1 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Chapter 8: Chapter 8: TECHNOLOGY IINTEGRATIION TECHNOLOGY NTEGRAT ON CONTENTS Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Instructional Theories Chapter 3: Designing Instruction Chapter 4: E-Learning Chapter 5: Web Tools and Learning Chapter 6: Self-Instructional Materials Chapter 7: Distance Education Chapter 8: Technology Integration in Schools Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Explain what is meant by technology in the classroom Identify why technology integration across the curriculum is imperative today Discuss some of the methods of integrating technology in the classroom Describe criteria for assessing extent of technology integration in schools Identify CHAPTER OVERVIEW Preamble Determining level of technology What is technology integration in schools integration? o Taxonomy Why technology integration? o TIM Top 10 reasons for using Technology integration in technology in the classroom education: Planning, Methods of technology implementation & evaluation integration Key Terms Summary References 2 Chapter 8: Technology Integration PREAMBLE This chapter discusses the integration of technology into teaching and learning in primary, On Ink…. “Students today depend on store bought ink. The don’t know how to make their own. When they run out of ink they will be unable to write words or ciphers until their next trip to the settlement. This is a sad commentary on modern education”. ─ Rural American Teacher, 1928 On ballpoint pens…. “Ballpoint pens will be the ruin of education in our country. Students use these devices and then throw them away. The American values of thrift and frugality are being discarded. Businesses and banks will never allow such expensive items”. ─ Federal Teacher, 1950 LEARNING ACTIVITY a) What is your comment about the two statements above by two teachers organisation in the United States? b) What is the message in these two statements? c) Are there people with such thinking still around? 3 Chapter 8: Technology Integration WHAT IS ‘TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION’ IN SCHOOLS? Technology integration involves the infusion of technology as a tool to enhance the learning in a content area or multidisciplinary setting which is achieved when students are able to select technology tools to help them obtain information in a timely manner, analyse and synthesize the information, and present it professionally. The technology should become an integral part of how the classroom functions — as accessible as all other classroom tools. The focus in each lesson or unit is the curriculum outcome, not the technology [International Society for Technology in Education, ISTE, 2009]. Technology integration, as defined as the incorporation of technology resources and technology-based practices into the daily routines, work, and management of schools. Resources are computers and specialised software, network-based communication systems, and other equipment and infrastructure. Practices include collaborative work and communication, Internet-based research, remote access to instrumentation, network-based transmission and retrieval of data, and other methods. [National Forum on Education Statistics, Forum Unified Education Technology Suite, 2005]. Technology integration is the use of technology resources – computers, digital cameras, CD-ROMs, software applications, the Internet, etc. in daily classroom practices, and in the management of a school. Technology integration is achieved when the use of technology is routine and transparent. Technology integration is achieved when a child or a teacher does not stop to think that he or she is using a computer or researching via the Internet [Edutopia: What Works in Public Education. The George Lucas Educational Foundation, 2009]. Based on these definitions, there is some consensus that technology integration in schools is the effort made to use information and communication in teaching and learning and the management of schools. Technology is used to support the achievement of curriculum goals and to help students to effectively reach their learning goals. Technology integration is an ongoing process and is continuously changing demanding continual learning. . The acceptance of change is a major requirement for technology integration and change is not always easy. The initial human reaction to change is resistance. Resistance makes for slow change, but change is inevitable. TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Technology is everywhere and all around us (i.e. ubiquitous) , touching almost every part of our lives, our communities, our homes. Becoming proficient in new and emerging technologies is vital to the future of education. According to Marc Prensky 4 Chapter 8: Technology Integration (2005), today's students; digital natives who have mastered a variety of tools (virtual worlds, gaming environments, blogs, wikis, intelligent agents, iPods, and MP3 files and players); and educating or evaluating students without these tools makes no more sense to them than educating or evaluating a plumber without his or her wrench. In addition, their system of communication involves instant messaging, sharing information through blogs, buying and selling on eBay, exchanging through peer-to- peer technology, creating with Flash, meeting in 3D worlds, collecting via downloading, coordinating and collaborating through wikis, searching with Google, reporting via their camera phones, programming, socializing in chat rooms, and let us not forget learning via Web surfing. Their tools are just extensions of their brains. The use of these new tools is among trends driving our global economy (Anderson, 2006). These tools "harness the wisdom of the crowd," enable "a shared culture of fandom, commentary, and camaraderie" to be developed, and ultimately are taking the Information Age to a new level, which Anderson (2006) calls the "Age of Peer Production" (p. 132). We digital immigrants have a long way to go to learn their language and master their media. Yet most schools lag far behind when it comes to integrating technology into classroom learning. Many are just beginning to explore the true potential technology offers for teaching and learning. Properly used, technology will help students acquire the skills they need to survive in a complex, highly technological knowledge-based economy. As defined earlier, integrating technology into classroom instruction means more than teaching basic computer skills and software programmes. Effective technology integration must happen across the curriculum in ways that research shows deepen and enhance the learning process. In particular, it must support four key components of learning: active