Land Use Planning by ynMLZ1UQ

VIEWS: 31 PAGES: 44

									    Chapter 13
Land-Use Planning




                    1
•   Need for Planning           Outline
•   Historical Forces
•   Rural to Urban Shift
•   Urban Sprawl
    – Contributing Factors
    – Problems with Unplanned Growth
• Land-Use Planning Principles
    – Urban Planning Issues
    – Smart Growth
• Federal Government Land Use Issues      2
           The Need For Planning
• Between 1/3 - 1/2 world’s surface altered
  by humans.
  – Most land-use decisions are still based
    primarily on economic considerations or short-
    term needs rather than on unique analysis of
    the landscape.
  – Once land has been converted to intensive
    human use, it is generally unavailable for other
    uses.
                                                       3
                  Historical Forces That
               Shaped Land Use in North
                                America
• Land Use in the United States:
  – 47% - Crops and livestock
  – 45% - Forests and natural areas
  – 5% - Intensive human use
    • Differs greatly from original conditions experienced
      by immigrants from New World.



                                                             4
                  Historical Forces That
               Shaped Land Use in North
                                America
• First U.S. colonists converted landscape to
  farming, and then to towns and cities.
• Waterways provided primary method of
  transportation.
  – Allowed exploration and development of
    commerce.
  – Early towns usually built near water and at
    transfer points between water systems.
                                                  5
Water and Urban Centers




                          6
                   Rural to Urban Shift
• North America remained essentially rural
  until industrial growth began in last 1/3 of
  1800’s.
• Industrial Revolution
  – Industrial jobs to be found in cities.
• European Immigrants
  – Congregated in, and subdivided cities.
     • Offered variety of cultural, social, and artistic
       opportunities.
                                                           7
   Migration from Central City to
                    the Suburbs
• Industrial Revolution led to polluted,
  undesirable waterways.
  – As roads and rail transport became more
    common, many left the waterway areas.
     • Agricultural land surrounding towns was converted
       to housing.
        – Land began to be viewed as a commodity, not as a non-
          renewable resource to be managed.

                                                                  8
                        Suburb Migration
• As land prices in the city rose, people
  began to look for cheaper areas away from
  the city.
  – 1950 - 60% urban population lived in central
    cities.
  – 1990 - 30% urban population lived in central
    cities.


                                                   9
Rural-to-Urban Population Shift




                              10
                         Suburb Migration
• Convenience and personal automobiles
  escalated decentralized housing patterns
  and diminished importance of mass transit.
  – Decreased energy efficiency.
  – Increased cost of supplying utility services.




                                                    11
                      Suburb Migration
• Urban Sprawl - Pattern of un-planned low
  density housing and commercial
  development outside of cities.
  – Land-Use Practices:
    • Zoning ordinances that isolate employment and
      shopping services away from housing locations.
    • Low-density planning aimed at creating automobile
      access to increasing expanses of land.


                                                          12
                       Suburb Migration
• Three types of urban sprawl:
  – Development of exclusive wealthy suburbs
    adjacent to the city.
  – Tract Development - Construction of similar
    residential units over large areas.
  – Ribbon Sprawl - Commercial / industrial
    buildings line highways connecting housing
    developments to central city.
    • Megalopolis - Merge of cities into large, urban
      areas.
                                                        13
Regional Cities




                  14
          Factors That Contribute
• Lifestyle
                        to Sprawl
  – Increased wealth of population.
    • Decentralized housing pattern is possible because high
      rate of automobile ownership allows ease of
      movement.
• Economic
  – Building on agricultural land less expensive.
  – Tax laws encourage home development.

                                                          15
          Factors That Contribute
                        to Sprawl
• Planning and Policy
  – Historically, little coordination of effort.
     • Large number of political jurisdictions.
  – Zoning ordinances prohibit land use mixing.
     • Specify minimum lot and house sizes.
  – Government subsidies.
     • Local governments pay some costs of extending
       services into new areas.
        – Alleviates costs to builders.

