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									           Hospitality Industry
  Hospitality is the cordial and generous reception and
 entertainment of guests or strangers, either socially or
                       commercially.


The Hospitality Industry is comprised of those businesses
    which practice the act of being hospitable; those
 businesses which are characterized by generosity and
                  friendliness to guests.
     A. Characteristics of Hospitality
                Industry

1.     Inseparability

2.     Perishability

3.     Labor-intensive

4.     Repetitive

5.     Intangibility
B. Components of Hospitality Industry

   1. Lodging Operations
         -such as hotels, resorts, motels etc.

   2. Transportation Services
          -such as taxi, train, cruise ships, etc.

   3. Food and Beverage Operations
         -such as restaurants, bars, etc.

   4. Retail Stores
          -such as souvenir shops, etc.

   5. Activities
          -such as recreations, festivals, etc.
A Brief History on the Development
                 of
          Lodging Industry
Historical Perspectives

         Being hospitable can be traced
              back to the civilizations of
               Sumeria, Ancient Egypt,
             Ancient Greece, Rome and
                   Biblical Times.
Two possible explanations why people in ancient times
              felt required to be hospitable:

  1. They felt that providing hospitality to strangers
     were necessary to their religious well-being and;




  2. Having superstitious belief.
The more logical in our modern
 thinking explains that providing
    hospitality was a result of a
  “give and take” philosophy.
The need for a place to stay away from home is
       as old as the first nomadic traveler.
Trading between two cultures created the
    need for groups of people to travel
          often great distances.
Trading between two cultures created
the need for groups of people to travel
often great distances.
 Along these trade routes, certain stopping
 points became favored out of necessity.




 These stopping points became known as
 junction points that grew into trading centers
 and eventually evolved into cities.
 Journey segment is the maximum reasonable
 distance traveled in one day along trade and
 caravan routes.


 At these journey segments, lodging facilities
 became a need. They were called relay
 houses in China, khans in Persia, and
 tabernas in Rome.
At some point, innkeepers began to
incorporate food and beverage service in their
operations.
Another development was the Roman network of roads that
  crisscrossed Europe and parts of Asia and Africa. These
      roads provided fast and safe routes for travelers.
The concept of hospitality was changed in
  1282 in Florence, Italy. The innkeepers
     created a guild or associations that
      formed hospitality into business.
The industrial revolution of the mid-1700s created new
modes of transportation that further changed the way
people traveled.

The emergence of railroads and later the automobile
played large roles in lodging’s history because both
dramatically increased the lengths of journey segments
for a traveler.
As the evolution of lodging continued, new
facilities began to emerge as an option for
travelers.

 The wealthy and landed aristocracy of the world
began to view the many spare rooms in their
castles and estates as sources of revenue.
 The best example of this can be traced back to the
  English and colonial inns of the 1700s.

 The significant difference between the two was that
  colonial inns offered rooms to anyone who could afford to
  pay, whereas English inns were most often reserved for
  the aristocracy.

 Another difference between the two was that English inns
  rented out individual sleeping rooms, whereas colonial
  inns regularly offered large rooms with several beds
  inside. This meant that English inns could offer private
  guest rooms, whereas colonial inns were better suited for
  communal accommodations.
 The word hotel is the Anglicized version of the French
  hotel garni, which translates into “large, furnished
  mansion”.

 The first lodging facility that can be directly considered a
  precursor of the modern hotel was the 73 rooms City
  Hotel built in New York in 1794.

 It is a significant milestones in the evolution of lodging
  because its sole purpose was to house guests. All the
  previous inns were homes first, and lodging facilities
  second.
In 1829, Tremont House was built in Boston. This
property was another milestone in the early
revolution of hotels.
It was considered as the first five-star hotel. Highly
trained staff, French Cuisine, and luxurious appointed
rooms combined to give guests the finest hotel
experience available ever to that point in time.