engagement, participation in groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connection to real-world experts. Effective technology integration is achieved when the use of technology is routine and transparent and when technology supports curricular goals. Many people believe that technology-enabled project learning is going to be the future of classroom instruction. Learning through projects while equipped with technology tools allows students to be intellectually challenged while providing them with a realistic snapshot of what the modern workplace looks like. Through projects, students acquire and refine their analysis and problem-solving skills as they work individually and in teams to find, process, and synthesise information they've found online. The massive amount of online resources would provide each classroom with more interesting, diverse, and current learning materials. The Web connects students to experts in the real world and provides numerous opportunities for expressing understanding through images, sound, and text. New technology tools for visualising and modeling, especially in the sciences, offer students ways to experiment and observe phenomenon and to view results in graphic ways that aid in understanding. And, as an added benefit, with technology tools and a project-learning approach, students are more likely to stay engaged and on task, reducing behavioral problems in the classroom. Technology also changes the way teachers teach, offering educators effective ways to reach different types of learners and assess student understanding through multiple means. It also enhances the relationship between teacher and student. When technology is effectively integrated into subject areas, teachers grow into roles of adviser, content expert, and coach. Technology helps make teaching and learning more meaningful and fun. 5 Chapter 8: Technology Integration I agree that technology is the future of education. I am hoping to learn about how to integrate technology in the classroom. I hope to gain ideas on how to incorporate technology into an environment that is sometimes resistant to change. Our school has limited resources and funds, not to mention the current state of the economy, so I'm also hoping to find creative ways to incorporate technology with limited resources. The world around us is constantly changing and, for better or worse, becoming more dependant on technology. Therefore, if we expect our students, the leaders of tomorrow, to become prepared and be able to compete with others from around the world, we need to prepare them accordingly. - Melissa [from a blog on Edutopia: The George Lucas Education Foundation, 2009] I am currently working towards a master’s degree in integrating technology into the classroom, and have recently started utilising technology in my lessons. Becoming proficient in new and emerging technologies is vital to the future of education. Technology is constantly changing and becoming more advanced; it is more prevalent in our every day lives and in the workplace. In today’s society it seems that almost every student has a cell phone that is more powerful than a computer, an iPod capable of viewing live podcasts from the internet, and an understanding of various technologies that would puzzle most adults. As students become more technologically savvy it is crucial for educators to remain up to date with current trends, and use these technological tools to enhance instruction. Although technology is an incredible tool to improve class instruction the biggest problem is that many school systems are slow to adjust to . these new trends. In my school we have three computer labs available to all teachers who request their use. Each lab is equipped with a smart board, a computer for every student, and laser jet printers. Although these great resources are available for all teachers, very few actually take advantage of them; many teachers shy away from these new teaching methods because they are unfamiliar with how to use these resources for instruction. I think to truly maximise the potential of technology in education schools should offer workshops for teachers who are unfamiliar with these methods. If the schools were able to offer more support to teachers then everyone would be able to use technology in their instruction, which would lead to increased knowledge retention and development of practical abilities in all students. - Robert [from a blog on Edutopia: The George Lucas Education Foundation, 2009] 6 Chapter 8: Technology Integration LEARNING ACTIVITY a) To what extent has technology been adopted in teaching and and learning in your institution? b) Comment on the opinions of ‘Melissa’ and ‘Robert’ Education World…the educators best friend http://www.education-world.com/ o Check out this website o What kinds of services are provided by the website in technology integration? TOP 10 REASONS FOR USING TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM Kyle L. Peck and Denise Dorricott wrote an article “Realising the Promise of Technology?” in Educational Leadership in 1994 (some 15 years ago) listing 10 reasons for using technology in schools which is still relevant today: 1) Students Learn And Develop At Different Rates. Technology can individualise instruction. Using the internet and specially designed e- learning courses, teachers can prescribe individual learning paths for students. At the moment students are taught using one or two textbooks which may not be adapted to the different backgrounds, interests, and motivation of students. With technology- enabled courses using multimedia, simulations, online tests, virtual environments, students can move at an appropriate pace in a nonthreatening environment, developing a solid foundation of basic skills. 2) Students Graduating from the School System must be Proficient at Accessing, Evaluating, and Communicating Information. The internet is filled with billions of pages of useful information which is easily accessible and many of which is available free. Educational technologies can; by design – provoke students to raise searching questions, enter debates, formulate opinions, engage in problem solving and critical thinking, and test their views of reality. Online tools and resources allow students to efficiently gather and evaluate information, then communicate their thoughts and findings. This communication may require reading; thinking; writing; creating charts, graphs, and other images; or the organisation and production of information; for example using spreadsheets and databases. 