                                                       16
         Problems Associated with
• Transportation Unplanned Growth
 – Little thought to transportation corridors.
 – Establishment of new corridors stimulates growth
   in nearby areas.
   • Reliance on automobiles has required constant road
     building.
      – In Los Angeles, 70% of city’s surface area dedicated to
        automobiles.
   • Average person in U.S. spends 9 hrs/wk in an
     automobile.
                                                                  17
           Problems Associated with
• Air Pollution
                 Unplanned Growth
  – As traffic increases, so does air pollution.
• Low Energy Efficiency
  –   Automobiles are inefficient transportation.
  –   Decentralized cities - longer commutes.
  –   Stop and go traffic patterns.
  –   Single family homes less efficient.

                                                    18
            Problems Associated with
                  Unplanned Growth
• Loss of Sense of Community
  – In many areas, people do not routinely walk
    through their neighborhood.
• Death of Central City
  – Currently less than 10% of people work in the
    central city.
     • Less income to support public services.
• Higher Infrastructure Costs
  – Extension of municipal services.
                                                    19
           Problems Associated with
                 Unplanned Growth
• Loss of Open Space
  – Oftentimes open space planning left out of
    development plans.
• Loss of Farmland
  – Flat, well-drained land ideal for both farmland
    and urban development.
  – Partial transformation often leads to whole
    transformation.
                                                      20
            Problems Associated with
                  Unplanned Growth
• Water Pollution Problems
  – Large impervious surface areas lead to high
    runoff and potential flooding.
• Floodplain Problems
  – Many cities located on floodplains.
    • Flat, nutrient rich.
  – Development increases economic losses.
    • Many communities have enacted floodplain zoning
      ordinances.

                                                        21
          Problems Associated with
                Unplanned Growth
• Wetlands Misuse
  – Many have been drained, filled, or used as
    landfills.
    • U.S. has lost 53% of wetlands since the European
      immigration began (Not including Alaska).
       – Wetlands play crucial role in reproductive phase of many
         organisms.
           » Provide sediment filtration.


                                                                    22
          Problems Associated with
                Unplanned Growth
• Other Land-Use Considerations
  – Geological Status
    • Earthquake-Prone Faults
    • Unstable Hillsides
    • Fire-Prone Areas
  – Climate
    • Water Shortages


                                  23
                   Land-Use Planning
                          Principles
• Land-Use Planning - Evaluating needs and
  wants of a population, as well as land
  characteristics and value, and various
  alternative solutions to land uses before
  changes are made.
  – Basic rule should be to make as few changes as
    possible.

                                                     24
                Land-Use Planning
                       Principles
• Evaluate and record unique geological,
  geographic, and biologic features.
• Preserve unique cultural or historical
  features.
• Conserve open space and environmental
  features.
• Calculate cost of additional changes
  required to accommodate altered land
  use.
                                           25
                 Land-Use Planning
                        Principles
• Plan for mixed uses in close proximity.
• Plan variety of transportation options.
• Set limits and require managed growth
  patterns with compact development.
• Encourage development in areas with
  existing infrastructure.

                                            26
    Mechanisms for Implementing
                 Land-Use Plans
• Establish State / Regional Planning Agencies.
  – More effective than larger agencies due to more
    logical natural boundaries.
• Purchase Land or Use Rights.
  – In many cases, owner may be willing to limit
    future uses of the land.


                                                   27
                  Mechanisms for
           Implementing Land-Use
                           Plans
• Regulate Use
  – Zoning - Designating
    land for specific uses.
     • Often planners
       represent business or
       developing interests.



                                   28
            Special Urban Planning
                             Issues
• Urban Transportation Planning
  – Four Goals
    • Conserve energy and land resources.
    • Provide efficient / inexpensive transportation.
       – Target populations.
    • Provide efficient transportation opportunities to
      suburban residents.
    • Reduce urban pollution.


