
rotting                v                                                          Time is slowly rotting away my life.
                             due to decay
conviction             n     a fixed or firm belief.                              I have a strong conviction that this is the truth.
                             to clear, as of an accusation; free from guilt or    The wrongfully accused man had been granted
exoneration            n
                             blame                                                exoneration for the crime.
Unit 70

acknowledge      v     admit the existence of                                The U.S. acknowledges the problem of terrorism.
                                                                             We had to distribute life jackets to the boat
distribute       v     spread out or give out                                accident
                                                                             victims.
                                                                             The survivors endured a lot of hardships out in
endure           v     undergo, sustain                                      the
                                                                             deserted island.
                                                                             I showed a lot of prejudice when I approached him
prejudice        n     an opinion formed without adequate reason             thinking he was stupid and dumb, when in fact
                                                                             he was very intelligent..
                                                                             The mother scorned her son for digging through
scorn            n     contempt, disdain
                                                                             the messy trash.
                                                                             Quantitative measurements analyze how much
quantitative     adj   relating to quantity of measurement                   of
                                                                             something you have.
justifiable      adj   defensible                                            His reasoning made his actions justifiable.
                                                                             I had a dialogue with my teacher because of my
dialogue         n     conversation between two or more people
                                                                             grades.
                                                                             Climbing the mountain was a great endeavor for
endeavor         v     exert oneself to do something
                                                                             the climbers.
                                                                             In the mid 1900’s, the US Supreme Court reviewed
                       treat differently on the basis of race, class, sex,
discriminatory   adj                                                         many discriminatory civil cases in regards to
                       etc..
                                                                             race.
                                                                             The angry wife was acting contentious towards her
contentious      adj   tending to argument or strife
                                                                             husband.
                       Proceeding from or taking place in a person's
                                                                             Many people never subjectively see past their own
subjectively     adv   mind rather than the external
                                                                             problems.
                       world
                                                                             The murderer was notoriously written about in
notoriously      adv   widely and unfavorably known
                                                                             the news column.
                                                                             My mother, who loves gardening, is a natural
botanist         n     a specialist in botany.
                                                                             botanist.
                                                                             Furthermore, I would like to add that pizza is
furthermore      adj   moreover; besides; in addition                        being
                                                                       served in the cafeteria.
                       an advantage or source of pleasure granted to a
privilege        n                                                     It was a privilege to meet you, Mr. Mayor.
                       person
                                                                             The man vilified his enemy by shouting insults at
vilified         v     to speak ill of; defame; slander
                                                                             him.
forum            n     A public meeting place for open discussion.           We opened the forum for debate.
                       to behave or perform in a particular way
handle           v                                                           Can you handle that much work?
                       when handled, directed, managed
                       An especially significant or interesting detail or    The teacher highlights all the important clues in
highlights       n
                       event.                                                the text.
Unit 71

