Battles of the Revolutionary War by KuxlGOk

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									  Battles of the
Revolutionary War


     Lexington-Concord,
     Bunker Hill, Trenton,
     Saratoga, Yorktown
              Cause and Effects
 Setting the Stage
  After Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty tossed 342 chests of
  tea into Boston Harbor during the Boston Tea Party in 1773,
  King George III had Parliament pass the Coercive Acts to
  punish the people of Massachusetts for their resistance.
 These harsh laws:
   – Closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for. No food or
     supplies could arrive.
   – Forbid town meetings, these were important forms of self
     government that the colonists felt was their right,
   – Made people shelter soldiers in their homes,
   – Any British Officer accused of crimes would have their trials in
     other colonies or in Britain instead of in Massachusetts.
 British troops in the town of Boston were using their warships
  to keep Boston harbor closed.
 This cut off trade, crippled the economy, and put colonists out
  of work.
 British soldiers and colonists often fought in the streets and in
  the taverns.
 People became public or secret supporters of one side or the
  other.
 Tensions came to a head on April 18, 1775, when British
  General Thomas Gage, appointed royal governor of
  Massachusetts, sent 700 British soldiers to Lexington and
  Concord to confiscate weapons and ammunition being
  gathered by the colonists.
               Lexington - Concord
 Some of the colonists, warned that
  the British were coming, were
  waiting in Lexington when the
  British arrived the next morning. To
  this day no one knows for sure who
  fired first, but a shot rang out. The
  British soldiers fired a volley into
  the colonial militia, killing eight men
  and wounding 10.
 The British then moved on to
  Concord where minutemen drove
  back three British infantry units
  guarding Concord’s North Bridge.
  On their retreat back to Boston
  they were peppered by patriot
  snipers. By the time the redcoats
  reached Boston, they had suffered
  273 casualties compared with fewer
  than 100 for the patriots.
 Engravings (pictures) in local newspapers incorrectly
  reported that the British, after attacking Lexington
  and Concord, raided and pillaged (robbed) property
  all the way back to Boston. That news enraged
  patriots throughout the colonies. Within 48 hours,
  militiamen from Connecticut, New Hampshire, and
  Massachusetts gathered in and around Cambridge,
  Massachusetts across the Charles River from
  Boston. The many differences that had separated
  the various colonies, including different religions,
  systems of government, and lifestyles, were
  forgotten for a greater cause.
 Slowly the different colonial armies placed themselves under
  Massachusetts’ command and became a New England army. By
  mid-June 1775, approximately 7,600 troops were camped in and
  around Cambridge, Mass.
 While the patriots were mobilizing, British General Gage tried to
  decide how best to deploy his 5,000 British regulars. He realized
  that whichever side could take control of the high ground around
  Boston would have the advantage in a battle. The British army
  set forth a plan to occupy the hills around Boston by late June.
 Fortunately for the patriots their leaders learned of the British
  plan and resolved that the colonial army should beat the British
  to the high ground by fortifying the hills of Charlestown.

                            Bunker ground
          Battle of in along the highHill of
    American troops are dug
    Breed's Hill (the actual location) and are attacked by a
    frontal assault of over 2000 British soldiers who storm up
    the hill. The Americans are ordered not to fire until they
    can see "the whites of their eyes." As the British get within
    15 paces, the Americans let loose a deadly volley of rifle
    fire and halt the British advance. The British then regroup
    and attack 30 minutes later with the same result. A third
    attack, however, succeeds as the Americans run out of
    ammunition and are left only with bayonets and stones to
    defend themselves. The British succeed in taking the hill,
    but at a loss of half their force, over a thousand casualties,
    with the Americans losing about 400, including important
    colonial leader, General Joseph Warren.

