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					Scottish merchants founded the South Carolina Golf Club on September 29,
1786. (175)

In 1791, after the new state constitution permitted the practice of religion without
discrimination, St. Mary's Catholic Church and the Beth Elohim Congregation
were incorporated. By the end of the century, Charleston contained the largest
Jewish community in the nation. (179)

On June 13, 1795, a fire burned every house on Queen St., between Bay and
Church Streets. (184)

A majority of Charleston's summer residents were Episcopalians. Summer
residents were planters' families. Likewise, the majority of the merchants and
professionals was Episcopalian. (194)

For the plantations in the area, Charleston was the social capital. Planting
families generally stayed in town during the social season, extending from
January to March. The season included balls, races, cultural events, and
festivities of all kind. It was during this time that marriages took place. This same
population would return to town in May, to stay until fall, avoiding the heat and
"sickly season." (195-6)

In 1819, the New England Society of Charleston was organized among Northern
mill owners who bought cotton in Charleston. (197)

The Carolina Academy of Fine Arts was organized in 1821 by Samuel Morse and
local art patrons. (198)

It was not until after the Civil War that interracial marriage was forbidden in South
Carolina. (199)

Charleston's brown elite included 500 free mulattoes within a free A-A population
of 3000. Many of these free persons owned slaves themselves. This brown elite
was created on the basis of status, color, and wealth. (200)

The "Sugar House," on the corner of Magazine and Mazyck streets, was an
institution for slave correction. Payment of a fee by slave owners purchased
whipping by the workhouse keeper. In addition to straight flogging, the Sugar
House also possessed a treadmill on which slaves were required to walk, arms
tied above their heads, while drivers flogged them with a cat o' nine tails. While
city officials proclaimed the treadmill an improvement in racial control, Sarah
Grimke described it as a method of torture. (203)

Between 1820 and 1850, successful white merchants, professionals, and
planters sent their sons to Cristopher Coates' private boarding school. Their
daughters were polished at one of the "female academies," the best being the
French School for Young Ladies, or with private lessons in dancing and music.

Elite sons went to the South Carolina College in Columbia for their higher
education, while the College of Charleston stumbled along. (215)

By 1841, the St. Cecilia Society, having evolved into a social organization, was
holding its balls in Hibernian Hall. Even at this time, St. Cecilia's was considered
highly exclusive. (219)

The Citadel, the South Carolina Military Academy, was chartered by the state
legislature in 1842. (219)

The grandness of the private parties held during Charleston's social season can
be illustrated by a ball given by Mrs. Charles Alston in 1851. For 200 guests
there were "18 dozen plates, 14 dozen knives, 28 dozen spoons, 6 dozen
champagne glasses… 4 turkeys, 4 hams, 50 partridges, 12 pheasants, 22 ducks,
10 quarts of oysters, 4 pyramids of crystallized fruit and coconut, and 'immense
quantities' of bonbons, cakes, creams, and jellies." (229-231)

In 1860, during the secession crisis, Charleston police began a systematic
search of Charleston's free Black population. Of the 3,200 free blacks, 122
owned slaves. Those interrogated, who could not provide proof of their
emancipation were reenslaved. Even the mulatto aristocracy, including the
Ellisons, Johnsons, and Westons were hounded. (242)

The free black community sought to leave Charleston, and the trade class left,
selling businesses and property at great loss. However, the aristocracy, fearing
loss of careers, and other monetary situations, stayed in Charleston. (243)

Generally, Charleston trusted its free black community, even employing them as
firefighters in 1862 while fearing slave arsonists. (255)

The early years of the war did little to stop the festive social season, and in many
ways increased the number of parties. Officers were entertained at Fort Sumter,
Fort Moultrie, and Fort Pemberton, and were received at weddings, dinner
parties, and such in town. These officers were considered fine entertainment for
the young women of the aristocracy and upper merchant class. Some of the
slightly older ladies of the city were scandalized by the vulgarity of the wartime
social scene. (257)