                                                                       My teacher must be very coherent if he is to teach
coherent        adj   be logically consistent
                                                                       children in a clear manner.
                                                                       The judges all had a concurrent opinion because
concurrent      adj   agree in opinion
                                                                       they all cast the same vote.
                                                                       I encountered many difficult challenges in the
encounter       v     meet by chance
                                                                       iron-man course.
                                                                       King Arthur and his knights had many exploits.
exploit         n     a notable achievement                            These included saving damsels in distress, and
                                                                       slaying beasts and monsters.
                                                                       There was a substitution of players when the star
substitution    n     in place of another
                                                                       player got injured.
                                                                       Since the discovery of the prehistoric human
anthropology    n     the general science of human beings              skeleton, anthropology has become a science of
                                                                       interest among many people.
                                                                       To solve this mystery, the investigation team had to
interconnect    adj   to connect with one another
                                                                       interconnect all the evidence to find a solution.
                                                                       Dolphins are one of the most intelligent marine
intelligent     adj   quick to understand
                                                                       creatures. It’s easy to train them.
                                                                       It is paramount that we find the lost victims
paramount       adj   superior to all others
                                                                       before it becomes too late.
                                                                       I didn’t plan on a public speech, so I had to
improvise       v     act without preparation
                                                                       improvise.
                      to fail to understand or interpret rightly the
misunderstood   v                                                      The lonely boy was misunderstood by his peers.
                      words or behavior of.
                                                                       His encouraging words had a binding affect on
binding         v     To tie or secure
                                                                       the once resenting crowd.
                      to declare or tell in advance; prophesy;
predict         v                                                      I predicted the outcome accurately.
                      foretell
                                                                       He reacted joyfully to the news of his new born
react           v     to act or perform again.
                                                                       baby.
accordingly     adv   in accordance; correspondingly.                  He waited accordingly for his wife’s instructions.
Caucasian       adj   peoples having light to fair skin                Most Americans are Caucasian.
exemplified     v     to show or illustrate by example.                   His good deeds exemplified his great personality.
                      to assist to travel through, or reach a destination
                      in, an unfamiliar area, as by accompanying or
guide           n                                                         He guided the tourist through cave.
                      giving directions to the
                      person
                                                                       His moves seemed natural, as if he were made to
natural         adj   existing in or formed by nature
                                                                       move that way.
worship         n     to pay great honour to                           I will worship and give praise to my God.
Unit 72

                                                                        There is written document of the existence of
document      n     a written record of statement
                                                                        philosophical ideas.
                                                                        Science is empirical in that, through its methods,
empirical     adj   derived from experience
                                                                        we are able to visibly see fact from fiction.
                                                                        There are some scientists that say humans evolved
evolve        v     form gradually
                                                                        from monkeys.
                                                                        We have to all participate in the school’s
participate   v     take part in something
                                                                        homecoming rally.
                                                                        There was sufficient evidence to send the
sufficient    adj   adequate enough
                                                                        criminal to prison.
                                                                        Colonial life was rough in the early 1700’s.
colonial      adj   pertains to a colony                                Then again, living in a place far from civilization
                                                                        has to be difficult in general.
                    one sent to spread a religion or philosophy in a
                                                                        Spain sent many missionaries to present day
missionary    n     foreign land or to persons not of the same
                                                                        Mexico to convert the natives to Christianity.
                    persuasion
                                                                       The soldier, during combat, has much fieldwork,
fieldwork     n     work done in the field; research, surveying, etc.. whether it be actual combat, or neutralizing a
                                                                        zone.

                                                                        During the peace negotiations, mediators from
mediator      n     one who effects agreements between others           both sides came up for resolutions to ending the
                                                                        conflict.

                                                                        The man wanted to revenge on the man who killed
revenge       v     inflict punishment because of
                                                                        his wife.

                                                                        Will the new participants wait for the next event
participant   n     someone who takes part in an activity               to
                                                                        come up?
                                                                        We compared our observations about the eating
observation   n     an act or instance of noticing or perceiving.
                                                                        habits of children.
centralized   v     to draw to or gather about a center.                In a dictatorship, power is centralized in one person.
                                                                        We need a strong leadership to guide us through
leadership    n     the position or function of a leader
                                                                        turbulent times.
                    rough or injurious physical force, action, or
violence      n                                                         He used violence to force people to do his bidding.
                    treatment
                                                                        That school has strong rivalries with the other
rivalries     n     The act of competing or emulating.                  school in the same district, to see who is better
                                                                        in every aspect.
                    armed conflict between two massed enemies,
warfare       n                                                         Nuclear arms are used in modern warfare.
                    armies, or the like.
                    to present, execute, or do in a poor or tasteless   The perpetrator was apprehended for stealing
perpetrator   n
                    manner                                              purses.
                                                                        The problem escalated into a bigger problem
escalated     v     to increase in intensity, magnitude                 when
                                                                        we didn’t fix it the first time.
                                                                        We have many conflicts with children who are
conflicts     n     A state of open, often prolonged fighting
                                                                        selfish.
Unit 73

