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             Expediting Comprehension for
              English Language Learners

                                    Margarita Calderón
                                       Ana Bishop
                       Margarita Calderón and Associates

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  ExC-ELL                               Research & Strategies

    • What the research says about
      teaching ELLs.
    • ExC-ELL – RIGOR – vocabulary
    • Importance of student-student
      interaction and interaction
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                             The New York Carnegie Corporation
  ExC-ELL                       Goal for ExC-ELL (2003-2008)

                                        Research-based & evidence
        Collaboratively develop,         based program for ELLs
        implement, and refine a
        staff development
        program and instructional
        design for middle and
        high school teachers of
        English, science, and
        social studies who have
        learners (ELLs) in their

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 Middle School 319 # 1
  in New York City for
 most improvement!!!

  Formed from a phased out school 3 years ago;
  now met AYP; now honored as the best middle
  school in New York City. This year, higher!
        Has both ExC-ELL and RIGOR.


   RIGOR Study in 17
    middle and high
   schools with SIFE

  Students did so well, New York City schools
  gave 30 more schools grants to implement the
  program. New pilot in 3 schools with special
  education ELLs.

                                   Why is Content Area Literacy
  ExC-ELL                             Important for ELLs?

    Without reading instruction on content area literacy:
        Literal comprehension; students read on their own and answer
        questions; questions are low-level.

    With reading instruction integrated into content areas:
        Critical comprehension; students learn new vocabulary
        continuously; associate new readings with prior knowledge; add new
        knowledge, discuss ideas, interpret facts and information, and apply
        critical thinking skills to text.

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                                 Key: Teach Vocabulary
  ExC-ELL                 Before, During & After Students Read

    • Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading
    • Reading comprehension correlates with procedural
      and content knowledge.
    • Content knowledge correlates with academic success.
    • Comprehension depends on knowing between 90%
      and 95% of the words in text. [OSMOSIS EXAMPLE]
    • Knowing words means explicit instruction not just
      exposure. Students need 12 production
      opportunities to own a word.

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                      IN THE PAST…



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                         BASED ON CURRENT RESEARCH,
                           ELLs NEED A BALANCE OF

                           ESL               Depth of

                     SHELTERED            Reading & Writing
                    INSTRUCTION          in Content Domains

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  ExC-ELL                   Schools Need Integration of Content,
                                  Language and Literacy

                     A                                      GRAMMAR,
                     C            Depth & Breadth of
                     A                 WORD
                     D              KNOWLEDGE
                     I          RICH LANGUAGE             WRITING IN THE
                     C        Practice in all subjects      DIFFERENT
                                                          SUBJECT AREAS
                                  PHONOLOGICAL             READING
                     J             & SEMANTIC            COMPREHESION
                     E              AWARENESS

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                                        Semantic Awareness

     Semantic Awareness is a cognitive, metacognitive,
     affective, and linguistic stance toward words.

     It is a mindset that word consciousness involves
     motivating and showing students how important it is to be
     learning words.

     Students who are word conscious are aware of the power
     of words they read, hear, write and speak.

     Semantic awareness helps students become more skillful
     and precise in word usage at many levels of complexity
     and sophistication.
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  ExC-ELL                         Put Your Heads Together

                Check the 3 things you      IMPLICATIONS for our
                listed under the K:         text books and instruction:




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                                        A Framework for Academic

       What is academic language?
       What is academic vocabulary?
       How do we select and teach

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  ExC-ELL                               Academic Language:
       For formal discourse between
        teacher-student and student-student
        interaction around standards/goals.
       For text comprehension.
       For formal writing.
       For success in tests.
       For academic and economic
        status.(Calderón, in press)
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  ExC-ELL                    Academic Language Framework:

        Words associated with concepts in core
         subjects, as well all the words in a
         sentence that nest those concepts;
        Formal syntax/grammar that nest those
         concepts and words;
        Words/phrases used for understanding,
         explaining, discussing, reading and
         writing concepts in math, science, social
         studies, and language arts texts and tests.
           (Calderón, 2007; in press)

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  ExC-ELL                      Multiple Perspectives/Interfaces

        Examples of Language Functions
    Prediction         Enumeration
    Identification     Classification
    Interpretation     Comparison/Contrast
    Explanation        Definition
    Organization       Inference/hypothesis

    Retelling                           Summarization

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  ExC-ELL                      Multiple Perspectives/Interfaces