              Last try for peace
 July 5, 1775 - The
  Continental Congress
  adopts the Olive Branch
  Petition which expresses
  hope for a reconciliation
  with Britain, appealing
  directly to the King for
  help in achieving this. In
  August, King George III
  refuses even to look at
  the petition and instead
  issues a proclamation
  declaring the Americans
  to be in a state of open
  rebellion.
               Battle of Trenton
 The Battle of Trenton began on Christmas Day,
  December 1776, when General Washington's army was
  in a pitiful condition, and growing weaker. Troops were
  deserting, it was bitter cold and they lacked food, shoes
  and blankets.
 It was under these conditions that Washington made his
  famous crossing of the Delaware river. He had heard
  from a scout that the Hessians, (German mercenaries)
  were spending the evening relaxing and enjoying food
  and wine. Washington decided to cross at night and
  surprise them in the morning. So while the Hessians
  were enjoying their wine and song, the Continental Army
  was preparing to attack. The army silently advanced to
  the Delaware River. They crossed the icy Delaware eight
  miles north of Trenton and nine hours later 2400 men
  gathered around Washington to hear the order for the
  assault on Trenton.
       The famous crossing:
Washington and his army cross the Delaware River at
 night to attack the Hessian mercenaries at Trenton.
 The Hessians were sleeping at 8:00 a.m. when the
  Americans entered the City. Minutes later, Washington's
  army attacked - killing five Hessian officers, one non
  commissioned officer, and sixteen privates. There were
  918 prisoners taken to Newtown, Pennsylvania. Of the
  American losses, two soldiers supposedly froze to death,
  one or two American privates were wounded, and three
  officers were wounded, (including future president Lt.
  James Monroe).
Hessian mercenary soldiers
               Battle of Saratoga
 The first major American victory of the Revolutionary War
  as Gen. Horatio Gates and Gen. Benedict Arnold defeat
  Gen. Burgoyne, inflicting 600 British casualties. American
  losses are only 150.
 October 17, 1777 - After long negotiations, Gen. Burgoyne
  officially surrendered his 5700 man army on October 17.
  He was sent back to England in disgrace, and was never
  given another command.
 In Paris the victory is celebrated as if it had been a French
  victory. Ben Franklin is received by the French Royal Court.
  France then recognizes the independence of America and
  enters the war on the side of the patriots.
 Money and supplies flowed to the American cause,
  providing Washington's Continental Army with the support
  necessary to continue its fight against Great Britain.
                Victory at Saratoga !!
Britain's loss at Saratoga proved disastrous, in that it signaled to
the European powers that the rebels were capable of defeating the
English on their own. More than any other single event, it would
prove decisive in determining the eventual outcome of the War.
    The End is near !!- Yorktown
 August 1, 1781 - After chasing
  American Gen. Greene's army
  without success, British Gen.
  Cornwallis and his 10,000 tired
  soldiers seek rest at the port of
  Yorktown, Virginia.
 August 14, 1781 - Gen.
  Washington abruptly changes
  plans and abandons the attack
  on New York in favor of
  Yorktown after receiving a
  letter indicating a 29-ship
  French fleet with 3000 soldiers
  is now heading for the
  Chesapeake Bay near
  Cornwallis. Gen. Washington
  and Gen. Rochambeau rush
  their best troops south to
  Virginia to destroy the British
  position in Yorktown.
 August 30, 1781 - The French fleet arrives off Yorktown,
  Virginia. De Grasse then lands troops near Yorktown, linking
  with Lafayette's American troops to cut Cornwallis off from
  any retreat by land.
 September 5-8, 1781 - Off Yorktown, a major naval battle
  between the French fleet and the outnumbered British fleet
  results in a victory for the French. The British fleet retreats
  to New York for reinforcements, leaving the French fleet in
  control of the Chesapeake. The French fleet establishes a
  blockade, cutting Cornwallis off from any retreat by sea.
  French naval reinforcements then arrive from Newport.
 September 28, 1781 - Gen. Washington, with 17,000 men,
  begins the siege of Yorktown. French cannons bombard Gen.
  Cornwallis and his 9000 men day and night while the Allied
  lines slowly advance and encircle them. British supplies run
  dangerously low.
 October 17, 1781 - As Yorktown is about to be taken, the
  British send out a flag of truce and surrender.
 October 19, 1781 - As their band plays the tune, "The world
  turned upside down," the British army marches out in
  formation and surrenders. Hopes for a British victory in the
  war against America are gone. In the English Parliament,
  there will soon be calls to bring this long costly war to an end.
 October 24, 1781 – Ships with 7000 British reinforcements
  arrive but turn back on hearing of the surrender at Yorktown.
Battle of Yorktown
The British surrender!!!

								
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