                                                                        The consultant came to the company to make
consultant       n     a person whom one advises
                                                                        everything work more efficiently.
                                                                        The two witnesses said two different stories, both
contradiction    n     assert the contrary of
                                                                        in contradiction to the other.
precisely        adv   exactly defined                                  Thank you for precisely understanding me.
                                                                        The wise man had many insights to my spiritual
insight          n     penetrating discernment
                                                                        problems.
                                                                        You must suspend the project until we have more
suspend          v     interrupt, decay
                                                                      money to fund it.
                       an excursion made by a company of persons for The explorers went on an expedition to the new
expedition       n
                       a specific purpose                             world.
                                                                      The rock was in total immersion at the bottom
immersion        adj   act of immersing
                                                                      of the lake.
                                                                      The singer did a collaboration song with two
collaboration    n     work with another
                                                                      other singers.
                       any opinion, principle, or doctrine held to be The supreme courts judicial review is considered a
tenet            n
                       true                                           tenet to modern law.
                                                                        The rat was in great peril as the hawk swooped
peril            n     danger, risk
                                                                        down to catch it.
                       derived from or guided by experience or
empirical        adj                                                    Science deals with empirical data.
                       experiment.
articulated      v     made clear, distinct                             The teacher articulated the instructions for the test.
commitment       n     The act or an instance of committing             Marriage is a life long commitment.
islander         n     a native or inhabitant of an island.             Hawaii has many native islanders.
                       belief in oneself and one's powers or
confidence       n                                                      I have confidence you will do well on your exam.
                       abilities
                       a person engaged in work that requires bodily
laborer          n                                                      The laborers toiled under the sun.
                       strength
                                                                        The informant informed me of the message you
informant        n     a person who informs or gives information
                                                                        sent.
                                                                        We took a survey to see how kids reacted to the
survey           n     taking a comprehensive view of something         new
                                                                            standard.
                       a set or system of methods, principles, and rules
                                                                            The scientific method is a methodological way of
methodological   adj   for regulating a given discipline, as in the arts or
                                                                            receiving consistent results of nature.
                       sciences.
unflattering     v     showing or representing unfavourably             His harsh words were unflattering.
Unit 74

                                                                          Contemporary artists stress more on
contemporary    adj   living or occurring at the same time                individualism.
                                                                          Ancient artists believed more in the community.
                                                                          You can contrast the two paintings by how
contrast        v     compare by showing differences
                                                                          different the artist used different colors.
                                                                          Dogs are domestic animals, where humans can
domestic        adj   relating to the household
                                                                          train it to live inside the house.
                                                                          In order for your body to be fit, you must go
intensive       adj   extreme, very acute
                                                                          through an intensive workout.
                                                                          Garden growers constantly practice horticulture
horticulture    n     the science or art of growing plants
                                                                          in their backyard.
                                                                          A church pastor watches over their congregation
pastor          n     one who shepherds
                                                                          in his or her church.
settlement      n     the act or result of settling                       The divorced couple came to a 50/50 settlement.
                                                                          Since many places do not get water, farmers often
                      supple with water through artificial
irrigation      n                                                         use irrigation techniques to get water to those
                      channels
                                                                          places through channels.
                                                                          Hunter civilizations usually turn out to be nomads
nomad           n     a wanderer
                                                                          because they follow where the animals go.
                      the seasonal migration of livestock, and the
                                                                          Mountain herders practice transhumant to
transhumant     n     people that tend them, between lowlands and
                                                                          maintain their livestock and their own livelihood.
                      adjacent mountains
bands           n     A group of people                                   The band of thieves met late at night.
migratory       adj   periodically migrating                              Birds are migratory animals.
regular         adj   usual; normal; customary                            I’ll have the regular coffee with a little bit of sugar.
                                                                          Alexander the Great was a conqueror who won
conqueror       n     a person who conquers or vanquishes                 most of the upper, middle-eastern region many,
                                                                          many years ago.
                      far apart; far distant in space; situated at some   In the remote places on earth, you’ll find some
remote          adj
                      distance away                                       very odd looking animals.
                      adaptation to association with human
domestication   n                                                         Dogs are easy to be trained for domestication.
                      beings
                      a succession or progression of steps or
scale           n                                                         We must climb the corporate scale to be successful.
                      degrees
                      To move or transfer from one place or position
shifting        v                                                         The shifting formation of the line confused many.
                      to another.
                                                                          The farmer left the piece of land fallow, so that
fallow          adj   plowed and left unseeded for a season or more
                                                                          he wouldn’t exhaust the ground.
                                                                          I’m going to specialize in certain areas of medicine
specialize      v     to pursue some special line of study, work
                                                                          after I graduate.
Unit 75