              Reading Comprehension
      Predict              Visualize
      Determine important Make inferences
      Ask & answer         Monitor
      questions            comprehension
      Make connections     Summarize

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  ExC-ELL                      Multiple Perspectives/Interfaces

        Examples of Writing Text Structures
      Description         Cause and effect

      Sequence                          Problem solution

      Compare and                       Summarize

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  ExC-ELL                               Academic Language:
       words words words words words words wor words words   words

       words                                                 words

                       Writing              Functions &

       words         Conventions             Discourse
       words         & Skillsures                            words
       words                  Reading                        words
       words                Strategies &                     words
       words                   Skills                        words
        words words words words words words words words words
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  ExC-ELL                Multiple Applications of Words

    Text structure                  Writing strategy   Signal words
    Problem –                       • problems are     accordingly, answer,
    solutions                       identified and     as a result, because,
                                                       challenge, decide,
                                    solutions are      fortunately, if ___then,
                                    provided           issue, one reason is,
                                    • supporting       outcome is, problem,
                                    details describe   so, solution, the
                                    the problem and    problem is solved by,
                                                       therefore, thus,
                                    solution           unfortunately, trouble

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  ExC-ELL                               Vocabulary Mastery

                    APPROPRIATE USE IN WRITING

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  ExC-ELL                    Identify and Classify Vocabulary:

       Selecting words to teach before, during, and
         after reading:
       1. Select Tiers 1, 2, & 3 from students’ texts.
       2. From your explanations, for class experiments,
          demonstrations you will present to them.
       3. From instructional activities, for class
          discussions during and/or after reading.
       4. For the oral and written summaries of what they
          have learned.
       5. From and for assessments.

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  ExC-ELL                     Criteria for Selecting Words to Teach

     It is critically important to the discipline.

     It is critically important to this unit.

     It is important to the understanding of the

     It is not critical but useful for ELLs.

     It is not useful at this time.

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  ExC-ELL                                Tier 3 academic content specific

                Math                    Science       Social
         Square root               Photosynthesis Government
         Rectangle                 Germ           Bylaws
         Radical                   Atom           Bailout
         Circumference             Matter          Congressional
         Pi square                 Osmosis         Capital
         Power                     Power           Power

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  ExC-ELL                               TIER 2

    Tier 2 words can also include polysemous words
    across academic content areas:
                       • solution       • power
                       • table          • cell
                       • divide         • right
                       • prime          • radical
                       • round          • leg
                       • trunk          • left
                       • state

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  ExC-ELL                               Tier 2 idioms and phrasal clusters

            • Run off                             • Long noun
            • Run away                            • Relatively
            • Break a leg                           easier
            • Once in a                           • Stored
              while                                 energy
            • Complete                            • Stimulus

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  ExC-ELL                               TIER 2
   Tier 2 words nest academic content through transition Words,
   Connectors, Causation, Time Sequencing, Predictions.
   Some examples:

   Cause & Effect -- because, due to, as a result, since, for
   this reason, therefore, in order to, so that, thus…
   Contrast -- or, but, although, however, in contrast,
   nevertheless, on the other hand, while…
   Addition or Comparison -- and, also, as well as, in
   addition, likewise, moreover, by the way…
   Giving examples -- for example, for instance, in
   particular, such as…

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                                    Vocabulary Tiers for ELLs:
                                    Specificity & Sophistication

                      Tier 1                Tier 2
                      run                   sprinted
                      fell                  stumbled
                      mad                   rage
                      good                  amazing

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  ExC-ELL                         Cognates -Tier 1 and 2

                                    • piano
                                    • educación
                                    • familia
                                    • radio
                                    • cámara
                                    • televisión
                                    • sofisticada

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  ExC-ELL                                     Tiers 2 & 3 Cognates

       •   Literature = literatura
       •   Context = contexto
       •   Multisyllabic = multisilábico
       •   Osmosis = osmosis
       •   Irony = ironía
                                        False Cognates
       •   Library ≠ librería (bookstore) = (biblioteca)
       •   Story ≠ historia (history) = (cuento)
       •   Exit ≠ éxito (success) = (salida)
       •   Success ≠ suceso (event) = (éxito)
       •   Character ≠ carácter (personality) = (personaje)

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              When teachers are explaining/presenting a
              lesson, look out for homophones such as:

                      sum               some
                      cell              sell
                      weather           whether
                      facts             fats
                      axis              exes