                                                          29
             Urban Transportation
                         Planning
• Problems with Mass Transit
  – Only economical along heavily populated
    routes.
  – Extremely expensive to build / operate.
  – Often crowded and uncomfortable.
  – U.S. government encourages personal autos by
    financing highways, maintaining cheap energy
    policy, and not funding mass-transit projects
    (hidden subsidies).
                                                    30
                Problems with Mass
                           Transit
• Mass transportation systems are often
  under-funded and difficult to establish
  because mass transit is:
  – Economically feasible only along heavily
    populated areas.
  – Less convenient than private automobiles.
  – Extremely expensive to build and operate.
  – Often crowded and uncomfortable.
                                                31
Decline of Mass
Transportation




                  32
                      Urban Recreation
                              Planning
• Nearly 3/4 of N.A. population lives in urban
  areas.
• Until recently, urban parks were
  considered an uneconomical use of land.
     • Facilities not conveniently located may be
       infrequently used.
  – New outgrowth of urbanization is the
    development of urban nature centers.

                                                    33
                   Re-Development of
                      Inner City Areas
• Many industrial cities are plagued by high
  cost of cleanup and renovation of
  brownfields.
  – Vacant industrial and commercial sites.
     • Brownfield Development - Degree of clean-up
       required to support intended use of the site.
• Another important focus is remodeling
  abandoned commercial buildings into
  shopping centers, cultural facilities, and
  high-density housing.                                34
                              Smart Growth
• Smart Growth recognizes benefits of growth.
  – Advocates emphasize developing “livable” cities
    and town.
    • Quality of environment directly affects quality of life.




                                                            35
                            Smart Growth
• Smart Growth Principles
  –   Mix land uses.
  –   Take advantage of compact designs.
  –   Create range of housing opportunities.
  –   Create walkable neighborhoods.
  –   Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a
      strong sense of place.


                                                     36
       Smart Growth Principles
– Preserve open space and critical environmental
  areas.
– Strengthen development of existing areas.
– Provide variety of transportation choices.
– Make fair, cost-effective decisions.
– Encourage community and stakeholder
  collaboration in development decisions.



                                                   37
                Federal Government
                    Land-Use Issues
• Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act
  – 1960 - Divided use of national forests into (4)
    categories:
    • Wildlife Habitat Preservation
    • Recreation
    • Lumbering
    • Watershed Protection



                                                      38
               Federal Government
                   Land-Use Issues
• 1872 Mining Law
  – “Miners” allowed to purchase mineral
    extraction rights to public land for $5.00 per
    acre and keep rights as long as minimal
    maintenance continued.
    • Encouraged mining and mineral supplies.




                                                     39
                 Federal Government
                     Land-Use Issues
• Outdoor Recreation
  – Many people want to use the natural world for
    recreational purposes as nature can provide
    challenges lacking in day-to-day life.
    • Conflicts develop because some activities cannot
      occur in the same place at the same time.
       – Groups argue that because they pay taxes, they “own” the
         land and have a right to use it.



                                                                    40
      U.S. Federal
Recreational Lands




                     41
                  Outdoor Recreation
• Agency Control
  – Several U.S. agencies allocate and regulate the
    lands they control.
    • Conflicting Roles
       – Forest Service
           » Logging vs. Recreation
       – Bureau of Land Management
           » Grazing vs. Recreation




                                                      42
•   Need for Planning           Review
•   Historical Forces
•   Rural to Urban Shift
•   Urban Sprawl
    – Contributing Factors
    – Problems with Unplanned Growth
• Land-Use Planning Principles
    – Urban Planning Issues
    – Smart Growth
• Federal Government Land Use Issues
                                         43
    Be sure to read about wetlands loss in
Louisiana (291) & aesthetic pollution (296)




                                          44

								
To top