absolute        adj   perfect, complete                               God’s law is absolute, for who can challenge God?
                      a coming together so as to form a group, sum,   The meal comes with a combination of both
combination     n
                      etc..                                           chicken and beef.
decay           v     decompose or deteriorate to dead matter         After a person dies, their body slowly decays.
                                                                      We must establish a strong foundation before
establish       v     setup on a firm basis
                                                                      attempting anything else.
                                                                      I occupied the bathroom when I went to do my
occupy          v     become established in
                                                                      business.
                      the science of determining the dates or         Historians often debate over chronology of certain
chronology      n
                      historical order of past events                 events that happened long ago.
assemblage      n     persons or things assembled                     The robot was an assemblage from many lego parts.
                                                                      The sponge waterlogged as it soaked up all the
waterlog        adj   saturated as to sink in water
                                                                      water.
                      spontaneously radiating energy in atoms or      Uranium is the most well known radioactive
radioactive     adj
                      particles of atoms                              element.
                      a chemical element nearly identical, but with   Isotopes are usually elements with more or less
isotope         n
                      differing weights                               neutrons in them.
                                                                      The scientist looked at the stratigraphic findings
stratigraphic   adj   The study of rock strata
                                                                      and determined it was hardened lava.
relative        adj   considered in relation to something else        You ideas are relatively in agreement with mine.
                                                                      We need pinpoint accuracy because we can’t
pinpoint        v     to locate or describe exactly or precisely
                                                                       afford any errors.
costly          adv   resulting in great expense                       The great project was costly to many investors.
                      The average or maximum length of time an
lifespan        n     organism, material, or object can be expected to The lifespan of a mayfly is only a couple of days.
                      survive or last.
                      a pyramidal fir of southwestern California having The bristlecone tree can be found in some parts
bristlecone     n     spiny pointed leaves and cone scales with long of
                      spines                                            California.
                                                                        With radiocarbon dating, we can get an accurate
radiocarbon     n     a radioactive isotope of carbon
                                                                        age of the subject.
                                                                        Dating specific times in history is important to
dating          n     to have or bear a date
                                                                        many historians.
                      any of two or more forms of a chemical element,
                      having the same number of protons in the
                      nucleus, or the same atomic number, but having These two elements are the same but this isotope
isotope         n
                      different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, or has a greater mass than the other.
                      different atomic
                      weights.
                      of or pertaining to the time or a period prior to
prehistoric     adj                                                     The dinosaurs lived in prehistoric times.
                      recorded history
Unit 76

                                                                               The young businessman had the ambition to
ambition           n     eager desire for distinction
                                                                               make lots of money.
                                                                               Diamonds have become a valuable commodity
commodity          n     an article of commerce
                                                                               among future marriage couples.
                                                                               You must construct the table so that we can eat
construct          v     build, make
                                                                               on top of it.
                                                                               Sparta was a fierce warrior nation among the
fierce             adj   eager to kill or injure
                                                                               Greek city-states.
                                                                               Many things discovered in Greece are antiquities
antiquity          n     ancient times
                                                                               of the past.

