Chapter 18 The 18th Century European States_ International Wars by ewghwehws


									  Chapter 18: The        18th

Century: European States,
 International Wars and
      Social Change
   Part 2: War and Diplomacy
            Thoughts on War
► Philosophes
   Foolish waste of live
► Balance of Power
► Expansion of Territory
► Goal of Diplomacy
   Protect what power they have
► “Reason   of State”
   Frederick II and William Pitt the Elder focus on
          International Rivalry and
► Taxes were needed to support military
► More government was needed to manage
► Armies mean war, not diplomacy
► Peace reigned from 1715 – 1740 for the
  most part
Charles VI and his daughter Maria Theresa
 War of Austrian Succession: set up

► Charles   VI (Habsburg) dies with no male
► Presses Europe to pass Pragmatic Sanction
  to allow Maria Theresa to inherit
► Fredrick II takes advantage, seizes Silesia
► France jumps in due to dislike of Austria
► Great Britain jumps in not wanted France to
  have to much power
 Fighting over Austrian Succession
► Europe
► India
   French took Madras from
    Great Britain
► North   America
   Great Britain captures
    Louisburg from France
► 1748 all are exhausted      ►   1748 all exhausted

► Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
   Everything back to
    original owners except
                Seven Years War
► Maria  Theresa is MAD!
► Sends Count Wenzel von Kaunitz to France to win
  their alliance away from Prussia

Team Maria Theresa   versus   Team Frederick II
► France                      ► Prussia
► Austria                     ► Great Brittan
► Russia
     Battles of Seven Years War
► Europe
   Team Fred wins big victory at Battle of Rossbach in
   Russia withdraws when Peter the Great takes over (he
    admires Frederick II)
► India
   Britain vs. France with GB winning due to persistence of
    Sir Robert Clive
► North   America
   William Pitt the Elder wants to crush French colonies
   Gulf of St. Lawrence and Ohio River Valley
   Both important Generals died
      End of Seven Years War
► Peace    of Hubertusburg 1763
   All territory returned to Austria except
   Silesia to Prussia (Austria agreed this time)
► Treaty   of Paris
   Great Britain gets Canada and West of
   Spain (ally of France) gave Florida to GB
   France gives Louisiana to Spain
European Armies and Warfare
              ► Larger,  professional
                and standing
              ► Ranks mirrored classes
              ► GB still used
              ► France and Austria had
                6 year terms
              ► Volunteer and pressed
  European Armies and Warfare
► Navies now seen as
  more important
► Major problems
   Scurvy
   Yellow fever
   Press gangs
► Not   more destructive
   Not fighting over ideologies
   More taxes = more respect for property
   Specific, limited objectives
► Procedures
   Maneuvering more important than brute force
    or size
   Set ways to withdraw without death or POW
   Building of fortresses and laying of sieges

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