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                               Tier 2 information processing words
  ExC-ELL                      for the 7th-8th State exams and texts

        absence, accuracy, additive, effect,
        affect, allow, apparent, approach,
        arrange, assortment, assumption,
        basis, bases, behavior, belief, body,
        boundary, core, criteria, crucial,
        depict, deplete, device, display, distinct,
        generate, impact, illustrate…

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  ExC-ELL                               Tier 1 for ELLs

        Simple words that mainstream English
        speakers knows but might create difficulty
        for ELLs due to:
            • Spelling
            • Pronunciation
            • Background knowledge
            • Unfamiliar word
            • False cognate

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  ExC-ELL                               Reading to Learn

    • English language learners (ELLs) are learning
      English at the same time they are studying core
      content through English. They must perform
      double the work of native speakers to keep up,
      and at the same time be accountable for AYP
        (Carnegie Panel on ELL Literacy, 2006).

    • Without explicit instruction on vocabulary and
      reading in each subject area, students cannot
      learn math, science, social studies and literature
        (NRC Commission on Teacher Preparation, in press).

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  ExC-ELL                               A Queen’s Wish

           One gray winter day the elderly queen
           summoned all her grandchildren to the castle.
           “I have been fortunate to have lived a long life,”
           she said. “But in time your generation will rule
           the country. You must work persistently to
           help the people and take care of the land.

           “We will always work hard,” the children replied.

           “You must also be faithful to your brothers and
           sisters, no matter what,” the queen said.

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  ExC-ELL                        Vocabulary Tiers for ELLs

         Tier 1                     Tier 2             Tier 3
         Simple                     Process, Idioms,   Content Words,
         Words                      Sophisticated      Key vocabulary

         wish                       rule               summoned
         gray                       take care          fortunate
         queen                      replied            generation
         castle                     no matter what     persistently
                                    elderly            faithful

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  ExC-ELL                     Explicit Instruction in Vocabulary

        STEP 1

        OF ANY TEXT.

        STEP 2


        STEP 3


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  ExC-ELL                 Vocabulary TIERS (Tears?) for ELLs

       Homophones are words that
                  - sound the same
                  - but are spelled differently
                  - and have different meanings (too, two, to)
       Polysemous words (or homonyms) are those that
                  - sound alike
                  - are spelled alike
                  - but have different meanings (trunk, trunk, etc.)

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                                        Summary of
                               Vocabulary Tiers 1, 2, 3 For ELLs

       TIER 1 -- Basic words ELLs need to communicate,
       read, and write. Those that should be taught.

       TIER 2 -- Information processing words that nest Tier 3
       words in long sentences, polysemous words, transition
       words, connectors; more sophisticated words for rich
       discussions and specificity in descriptions.

       TIER 3 -- Subject-specific words that label content
       discipline concepts, subjects, and topics. Infrequently
       used academic words.

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                 For your tiers, find examples of:

                                        HOMOPHONES              MULTI-

                                        WORD TYPES                  SUFFIXES
                                         AND PARTS

              POLYSEMOUS                                      PREFIXES
                WORDS                      IDIOMS
                                          Margarita Calder溶

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                                        Your Turn!

        Select 3 words for each tier -
       (Tier 1, 2, 3) from the text slide.

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                      Your Tier 1, 2, 3 Words
                   Tier 1               Tier 2   Tier 3

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ExC-ELL           A Change in Climate

 From one day to the next, weather can have a big
 effect on your life. When it rains, you have to stay
 indoors or carry an umbrella. When it's cold, you
 have to bundle up.
 Over the course of hundreds, thousands, and
 millions of years, weather trends affect life on
 Earth in more dramatic ways. Ice ages or long
 droughts, for example, can wipe out certain types
 of plants and animals. Although many species
 manage to survive such extreme, long-term
 climate shifts, their living conditions also change.
  ExC-ELL                           Do I know this word?

   Receptive oral: words we understand when we hear them.
   Productive oral: words we use well.
   Receptive reading: words we can “read fluently.”
   Productive reading: words we can read and comprehend.
   Receptive written: words we know how to read, spell, have
   an inkling about, but do not use in our own writing.
   Productive written: words we can use in our writing for
   different genre.