                         succession of rulers of the same line or              The Chinese dynasty left a remarkable significance
dynasty            n
                         family                                                to the people of China.

                                                                               His reputation of his good deeds was affluent
affluent           adj   flowing freely
                                                                               among the common people.
                                                                               The Romans showed remarkable masonry with
masonry            n     stonework
                                                                               their columns.
                                                                               The canvas painting was very picturesque to
picturesque        adj   colourful, vivid
                                                                               the dream I had last night.
blossom            v     develop or mature                                     The flowers blossom during the spring and summer.
BCE                n     abbr. before the Common Era                           All pre-Socratic philosophers lived BCE.
                         impressive in size, appearance, or general
grand              adj                                                         The grand staircase
                         effect
biblical           adj   of or in the Bible                                    Jesus spoke in biblical parables.
                         a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle
                                                                               The Fertile Crescent was once fertile, but now its
fertile crescent   n     East stretching in a broad semicircle from the
                                                                               mostly desert.
                         Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
                         an intricate combination of paths or passages in
labyrinth          n     which it is difficult to find one's way or to reach   I got lost inside the labyrinth.
                         the exit.
                         a monster that had the head of a bull on the          The Minotaur chased the scared man down the
minotaur           n
                         body of a man                                         corridor.
                         very many; being or existing in great                 There were numerous complaints made because
numerous           adj
                         quantity                                              of the loud party on the street.
vessels            n     A hollow utensil used as a container                  Put the wine in those vessels over there.
                                                                               The wealthy owner went to a retreat to relax from
retreat            n     a place to withdraw, retire, or draw back
                                                                               the heavy work.
                         an area in which excavating has been done or is       We did some excavation around the area, yet we
excavation         n
                         in progress                                           found nothing.
Unit 77

aggravate     v     intensify for the worst                           Some people aggravate their skin by tanning.
convince      v     cause to believe                                  I must convince the jury that my client is innocent.
                                                                      We hastened to the next town, because we were
hastened      v     move or act quickly
                                                                      getting restless in the car.
                                                                      It is in our highest priority that we see our son
priority      n     arrange in order of importance
                                                                      do well in school.
                                                                      Many people speculate which team will end up
speculate     v     theorize, conjecture
                                                                    in the playoffs during regular season.
rubble        n     rough, broken stones                            The war turned huge towers into broken rubble.
                                                                    Before going into the meeting room, please
antechamber   n     a chamber or room that serves as a waiting room
                                                                    wait in the antechamber until we call you.
                                                                    Ancient China was known for their artistic
porcelain     n     a fine, white, translucent china
                                                                    porcelain vases.
                                                                      Something bizarre happened this morning. I
bizarre       adj   odd, whimsical                                    thought it was the weekend when it was clearly
                                                                      Tuesday.
                                                                      The researcher was meticulous in following the
meticulous    adj   extremely careful
                                                                      research procedure.
                                                                      The veteran worker knew all there was to his job
veteran       n     experienced through long service or practice
                                                                      than the rookie.
                    a person skilled or engaged in managing large     The financier dealt with the corporation’s total
financier     n
                    financial operations                              revenue.

                                                                      Call it a hunch, but I think something bad is going
hunch         n     a premonition or suspicion; guess
                                                                      to happen.

