"The Rise of Romanticism"
The Rise of Romanticism Through the Culture of the Arts From Neoclassicism to Romanticism - A defining characteristic of the late 18th century was a renewed interest in classical antiquity. - The Enlightenment emphasized rationality and so the geometric harmony of classical art and architecture seemed to embody Enlightenment details. - Greece and Rome served as models for this time of political upheaval with their traditions of liberty, civic virtue, morality and sacrifice. Jacques-Louis David A neoclassical painter of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire. David’s beliefs aligned with the Enlightenment belief that subject matter should have a moral and should be presented so that the “marks of heroism and civic virtue offered the eyes of the people will electrify its soul, and plant the seeds of glory and devotion to the fatherland.” Jacques-Louis David Oath of the Horatti, 1784, oil on canvas, 11’x14’ Jacques-Louis David The Oath of the Tennis Court, 1791, Graphite, Ink, Sepia, 2’ 1 ½” x 3’ 5 1/3” Jacques-Louis David The Death of Marat, 1793, oil The Pieta, Michelangelo, on canvas, 5’3”x4’1” 1499, marble, Neoclassical Architecture Jacques-Germain Soufflot, the Pierre Vignon, La Pantheon, Paris, France, 1755-1792 Madeleine, Paris, France, 1807-1842 The Move to Romanticism -Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas contributed to the rise of Romanticism. -Rousseau exclaimed that, “Man is born free, but is everywhere in chains!” -So Romanticism emerged from a desire for freedom- not only political freedom, but also freedom of thought, of feeling, of action, of worship, of speech, and of taste, as well as all the other freedoms. -Those who affiliated themselves with Romanticism believed that the path to freedom was through imagination rather than reason and functioned through feeling rather than through thinking. Characteristics of Romanticism emotions – passion – irrationality the dreamer – the individual the power and fury of nature the danger of science the dehumanization of man through technology country life = best kind of life romanticization of middle ages the exotic, occult and macabre (dreams, death) nationalism interest in foreign lands and cultures renewed interest in Christian mysteries and mysticism Henry Fuselli The Nightmare, 1781, oil on canvas, 3’4”x4’2” William Blake Ancient of Days, frontispiece of Europe: A Prophecy, 1794, metal relief etching, hand colored, 9 ½”x 6 3/4” Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes The Third of May 1808, 1814, oil on canvas The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, 1798, etching & aquatint Goya Saturn Devouring His Children, 1819-1823, Detail of a detached fresco on canvas Theodore Gericault Insane Woman, Raft of the Medusa, 1818-1819, oil 1822-1823, oil on on canvas canvas Eugene Delacroix Paganini, 1831, oil on The Death of Sardanapalus, 1826, cardboard on wood panel oil on canvas Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading the People, 1830, Oil on Canvas Romanticism in Sculpture Antoine-Louis Barye, Jaguar Devouring a Hare, 1850-1851, Bronze Francois Rude, La Marseillaise, Arc de Triomphe, Paris, France, 1833-1836 Imagination and Mood in Landscape Painting -The 18th century artists had regarded the pleasurable, aesthetic mood natural landscapes inspired as the making the landscape itself picturesque or “worthy of being painted”. -The Romantic artists rather than provide simple descriptions of nature, poets and artist used nature as an allegory. -They commented on spiritual, moral, historical, or philosophical issues. Caspar David Friedrich Cloister Graveyard in the Snow, 1810, oil on canvas Joseph Mallord William Turner The Slave Ship, 1840, oil on canvas Thomas Cole The Oxbow (View from Mt. Holyoke, Northhampton, Mass., after a Thunderstorm, 1836, Oil on canvas Architecture John Nash, Royal Pavillion, Brighton, England, 1815-1818 Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London, England, 1850-1851, iron and glass Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London, England, 1835 Literature Match-up Romantic Poets Romantic Literary Ideas Coleridge Defies definition BUT emphasizes Wordsworth living life according to one’s own Byron terms Focuses on the need for a return to Schlegel a childlike state of being Goethe Highlights social issues of his day Rejection of old traditions and supporter of personal liberty Romantic Poetry Imagination = God at work in the – English mind German Madame de Staël Daughter of Jacques Necker Read primary document on pg. 600 and discuss bolded questions Early Romantic Music Musical periods are always a little behind those of art and literature – SO the music of the late 18th century is referred to as Classical (i.e. Mozart) or Early Romantic (i.e. Beethoven)