Amenities offered by the Tremont House include in-room
water pitchers and free soap, that was considered
revolutionary.
D. Classification of Hotels


1.   According to Size:

     a. Small Scale (under 150 rooms)

     b. Medium Scale (150 to 299 rooms)

     c. Large Scale (300 and above)
2. According to Target Market:

      a.   Commercial Hotels
      b.   Airport Hotels
      c.   Suite Hotels
      d.   Residential Hotels
      e.   Resort Hotels
      f.   Bed and Breakfast Hotels
      g.   Time-Share and Condominium
      h.   Casino Hotels
      i.   Conference Centers
      j.   Convention Hotels
      k.   Alternative Lodging Properties
3. According to Levels of Service


         a. World-Class Service

                 b. Medium-Range Service

                          c. Economy / Limited Service
   4. According to Type of Ownership and
                   Affiliation


a. Independent
b. Chain Hotels
       - Management Contract
       - Franchise
5. Reasons for Traveling

   a.   Business Travel

           b. Pleasure Travel

                   c. Group Travel

                          d. Buying Influences
     6. According to Quality Ranking


a.   Deluxe

b.   First Class

c.   Standard

d.   Economy
7. According to Location

   a. Center City

   b. Suburban

   c. Resort

   d. Airport

   e. Highway
E. Hotel Organization


                  Mission Statement

      Defines the unique purpose that sets one hotel or hotel
   company apart from others. It expresses the underlying
philosophy that gives meaning and direction to hotel policies.
 A hotel’s mission statement should address the interests of
three diverse groups: guests, management, and employees.
                Objectives

         Are those ends an organization must
 achieve to effectively carry out its mission.
An objective is more specific than a mission;
 it calls for levels of achievement which can
           be observed and measured.
                               Goals
          Define the purpose of a department or division; they direct the
actions of managers and employees and the functions of the department
             or division towards fulfilling the hotel’s mission.




                            Strategies
            Are the methods a department or division plans to use to
                          achieve its goals.
           Organizational Chart
     A schematic representation of the relationships between
    positions within the organization. It shows where each
   position fits in the overall organization as well as where
divisions of responsibility and lines of authority lie. Solid lines
 on the chart indicate direct-line accountability. Dotted lines
      indicate relationships that involve a high degree of
   cooperation and communication, but not direct reporting
                           relationship.
              F. Classification of Functional Areas:

              Revenue vs. Support Centers


Revenue Centers - those that sells goods or services to guests,
thereby generating revenue for the hotel (front office, food and
beverage outlets, room service and retail stores).

Support Centers - these do not generate direct revenue, but provide
important backing for the hotel’s revenue centers (housekeeping,
accounting, engineering and maintenance, and human resources
division).
  Front-of-the-house vs. Back-of-the-house

Front-of-the-house - areas that involves guest and employee
interaction (front office, restaurants, and lounges).

Back-of-the-house - areas where interaction between guests
and employees is less common (housekeeping, engineering
and maintenance, accounting, and human resources).
               G. Hotel Divisions:
1.   Food and Beverage Division
2.   Sales and Marketing Division
3.   Accounting Division
4.   Engineering and Maintenance
5.   Security Division
6.   Human Resource Division
7.   Rooms Division
8.   Other Divisions:
              -Retail Outlets
              - Recreation
              - Casino
          Rooms Division
 The rooms division comprises departments
   and personnel essential in providing the
 services guests expect during a hotel stay.
In most hotels, the rooms division generates
     more revenue than other divisions.
Departments under Rooms Division:


  1.   Front Office Department

  2.   Housekeeping Department
The front office is the most visible department in a
                        hotel.

Front office personnel also have more contact with
   guests than staff in most other departments.

 The front desk is usually the focal point of activity
for the front office and is prominently located in the
                     hotel’s lobby.
            Functions of the front office:

Sell guestrooms, register guests, and assign guestrooms.
Coordinate guest services.
Provide information about the hotel, the surrounding community and
any attractions or events of interest to guests.
Maintain accurate room status information.
Maintain guest accounts and monitor credit.
Produce guest account statements, and complete proper financial
settlement.
           Sections under the
        Front Office Department:

Reservations

Communications                 (Private Branch
Exchange or PBX)

Uniformed Service
–   Bell Attendants
–   Door Attendants
–   Valet Parking Attendants
–   Transportation Personnel
–   Concierge

								
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