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History of Solar Power

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 21

  • pg 1
									  Presented by
 Nick Thompson
Derek Bowerman
   Carolyn Box
    Period 6
         History of Solar Power
• 2nd Century BC – Mirrors were first used to
  light torches
• 1770’s – The first solar ovens were used on
  expeditions to Africa
• 1860’s – Solar-powered steam engines are
  invented
• 1883 – Charles Fritts made the first solar cell
• 1950’s – The first silicon, modern, solar cells
  are made
           Use of Solar Energy
• produces heat (thermal)
  and light energy
• pool and water heating
  for homes and buildings
• produces electricity on
  a large scale
• PV (photovoltaic)
  systems connected to
  grid charge batteries
                    Solar Cell
• satellites - power
  electrical systems
• calculators
• landscaping – lights
• emergency road
  signs/call boxes
• parking lot lights
• buoys
                 Specific Uses
•   trolleys
•   busses
•   light rails
•   school
•   community hall
        Old v. New Solar power
Modern Solar Panels can:
•Can be 30% efficient compared to less then
10%
•Convent light directly into electricity
•Must cheaper and more widely used
               Estimated Cost
• $0.23 per kWh (1kWh is
  3.6 x 10^6 joules)
• = $6.38 x 10^-8 per
  joule
• = $6.38 x 10^-5 per kilo
  joule
• (1 BTU is 1055.05585
  joules)
• =$6.73 x 10^-5 per
  BTUs
                  Installation
• small, single PV system
  may cost $900 to install
  ($12 per watt)
• a system that covers all
  energy needs in a home
  may cost from $16,000
  to $20,000
• maintenance is usually
  unnecessary, and
  depends on damage
                    Efficiency
• typically warranted for
  25-30 years
• in states with more
  sunshine, a solar system
  that is a 5.3 kW grid
  could pay for itself in
  about 11 years in
  Georgia, and could also
  save about $1,590 in
  that time
Efficiency (cont.)
         • not more efficient than
           other sources (15%)
         • PV – 5-10%
         • hydro – 80%
         • wind – 42%
         • tidal – 25%
         • GEO – 100%
   Where Solar Power works best
An environment that is
- Hot
- Sunny
- Cloudless

Solar panels are often used in remote places off
  of the energy grid.
Effectiveness of Solar Power in the US
      Top 5 Solar Countries (2010)
•   1. Germany (9,785 MW)
•   2. Spain (3,386 MW)
•   3. Japan (2,633 MW)
•   4. United States (1,650 MW)
•   5. Italy (1,167 MW)
   Negative Environmental Effects
• It takes energy and fossil fuels to manufacture and
  transport solar energy components.
• A relatively large amount of land is required to satisfy
  energy needs per megawatt per square kilometer.
• Solar-Thermal power plants require a lot of cooling
  waters as well, making the resource problematic in
  some dry areas.
• There are potentially hazardous materials within
  photovoltaic solar cells that can damage the health
  of manufacturers, and even firefighters.
   – Hazards: arsenic, silicon dust, and cadmium.
     Positive Environmental Effects
• Solar Energy units create no new carbon emissions, sound or light
  pollution, or toxic wastes when being used to harvest energy.
• Small-Scale and dispersed energy sources are the most successful, as
  opposed to giant centralized energy facilities.
• Most negatives about this energy source can be easily countered or
  adapted to minimize all of the possible disadvantaged to switching to solar
  energy. Most negative environmental effects for this renewable energy
  source are indirect, anyway.
    – Land consumption is still less per unit than coal strip mining, and can be
      incorporated into urban areas, decreasing demand for new lands.
    – If the Solar energy manufacturing facilities are more dispersed and smaller
      scale, there isn’t as much of a concentrated need for coolant waters.
    – The amount of fossil fuels required to make solar panels is still less than the
      amount of fossil fuels needed to go on with current energy manufacturing
      resources.
    – Stricter health and safety codes and procedures allow for less error and
      danger to the workers who make the solar cells using hazardous materials,
      and the probability of a firefighter ever actually being damaged by the
      elements needed to make these panels in a rescue is very low.
The Future of Solar Energy
             • Some Developments are being
               made in how solar energy is going
               to be literally shaped. Scientists are
               playing around with different
               arrangements of the solar cells to
               optimize solar absorption, and
               adding even more efficiency to
               renewable resource.
             • Most new developments in solar
               research are in finding ways to
               make it more accessible to a greater
               number of income levels.
                – Markets are seeing dropped
                   prices per personal solar uses,
                   even though demand for them
                   has increased.
                – Government and local
                   incentives and initiatives have
                   also helped the efforts. (i.e.
                   Wisconsin)
       The Future of Solar Energy
• The dream is that renewable energy resources will
  eventually take over fossil fuel use as means of
  energy by working collectively.
   – There are no plans, currently, that will allow solar energy
     to create a new type of energy other than the kind it
     already creates now.
• Solar energy can be technologically applied to just
  about any energy need already including
  transportation, and habitation needs.
• The next step for solar energy will just be in making
  those feasible applications more efficient and
  available to more people.
                            Go Solar!
• Solar energy is one of the most environmentally
  friendly renewable energy resources out there.
   – Includes both active and passive solar
       energy systems.
• The sun’s life expectancy is somewhere
  between 5 and 7 billion years from now.
• Most of the materials required to make it are
  easily accessible, abundant, or inexpensive.
• The efficiency of solar modules is projected only
  to go up from today.
• The price of solar modules is projected only to
  go down from today.
• Solar panels are among the easiest to integrate
  into modern life.
• All that’s really needed is a little more interest
  and investment into the technology.
•   Used By Nick:
                                                          Sources
     – Zachary. (2010, July 27). 1bog. Retrieved from http://1bog.org/blog/top-10-countries-using-solar-power/