7 Chapter 8: Technology Integration 3) Technology Can Foster an Increase in the Quantity and Quality of Students' Writing and Thinking.. Perhaps one of the best documented successes with computers in education is in developing students' writing. Several features of word processors seem to reduce the phobia often associated with writing. Writing on the computer has a temporary feel, making it easier to take creative and grammatical risks. Difficulty with the fine motor skills required by handwriting usually does not transfer to the keyboard; thus the word processor can reduce frustration. Editing and revising can occur almost as quickly as one thinks, and finished products printed from a word processor have a professional quality that generates a sense of accomplishment. 4) Students Graduating from the School System must Solve Complex Problems. Higher-level process skills cannot be “taught” in the traditional sense; they cannot be transferred directly from the teacher to the learner. Students need to develop these skills for themselves, with appropriate guidance. They need to struggle with questions they have posed and search out their own answers. A collection of computer applications often called productivity tools could revolutionise the way students work and, more important, the way they think. Databases, spreadsheets, computer-assisted design, graphics programs, and multimedia authoring programmes (programmes for creating computer-based presentations or lessons) allow students to independently organise, analyze, interpret, develop, and evaluate their own work. These tools engage students in focused problem solving, allowing them to think through what they want to accomplish, quickly test and retest solution strategies, and immediately display the results. 5) Technology can Nurture Artistic Expression. Modern technology-based art forms (video production, digital photography, computer-based animation, and the like) have great appeal, encouraging artistic expression among our diverse student population. These tools provide forms of artistic communication for those students who have been constrained by the traditional options of verbal and written communication, and they increase motivation and foster creative problem-solving skills as students evaluate the many possible ways to communicate ideas. 6) Students Graduating must be Globally Aware and able to Use Resources that Exist Outside the School. With few exceptions, children's domains of discovery during the school day are limited to the classroom and the school. Technological tools allow students to inexpensively and instantly reach around the world, learning first-hand about other cultures. Various technologies can provide up-to-date maps and demographic data, and computer-based wire services can bring a newsroom-quality stream of current events into the school. 7) Technology Creates Opportunities for Students to do Meaningful Work. Students need to produce products that have value outside school, receive feedback on their work, and experience the rewards of publication or exhibition. Technology can provide a widespread audience for students' work. Computers link students to the world, provide new reasons to write, and offer new sources of feedback on ideas. 8 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Students' video products shown on the web can produce high levels of motivation and accomplishment. 8) All Students Need Access to High-Level and High-Interest Courses. Electronic and digital media can bring experiences and information previously unimagined by students into the classroom. Through the internet and instructional television, students can view and discuss events they otherwise could not experience. The internet and CD-ROMs put thousands of images and topics at students' fingertips. Distance education technologies can bring important learning experiences to students, even in area where small student populations have made some courses impossible to offer. 9. Students Must Feel Comfortable with the Tools of the Information Age. Computers and other technologies are an increasingly important part of the world in which students live. Many of today's information producers are converting their knowledge bases to digital format and are constructing new technologies to increase speed, capacity, and reliability of dissemination. As telephone, wireless, computer, television, and other media merge, incredible resources will become available. An “I tell you, you tell me, and I'll grade you” model of education will not prepare students to take advantage of these resources. 10. Schools Must Increase their Productivity and Efficiency. It has been said that “If technology can replace the teacher, then it should”. Technology enables a teacher when to act as Sage on the Stage and when to act as a Guide on the Side. When students are busy making up their own minds, the role of the teacher shifts the teacher takes the role of a sage. When questioning, problem- solving and investigation become the priority classroom activities, the teacher becomes a guide on the side. Many of the routine tasks done by teachers can be reassigned to technology, elevating the role of teacher to that of sage. Some things only teachers can do. Teachers can build strong, productive relationships with students. Technologies can't. Teachers can motivate students to love learning. Technologies can't. Teachers can identify and meet students' emotional needs. Technologies can't. Technology-based solutions in education can, and must, free the teacher to do the important work that requires human interaction, continuous evaluation, and improvement of the learning environment. Computer-based technologies can administer individualised lesson sequences that branch and remediate according to students' unique needs, quickly and automatically track progress, perform data analysis, and generate reports. Other computer-based tools enable teachers to quickly generate individualized communications to parents, create lesson plans, and select instructional materials from a rich resource database. If entire schools use such capabilities, record keeping and communication can be dramatically enhanced. LEARNING ACTIVITY a) Do you agree with “Top 10 Reasons for Using Technology in Education”? Discuss in relation to your institution. b) Suggest other reasons for using technology in educational institutions or training. 