                                                                      It is good if we built the foundation on the bedrock,
bedrock       n     unbroken solid rock
                                                                      because that’s solid rock down there.
                                                                      Many great pharaohs and leaders were buried in a
sarcophagus   n     a stone coffin
                                                                      magnificent sarcophagus.
                    to make solid; make into a hard or compact
solidified    v                                                       The water solidified in the freezing weather.
                    mass
                                                                      Many millennia ago, the Chinese discovered
millennia     n     a period of 1000 years.
                                                                      gunpowder.
                                                                      By discovering a new alternative source of energy,
monumental    adj   of historical or enduring significance            it was a monumental step to better and safe
                                                                      technology.
priceless     adj   having a value beyond all price                   The memories we have are priceless.
                    the expression of a wish that misfortune, evil,
curse         n                                                       The woman spout curses at the ill-gotten man.
                    doom
Unit 78

                                                                      In the old way of combat, each soldier stood next to
abreast       adj   side by side                                      each other abreast so that they worked as one
                                                                      unit.
                                                                      There were so many people doing so many different
chaotic       adj   the absence of form or order
                                                                      things that it was extremely chaotic.
durable       adj   lasting, longwearing                              Although titanium bends, it is very durable.
magnificent   adj   splendid, brilliant                               The king wore a magnificent crown on his head.
                                                                      The basketball star sold miniature versions of
miniature     n     anything small
                                                                      himself on poster to the crowd.
govern        adj   rule with authority                               It takes a wise ruler to govern a vast city.

                                                                      Imperial Britain stretched from the island itself to
imperial      adj   pertains to an empire, or emperor
                                                                      parts of the Pacific and Atlantic.

                                                                      The terra-cotta army that the Chinese emperor
terra-cotta   n     a hand earthenware                                created contains more than several thousand
                                                                      earthenware troops.
                                                                      We went through a long corridor to get to the
corridor      n     a narrow passageway
                                                                      laboratory.
                                                                      The artist made many replicas of the original so
replica       n     an exact copy                                     that he could sell them at the same original
                                                                      price.
                                                                      He was an exceptional artist, creating many works
exceptional   adj   unusually excellent; superior
                                                                      of beauty.
                    the straight stalk of any of various tall
reed          n                                                       We gathered long reeds to create a mat.
                    grasses
                                                                      The partition served as a wall separating the two
partition     n     an interior wall or barrier dividing a room
                                                                      rooms.
                    An ancient horse-drawn two-wheeled
chariots      n     vehicle used in war, races, and                   The chariots are like tanks of ancient warfare.
                    processions.
                    the part of a military force composed of troops
cavalry       n                                                       Before cars, the cavalry was the fastest war unit.
                    that serve on horseback.
infantry      n     soldiers or military units that fight on foot     The infantry walked to the battlefront.
ranking       adj   occupying a specific rank, position               The next ranking title above colonel is a general.

                    the time that the life of someone or something    It would take a lifetime to understand the universe
lifetime      n
                    continues                                         in all its entirety.

                                                                      The scientists went to the necropolis to study the
necropolis    n     a large cemetery of an ancient city
                                                                      ancient civilizations deceased.
rammed        v     to strike with great force                        We rammed the door down to barge in.
Unit 79