     –    Geographic variation in potential of rooftop residential photovoltaic electric power production in the united states. (2004, August).
          Retrieved from http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/html/FSEC-PF-380-04/graphs/average.htm

     – The history of solar. U.S. Department of Energy. DOI: www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pdfs/solar_timeline.pdf
•   Used By Derek:
     – Comparative Review of Alternative Energies . (n.d.). The Electronic Universe. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from
          http://zebu.uoregon.edu/1996/ph162/review.html
     – Are Solar Panels Cost Effective?. (n.d.). Share Knowledge & Earn Passive Income | Factoidz. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from
          http://factoidz.com/are-solar-panels-cost-effective/
     – Comparing Energy Costs of Nuclear, Coal, Gas, Wind and Solar. (2010, April 2). Nuclear Fissionary | clean—safe—reliable. Retrieved
          November 28, 2011, from http://nuclearfissionary.com/2010/04/02/comparing-energy-costs-of-nuclear-coal-gas-wind-and-solar/
     – Get Your Power From the Sun. (n.d.). Get Your Power From the Sun. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from
          www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35297.pdf
     – Solar Energy and it's Uses. (n.d.). Solar Energy and it's Uses. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://www.freesolaronline.com/
     – Uses of Solar Energy. (n.d.). Solar Energy: uses, benefits and future.. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://solarenergyworks.net/uses-
          of-solar-energy/
     – Uses of Solar Energy. (n.d.). Solarbuzz. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from solarbuzz.com/going-solar/using/uses
•   Used By Carolyn:
     – Brower, M. (2002, October 26). Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies | Union of Concerned Scientists. UCS:
          Independent Science, Practical Solutions | Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from
          http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/environmental-impacts-of.html
     – Haluzan, N. (2010, November 23). Solar energy environmental impact - Renewable Energy Articles. Energy Articles - Renewable Energy
          Articles. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://www.renewables-
          info.com/interesting_energy_articles/solar_energy_environmental_impact.html
     –     Hubbuch, C. (2011, November 27). Solar energy makes gains, but policy puts future in question. La Crosse Tribune - LaCrosse News Source.
          Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://lacrossetribune.com/news/local/solar-energy-makes-gains-but-policy-puts-future-in-
          question/article_bd696742-18a7-11e1-bf73-001cc4c03286.html
     –     Weir, B. (2011, November 22). The Future of Solar Power | This Could Be Big - Yahoo! News. Yahoo! News - Latest News & Headlines.
          Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/this-could-be-big-abc-news/future-solar-power-134303743.html

								
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