English Literacy Mat KS3 Reading Skills
SKIMMING: Casting your eyes over a text to
understand its general meaning.
SCANNING: Looking for specific information in
CLOSE READING: Detailed analysing and
exploration of a text.
Key Vocabulary DEDUCING / INFERING: To work out or guess
Reading AFs something based on clues and hints in the text.
Atmosphere AF1: Use a range of strategies, including accurate decoding of text, to
Audience read for meaning.
Characterisation AF2: Understand, describe, select or retrieve information, events or ideas Point – this is a statement that addresses the
Connectives from texts. question and addresses the paragraph’s topic.
Context AF3: Deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from texts.
AF4: Identify and comment on the structure and organisation of texts, Evidence – a quotation (or reference to the text)
including grammatical and presentational features at text level. which supports your point, is relevant, and is the
Imagery AF5: Explain and comment on writers’ use of language, including best example you can find.
Irony grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level.
Message AF6: Identify and comment on writers’ purposes and viewpoints, and the Explanation Analysis Link
Metaphor overall effect of the text on the reader.
Narrative AF7: Relate texts to their social, cultural and historical traditions. Explain your Analyse the Link back to
evidence. language the question /
Personification used. argument.
Poetic Devices Writing AFs
Plot AF1: Write imaginative, interesting and thoughtful texts. Analytical Verbs
Purpose AF2: Produce texts which are appropriate to task, reader and purpose.
Setting Shows (showing)
AF3: Organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing and
Simile Suggests (suggesting, suggestive)
structuring information, ideas and events.
Structure Connotes (connoting, connotation)
Style AF4: Construct paragraphs and use cohesion within and between
Symbolism paragraphs. Indicates (indicating, indicative)
Tension AF5: Vary sentences for clarity, purpose and effect. Implies (implying, implication)
Theme AF6: Write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in phrases, Highlights (highlighting)
Tone clauses and sentences. Emphasises (emphasising)
Voice AF7: Select appropriate and effective vocabulary. Underlines (underlining)
AF8: Use correct spelling.
Reinforces (reinforcement, reinforcing)
What are you Starting a new paragraph
Full Stops. writing? Time Place Topic Person Connectives
At the end of a sentence
which is not a question. T = Text type
Capital Letters ABC For sequencing ideas or events
At the beginning of a
A = Audience
P = Purpose firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally,
For the names of people, eventually, next, since, meanwhile,
places and some events. afterwards, whilst
Question Mark ? Ways to start a sentence
Used at the end of a
question. With an adjective – Terrible secrets lay under the sea. To show cause and effect
The apostrophe ‘ With a verb – Laying under the sea was a terrible secret.
Use to show that letters have because, so, therefore,
With a preposition – Under the sea lay a terrible secret.
been left out.
With an adverb – Furiously, he shouted at the tops of his voice. thus, consequently, due to
Use to show possession.
Comma , With a pronoun – He shouted furiously at the top of his voice.
Use to separate With a connective – Unlike Michael, Mina was educated at home. To emphasise
lists/words/clauses With a noun – Beverley Naidoo’s background helps us to
Used to separate connectives understand some of the novel’s main messages. above all, in particular, especially,
(however, therefore etc.,) significantly, indeed, notably
from the rest of the sentence.
Colon : Sentence Types
Used to introduce a list or
Simple: She sat on the bench. To further explain an idea
Used to introduce an idea Compound: She sat on the bench and started to cry. although, however, unless, except,
that is an explanation of one Complex: Throwing the flowers to the ground, she sat on the apart from, yet, as long as
that comes before the colon bench and cried.
e.g. You only have one
option: leave this place
Semi Colon ; What are the conventions of your non-fiction text type? whereas, instead of, alternatively,
Used to link two connected Information / Report: otherwise, unlike, on the other hand
ideas. Both parts of the Present tense, non- chronological order, impersonal, 3rd person,
sentence should make sense sometimes passive, connectives of sequence, cause and effect and
on their own e.g. She walked
slowly to the top of the hill; comparison/contrast. To compare
her legs ached and her feet Instructions: equally, likewise, in the same way,
Present tense, imperatives (command words), chronological order,
Dashes – short clear sentences, 3rd person.
Can show a break in a Explanation:
sentence or a change in
Present tense, connectives of sequence and cause and effect, To give examples
Can act as brackets. impersonal, 3rd person. For example, such as, for instance, in
Used to show a strong Discursive (analysis, evaluation, formal essay): the case of, as revealed by
interruption in speech. Present tense (some use of past), avoids 1st person, impersonal.