            Receptive Productiv         Receptiv   Productiv   Receptiv    Productive
            Oral      e                 e          e           e writing   writing
                      Oral              Reading    Reading
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  ExC-ELL                        Pre-Teaching Vocabulary

   1. Teacher says the word.
   2. Teacher asks students to repeat the word 3 times.
   3. Teacher states the word in context from the text.
   4. Teacher provides the dictionary definition(s).
   5. Teacher explains meaning with student-friendly
   6.  Engages students in activities to develop
      word/concept knowledge.
   7. Teacher highlights grammar, spelling, polysemy,
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  ExC-ELL                   Teaching Concepts/Vocabulary

        1.     Teacher says the word.          1.   Weather can have a big
        2.     Teacher states the word in           effect on your life.
               context from the text.          2.   Say effect 3 times.
        3.     Teacher provides the            3.   The result or consequence
               dictionary definition(s).            of something.
        4.     Explains meaning with           4.   Influence, or the power to
               student-friendly definitions.        make something happen.
        5.     Asks students to repeat the     5.   Two cups of coffee in the
               word 3 times.                        morning have a big effect
        6.     Engages students in                  on me -- I can’t sleep at
               activities to develop                night!
               word/concept knowledge.         6.   What has had a big effect
        7.     Highlights features of the           on your life recently? TTYP
               word: polysemous, cognate,      7.   How do we spell effect?
               tense, prefixes, etc.                What other word is similar?

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  ExC-ELL                               Teaching Vocabulary

    1.    Teacher selects the word and        1.   Over the course of hundreds
          sentence from the text.                  of years, weather trends affect
    2.    Provides the dictionary                  life on Earth in more dramatic
          definition.                              ways.
    3.    Explains meaning with               2.   [verb] To influence or change
          student-friendly definitions.            someone or something.
    4.    Provides examples in contexts       3.   Jason’s accident affected him
          other than the one in the text.          badly.
    5.    Asks students to repeat the         4.   [adjective] False and
          word 3 times.                            unnatural.
    6.    Engages students in activities      5.   Jena’s affected voice makes
          to develop word knowledge.               her sound like she’s acting.
    7.    Highlights features of the          6.   Use the word as a verb and as
          word: polysemous, cognates,              an adjective.

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  ExC-ELL                   Teaching Concepts/Vocabulary

    1.    Teacher selects the word/concept     1.   Antarctica is a very cold continent.
          from the text.                       2.   Any one of the seven large
    2.    Gives dictionary definition to the        continuous land masses that
          students.                                 constitute most of the dry land on
    3.    Explains meaning with student-            the surface of the earth.
          friendly definitions or visuals.     3.   Point to Antarctica on the globe
    4.    Provides examples in contexts             and indicate it is a continent.
          other than the one in the text.      4.   Name and point to the other
    5.    Asks students to repeat the word 3        continents.
          times.                               5.   Ask students to say the word 3
    6.    Engages students in activities to         times.
          develop word/concept knowledge.      6.   Ask students to show you the
    7.    Highlights features of the word:          continent they are currently in, and
          polysemous, cognate, tense,               which continent their relatives
          prefixes, etc.                            have come from.
                                               7.   Is continent a cognate with your

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  ExC-ELL                     More Examples for Step #6

    Question, Reasons, Examples             Making Choices & Review
    • If you are studying for a test, you   • What would you do - feel fortunate
      need to do it persistently. What        or feel unfortunate if you:
      else do you need to do                      – won a million dollars?
                                                  – had to clean somebody
                                                    else’s mess?
    •   Say faithful if it applies:
                                                  – got a hug from your favorite
         – A cat who always comes
           home before dark.                        movie star?
         – A brother who takes care of            – were told you had 3 months
           his sister.                              of vacation?
         – A girl who has 3 boyfriends.     • Applaud if you’d like to be
         – You provide an example for         described by the word: faithful,
           us.                                stubborn, awesome, awkward,
                                              impish, stern, illuminated.

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  ExC-ELL                               Ejemplos del paso #6

      Un sólo contexto para                    Mismo formato
        todas las palabras                      Si un perro estuviera
       Enséñame como sería un                   portándose amenazador,
        inmenso plato de                         ¿lo acariciaría usted o se
        espagueti?                               alejaría de él? ¿por qué?
       Si te lo comes todo y te                Si usted quisiera ver algo
        sientes incomodo, ¿cómo                  exquisito, ¿iría a un museo
        te verías?                               o a una tienda de
       Enséñame como te verías                  alimentos? ¿por qué?
        comiéndolo lentamente.                  ¿Cuál animal puede hacer
       Enséñame como te verías                  un gruñido, un pez o un
        comiéndolo                               león? ¿por qué?

