The Rise of Romanticism

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					The Rise of Romanticism
    Through the Culture of the Arts
           From Neoclassicism to
-   A defining characteristic of the late 18th century
    was a renewed interest in classical antiquity.
-   The Enlightenment emphasized rationality and so
    the geometric harmony of classical art and
    architecture seemed to embody Enlightenment
-   Greece and Rome served as models for this time of
    political upheaval with their traditions of liberty,
    civic virtue, morality and sacrifice.
             Jacques-Louis David
   A neoclassical painter of the French Revolution and
    the Napoleonic Empire.
   David’s beliefs aligned with the Enlightenment
    belief that subject matter should have a moral and
    should be presented so that the “marks of heroism
    and civic virtue offered the eyes of the people will
    electrify its soul, and plant the seeds of glory and
    devotion to the fatherland.”
    Jacques-Louis David

Oath of the Horatti, 1784, oil on canvas, 11’x14’
        Jacques-Louis David

The Oath of the Tennis Court, 1791, Graphite, Ink,
Sepia, 2’ 1 ½” x 3’ 5 1/3”
             Jacques-Louis David

The Death of Marat, 1793, oil   The Pieta, Michelangelo,
on canvas, 5’3”x4’1”            1499, marble,
          Neoclassical Architecture

Jacques-Germain Soufflot, the        Pierre Vignon, La
Pantheon, Paris, France, 1755-1792   Madeleine, Paris, France,
       The Move to Romanticism
-Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas contributed to the rise
  of Romanticism.
  -Rousseau exclaimed that, “Man is born free, but is
  everywhere in chains!”
-So Romanticism emerged from a desire for freedom-
  not only political freedom, but also freedom of
  thought, of feeling, of action, of worship, of speech,
  and of taste, as well as all the other freedoms.
-Those who affiliated themselves with Romanticism
  believed that the path to freedom was through
  imagination rather than reason and functioned
  through feeling rather than through thinking.
     Characteristics of Romanticism

   emotions – passion – irrationality
   the dreamer – the individual
   the power and fury of nature
   the danger of science
   the dehumanization of man through technology
   country life = best kind of life
   romanticization of middle ages
   the exotic, occult and macabre (dreams, death)
   nationalism
   interest in foreign lands and cultures
   renewed interest in Christian mysteries and mysticism
            Henry Fuselli

The Nightmare, 1781, oil on canvas, 3’4”x4’2”
William Blake

      Ancient of Days,
      frontispiece of Europe: A
      Prophecy, 1794, metal
      relief etching, hand
      colored, 9 ½”x 6 3/4”
Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes

                                         The Third of May 1808, 1814,
                                         oil on canvas
The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters,
1798, etching & aquatint

Saturn Devouring His
Children, 1819-1823, Detail of
a detached fresco on canvas
             Theodore Gericault

                                     Insane Woman,
Raft of the Medusa, 1818-1819, oil   1822-1823, oil on
on canvas                            canvas
               Eugene Delacroix

Paganini, 1831, oil on    The Death of Sardanapalus, 1826,
cardboard on wood panel   oil on canvas
          Eugene Delacroix

Liberty Leading the People, 1830, Oil on Canvas
           Romanticism in Sculpture

                                 Antoine-Louis Barye, Jaguar
                                 Devouring a Hare, 1850-1851,

Francois Rude, La Marseillaise, Arc de
Triomphe, Paris, France, 1833-1836
       Imagination and Mood in
         Landscape Painting
-The 18th century artists had regarded the
  pleasurable, aesthetic mood natural landscapes
  inspired as the making the landscape itself
  picturesque or “worthy of being painted”.
-The Romantic artists rather than provide simple
  descriptions of nature, poets and artist used
  nature as an allegory.
      -They commented on spiritual, moral, historical, or
  philosophical issues.
            Caspar David Friedrich

Cloister Graveyard in the Snow, 1810, oil on
Joseph Mallord William Turner

  The Slave Ship, 1840, oil on canvas
              Thomas Cole

The Oxbow (View from Mt. Holyoke, Northhampton,
 Mass., after a Thunderstorm, 1836, Oil on canvas
                             John Nash, Royal
                            Pavillion, Brighton,
                            England, 1815-1818

 Joseph Paxton, Crystal
Palace, London, England,
1850-1851, iron and glass
Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin, Houses of
   Parliament, London, England, 1835
Literature Match-up
Romantic Poets    Romantic Literary Ideas
 Coleridge        Defies definition BUT emphasizes

 Wordsworth        living life according to one’s own
 Byron
                   Focuses on the need for a return to
 Schlegel
                    a childlike state of being
 Goethe
                   Highlights social issues of his day

                   Rejection of old traditions and
                    supporter of personal liberty
Romantic Poetry    Imagination = God at work in the
  – English         mind
Madame de Staël
   Daughter of Jacques
   Read primary
    document on pg. 600
    and discuss bolded
Early Romantic Music
   Musical periods are
    always a little behind
    those of art and
    literature – SO the
    music of the late 18th
    century is referred to
    as Classical (i.e.
    Mozart) or Early
    Romantic (i.e.

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