                                                                      The fireworks display was amazing. It literally lit
display         v     show, exhibit
                                                                      up the sky.
                                                                      We used the dredge to make a hole in the
                      a scooping machine used to dig up river
dredge          n                                                     channel
                      channels
                                                                      so that water could pass through.
encircle        v     form a circle around, enclose                   The lions encircled the deer as it was slowly dying.
                                                                      The bullet grazed my shoulder. If it was any
graze           v     brush lightly in passing                        closer,
                                                                      I would have died.
inter           v     place in a grave or tomb                        We still inter our dead in graves.
                                                                      The slice of the scythe made a swath path for
swath           adj   a mowed path
                                                                      people to walk through.
                                                                      A cleaning crew came and cleaned the detritus
                      the remains of something that has been
detritus        n                                                     that the spectators left behind after the soccer
                      destroyed or broken up
                                                                      game.
                                                                      Textile companies necessitate much labor in
textile         n     pertain to weaving or fabrics                   order
                                                                      to mass produce clothing.
                                                                      This decorated sword showed master craftsmanship
craftsmanship   n     being skilled in an art
                                                                      to the one who made it.
                                                                      Many modern houses have white, picket palisades
palisade        n     a fence of pointed stakes
                                                                      that surround their backyard.
                                                                      The Washington monument was made in
monuments       n     A structure erected as a memorial.              memories
                                                                      of our first president.
                      a quadrilateral masonry mass having smooth,
                                                                      The Egyptian’s architects were known for their
pyramid         n     steeply sloping sides meeting at an
                                                                      pyramids and sphinxes.
                      apex
                      Something, such as a ring, shaped like such a
circle          n                                                     He boy drew a circle around the figure.
                      plane curve.
                      the period in the history of humankind marked The Iron Age brought more effective weapons
iron age        n     by the use of implements and weapons made of out
                      iron.                                         from bronze.
imprint         n     a mark made by pressure                       We found a finger imprint on the soda can.
                                                                      We built long stretched walls and rampart to defend
rampart         n     anything serving as a bulwark or defense.
                                                                      the fort.
                      a small or humble dwelling of simple
hut             n                                                     We slept in primitive huts at the local village.
                      construction
                      To give the main features or various
outline         n                                                     We had a vague outline of the schedule for tonight.
                      aspects of
                      to come upon or discover suddenly and
surprise        n                                                     She was surprised by his jumpy reaction.
                      unexpectedly
                                                                      Many old texts are carbonized to preserve them
carbonized      v     to char until it forms carbon.
                                                                      for
Unit 80

                                                                       The world’s population cumulatively increases as
cumulative      adj   increasing by accumulation
                                                                       it nearly doubles every five years.
debris          n     fragment from a former whole                     There was a lot of debris from the plane crash.
                                                                       You shouldn’t expose your body out in the sun
expose          v     lay open to view                                 too
                                                                       long.
                                                                       Many old paintings need to go through a long
                                                                       restoration process, so that museums can
restoration     n     the act of restoring
                                                                       preserve
                                                                       it longer.
vast            adj   very great in extent                             The Pacific Ocean is vast and huge.
                                                                       The dodo went extinct when hunters killed every
extinct         adj   out of existence
                                                                       last one of them for food.
preservation    n     act of preserving                                It is illegal to hunt in an animal preservation.
                                                                       The diary of Anne Frank tells its readers about
diary           n     a daily record                                   her
                                                                       life during the Nazi regime of World War II.
                      a metric measure of land; 10,000 square          Measuring things in hectares is an old way of
hectare         n
                      meters, or about 2 acres                         surveying land.
                                                                       His happy smile was a façade to the painful
façade          n     the superficial aspect of something              sadness
                                                                       he had inside.
text            n     the original words of an author or speaker       We read texts from Aristotle in class today.
                      attention to or treatment of a subject in
detail          n                                                      We looked down to the smallest detail.
                      individual or minute parts
stripped        v     to take away or remove                           We stripped him of his title.
                      declaration of objection, disapproval, or
protest         n                                                      They protested against animal cruelty.
                      dissent
                      a mixture of lime or gypsum with sand
plaster         n     and water; hardens into a smooth solid;          They plastered the wall.
                      used to cover something
                                                                       We put a cast on his broken arm to not only
                                                                       support,
casts           n     Something that is thrown off, out, or away.
                                                                       but so that he could take it off later when it
                                                                       heals.
                      a philosophical movement of the 18th
                      century, characterized by belief in the
                                                                       The Enlightenment era brought new scientific
enlightenment   n     power of human reason and by innovations
                                                                       discoveries and inventions.
                      in political, religious, and educational
                      doctrine.
                      a layer of material, naturally or artificially
                                                                       The archaeologists broke through the strata to
strata          n     formed, often one of a number of parallel
                                                                       see what the bottom held.
                      layers one upon another
unique          adj   not typical; unusual                             He had a very unique way of dealing with people.
                      a sudden, violent disturbance of the surface     The catastrophic volcano eruption brought many
catastrophic    adj
                      of the earth                                     fatalities to the nearby city.

				
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