By 1862, the war had affected very little the availability of items such as
champagne and fine party foods, and expensive clothing. This was the case for
Charleston's elite. The less fortunate classes found it increasingly difficult to
procure everyday items such as shoes, thanks to the blockade. (257)
When federal troops took James Island, June 2, 1862, Charleston panicked.
Along with many inhabitants, the bells of St. Michael's Church were evacuated to
Columbia. (258-9)

A Confederate deserter was executed by firing squad at Washington Race
Course in May of 1863. (262)

The black Union soldier was a particular affront to Charleston natives. It was
understood that no Negro prisoners were to be taken and the A-A regiments
suffered particularly heavy casualties. (263)

Lieutenant Colonel Bennett occupied the city of Charleston in February of 1865,
and quickly made a show of his 21st United States Colored Regiment, his other
black troops, and local African-Americans, whom he engaged to put out the
many fires burning in the city. The looting of unoccupied elite residences by white
officers and black troops, although forbidden by Union commanders, lives into
the 20th century in tales of the loss of family heirlooms. (270-1)

The A-A population remaining in Charleston welcomed the Union troops. A
ceremony was performed in Marion Square, March 3, 1865, in which 13 black
women, representing the original 13 colonies, presented Union commanders with
a flag, flowers, and a gift for Mrs. Lincoln. (271-2)

That same month (March 29, 1865), the was a great emancipation celebration in
Charleston. A parade, including band, the 21st U.S. Regiment, 4000 artisans and
tradesmen, and almost 2000 school children, marched through the city center.
       Artisans and tradesmen included firemen, sailors, and 50 butchers,
schoolteachers. At the end of the procession were two floats. The first bore an
auction block with an "auctioneer" selling two black women and their children.
The second float held a coffin and signs celebrating the death of slavery. (Rosen

The boom of the black population, mostly ex-slaves coming in from surrounding
plantations, and the increased visability of this population in public celebrations,
as well as black soldiers in the streets, served to greatly upset white
Charlestonians. (272)

Another example of the increased visibility of the free black population is the
desegregation of the Battery as a place of exercise and social interaction. (275)

The free brown elite continued to maintain their antebellum habits of deference to
the white aristocracy and rejection of the common free, now including the newly
freed. (274)
During a smallpox epidemic in 1865, the Freedmen's Bureau was kept busy
insuring care for the new black refugees in the city, particularly susceptible to the
outbreaks of disease. (274)

Just before the advent of A-A political forces in the state legislature, the all-white
leadership enacted a Black Code. (276) [link to document, Crossing Danger

The bells of St. Michael's survived a 1865 fire in Columbia, where they were sent
for safe-keeping. They were sent to England for recasting, and finally replaced in
St. Michael's in 1866. (282)

By 1867, Charleston's elite was again enjoying the city's ample social life: balls,
teas, debutante parties, weddings, and holiday events. 1868 was the occasion of
a great St. Patrick's Day celebration at Hibernian Hall. The Jockey Club returned
to racing at Washington Race Course. Segregated baseball leagues were
created in 1867. (284)

A-A Charlestonians reveled in Emancipation and Independence Day festivities.

In 1867, the U.S. Congress granted the vote to black males. (284)

1867 saw the appointment of a new group of city alderman, including six white
and seven black me. The A-A contingent were of the antebellum free brown elite.

The socially prominent brown elite, never more than 2% of Charleston's A-A
population, such as the Noisettes, McKinlays, and Holloways, began the
congregation of St. Mark's Protestant Episcopal Church, the building for which
was begun in 1875. (297)

Social organization of white Charlestonians was based on class (money) and
family. The elite's clubs included the St. Cecilia Society, the Charleston Club, the
Huguenot Society, and the Carolina Yacht Club. White citizens below the
aristocracy could choose from among the Emerald Social Club, the Annex Club,
and the Harmony Social Club. In addition to church organizations, A-A's had
fraternal orders such as the Masons, and social clubs such as the Mystic. (312)

Charleston's prominent white elite included the families of: DeSaussure,
Grimball, Heyward, Huger, Laurens, Manigault, Pringle, Ravenal, Rutledge, and
Vanderhorst. (312)

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