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  ExC-ELL                                   Supports for Tier 1, 2, 3

            Sensory                     Graphic                           Interactive
            Supports                    Supports                          Supports
            • Real-life objects         • Charts                          • Pairs
              (realia)                  • Graphs                          • Triads
            • Manipulatives             • Tables                          • Foursomes
            • Pictures &                • Timelines                       • Whole group
              photographs               • Graphic                         • Cooperative
            • Illustrations,              organizers                        learning strategies
              diagrams &                • Number lines                    • Internet or
              drawings                                                      software
                                        • Maps
            • Physical activities                                           programs
                                        • Smartboards
            • Videos & films                                              • Use of native
            • Broadcasts                Adapted from M. Gottlieb et al.     language
            • Models & figures            (2007) WIDA Proficiency
                                                                          • Peer coaches

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            Your Turn to Teach Us!
    Prepare to teach a Tier 1 word using a support
   from the previous page.
   Prepare to teach a Tier 2 or 3 word using the 7
   Teach it to us – role play as if we were your
   students (3 minutes max).

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                              Come up with a long
                             sophisticated complete
                            sentence using the word

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                                 After Reading Strategy:
                                  Polysemous S.E.E.D.

                                        Sentence with word   Explain or define
     S: Sentence with word

     E: Explain or define

     E: Examples
                                        Examples             Drawing
     D: Draw

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                        Vocabulary Activities!
                                          Word sorts
                      Kidspiration, wordshift.com, etc.
                                Cooperative Learning
                                        Inquiry projects

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  ExC-ELL                               Sample Schedule
   Distribution of Vocabulary Instruction, Review & Assessment

                                                              Word                Test
                                                             analysis,             &
                                                               C. L.           paragraphs

          Homework: Bring affixes; word families, long sentences using 3 or more words.

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              Before Reading Science, Math, Social
                  Studies, and Language Arts
       • Hook the Reader
       • Build Background
       • Connect with Prior Knowledge
       • Pre-teach Vocabulary Explicitly
       • Preview Text with Students
       • Set Purpose for Reading

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ExC-ELL           A Change in Climate

 From one day to the next, weather can have a big
 effect on your life. When it rains, you have to stay
 indoors or carry an umbrella. When it's cold, you
 have to bundle up.
 Over the course of hundreds, thousands, and
 millions of years, weather trends affect life on
 Earth in more dramatic ways. Ice ages or long
 droughts, for example, can wipe out certain types
 of plants and animals. Although many species
 manage to survive such extreme, long-term
 climate shifts, their living conditions also change.

There's lots of evidence of drastic changes in climate
occurring in the distant past. Earth today may again
be in the midst of such a climate change. In the last
100 years, studies show, global temperatures have
risen an average of 0.6 degrees C.

That might not sound so bad. After all, what
difference does half a degree make?

A growing number of studies suggest, however, that
such an increase could have a big impact on life.

  ExC-ELL                        ASSESSMENT & WRITING

    The ultimate proof -- at the end of each
    Write one or two paragraphs
     summarizing what you learned about
     _______________ using as many tier 2
     and tier 3 words as you have learned.
     Use appropriate connectors, transition
     or signal words. Use compound
     sentences or different types of clauses.

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                             Vocabulary/Language Progressions

       How do your students progress through the
       different proficiency levels?
       Does their vocabulary progress in the 4 language
       domains – listening, speaking, reading, writing?
       Does their vocabulary progress in the 4 core
       subjects – math, science, social studies, language
       Is their academic language differentiated and
       targeted for each proficiency level and range of
       schooling background?

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•   Clear your desks.
•   Only one paper and pencil.
•   Each student writes one answer and passes the paper to
    the right.
•   Everyone must write an answer.
•   Continue this process until the teacher calls time out.

•   Count the number of correct responses by your team.
    Delete repeated words and report your numbers


• Write a key word from
   the text and pass the paper.
• Keep writing one word at a time until
  time is up.
• The words must be Tier 2 or 3.


  ExC-ELL                               Corners

      •    Count 1 to 3
      •    Numbers 1 go to one corner, #s 2 to another, and so
      •    Form triads, groups of three.
      •    Timed Team Share (30 seconds each): First student
           answers question, next student adds to the answer,
           next student does the same, process continues
           (90 seconds).

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  ExC-ELL                               Corners

      • Why is vocabulary important?
      • Name the 7 steps for teaching
      • Define Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3
      • Mystery question …

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                              Thank you!

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