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					          GMO’s


A risk assessment of genetical
modification in food,clothes and
       biofuel production


          M. Monroe, K. Grond,
        P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
           M. Monroe, K. Grond,
        P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
                 Introduction
• GMO = genes added to genome of organism
  through transformation

• GM used in:
  – Food/clothes -> crops + animals
  – Biofuel -> crops + bacteria



• Benefits / Risks
  – Ecology
  – Human health
                      M. Monroe, K. Grond,
                   P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
Use GM increasing




              M. Monroe, K. Grond,
           P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
                 Objectives
• Discuss:
  – Advantages/disadvantages GM in:
     • Food/Clothes
     • Biofuel
  – Ecological consequences

• Not discussing:
  – Animals
  – Ethics
                    M. Monroe, K. Grond,
                 P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
                Ideal GMO
Features:
  – No hybridisation
  – Contained expression
  – Vector removal
  – Harmless gene product
  – Stable genetic construct



                   M. Monroe, K. Grond,
                P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
• Hybridization
  – Non-transgenic field population
  – wild population
  – cross species


• Requirements:
  – Flowering time
  – Close
  – Genetic compatibility
                     M. Monroe, K. Grond,
                  P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
Relative risk of cross-pollination from crops
               to wild relatives
High risk:       Low risk:                 Minimal risk:
Sugar beet       Oilseed rape              Potato
White clover                               Wheat
                 Flax
Scots pine                                 Tomato
Apple            Barley                    Maize
Rye grass        Blackcurrant              Broad bean
Lucerne          Lettuce                   Pea
Poplar                                     Cucumber
                 Raspberry
Cabbage                                    Sunflower
Carrot                                     Spruce
Plum                                       Grapes
                                           Strawberry
                                           Douglas fir

                  M. Monroe, K. Grond,
               P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
            Benefits GMO’s
• Reduces costs/illness caused by pesticides
• Higher yield
• Higher nutritional value
• Protection against insect damage
• Reduction in agricultural land
• Conservation of resources through less use of
  labour, fuel, fertilizer and water
• Water quality protection
• Protection against plant diseases
                   M. Monroe, K. Grond,
                P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
                     biofuels
• Crops
  – Oilseed rape
  – Soya bean
  – Wheat
  – Tree biomass
• Bacteria
  – Clostridium acetobutylicum
    • Fermentation substrates
    • Enclosed in factory -> risk of spilling

                     M. Monroe, K. Grond,
                  P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg
   Negative ecological effects
• Insect resistance to toxin producing plants

• Slow down evolution

• Species interaction a complex matter

• Fewer species -> higher dependence
                  M. Monroe, K. Grond,
               P. Skoglund & E. Svanberg

				
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posted:8/9/2012
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