9 Chapter 8: Technology Integration METHODS OF INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM While most people would agree that technology has to be integrated into teaching and learning in primary and secondary school, many educators are not aware of the methods to bring technology into the classroom. One of the earliest to suggest how teachers could integrate technology in the classroom was Judi Harris (1998, 2001) who has written several books and countless articles dealing with the effective integration of technology in the classroom. Her focus is on the internet and she believes that the Internet offers educators three ACTIVITY STRUCTURES or approaches that can be adopted at all levels of education (primary, secondary, higher education): 1) Problem Solving Projects 2) Interpersonal Exchanges 3) Information Collections 1) PROBLEM SOLVING PROJECTS Problem Solving activities promote critical thinking, collaboration, and problem- based learning. Judi Harris suggested 7 types of problem solving projects: Information Searches: Students are presented with a problem and clues to help solve it. Students are asked to answer specific, fact-based questions related to curricular topics. Answers are posted in electronic format and online for other students to see (on websites, portals, blogs & social networking sites). Peer Feedback Activities: Students publish work online, and other students or subject area experts provide constructive criticism. Students are encouraged to provide constructive responses to the ideas and forms of work done by students in different locations, often reviewing multiple drafts of documents over time. Parallel Problem-Solving: Students in several locations are presented with a similar problem, which they solve separately and then together, electronically. Students in compare, contrast, and discuss their multiple problem-solving strategies online. Sequential Creations: Students share in the creation of a new document, such as an electronic composition, or item, by passing it from location to location. For example, students in different locations sequentially 10 Chapter 8: Technology Integration create a common story, poem, song, picture or other product online. Each participating group adds their segment to the common product (‘Google docs’ would be a appropriate tool for this purpose). Virtual Gatherings: Students are brought together from different locations and time zones for a computer-mediated meeting. Students simultaneously engage in communications-based real-time activities from different locations. Developing brainstormed solutions to real-world problems via video or web- conferencing is a popular application of this structure. Simulations: Either person-to-person or through using software, participants explore a virtual world. Students participate in authentic, but simulated, problem- based situations online, often while collaborating with other students in different locations. Social Action Projects: Students around the world work together for change, a collaboration that can lead toward social action. Students are encouraged to consider real and timely problems, then take action toward resolution with other students elsewhere. Although the problems explored are often global in scope, the action taken to address the problem is usually local. 2) INFORMATION COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Information Collection and Analysis activities are those which involve students collecting, compiling, and comparing different types of interesting information. Information Judi Harris suggested 5 types of information collection and analysis activities: Information Exchanges: Students share information such as book reviews, favourite quotations, local weather conditions, recipes, etc. Students and teachers in different locations collect, share, compare and discuss information related to specific topics or themes that are experienced or expressed differently at each participating site. Database Creations Students construct a database of information, which is to be shared with students in other local or international schools. Students and teachers organise information they have collected or created into databases which others can use and to which others can add or respond. 11 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Electronic Publishing Students create an online publication, such as a newspaper, literary magazine, electronic journal or ethnic cookbook. Students create electronic documents, such as Web pages, blogs or social networking sites such as facebook, or word processed newsletters, collaboratively with others. Remotely located students learn from and respond to these published projects. Pooled Data Analysis Students receive information from classes around the world, then analyse it, looking for patterns, similarities, or differences, and then report their findings. Students in different places collect data of a particular type on a specific topic and then combine the data across locations for analysis. Virtual Fieldtrips Students electronically "tag along" with other individuals currently visiting other places. Students participate in the activity by emailing expedition members questions, and by taking part in activities or experiments related to the project. Virtual fieldtrips allow students to virtually experience p laces or participate in activities that would otherwise be impossible for them, due to monetary or geographic constraints 3) INTERPEROSNAL EXCHANGES Interpersonal Exchanges are those activities in which individuals communicate electronically with other individuals, individuals communicate with groups or groups communicate with other groups. Judi Harris suggested 6 types of activities involving interpersonal exchanges: Keypals The first and most popular type of interpersonal exchange, keypals involves facilitating communication between individuals who attend different schools, or who live in different regions. Students communicate with others outside their classrooms via email about curriculum-related topics chosen by teachers and/or students. Communications can be one-to-one or broadcast. 12 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Electronic Mentoring Like electronic appearances, but occurring with subject area specialists for longer time periods. Students communicate with subject matter experts over extended periods of time to explore specific topics in depth and in an inquiry- based format. Electronic Appearances An activity structure wherein authors, scientists, or other professionals appear online to answer student questions or participate in discussion relevant to their own professional lives. Such activities differ from electronic mentoring in that they are usually restricted to very brief time frames. Students have opportunities to communicate with subject matter experts and/or famous people via email, videoconferencing, or chat-rooms. These activities are typically short-term (often onetime) and correspond to curricular objectives. Global Classrooms Short or long interaction between groups, usually two or more classrooms, based on a topic. Groups of students and teachers in different locations study a curriculum-related topic together during the same time period. Projects are frequently interdisciplinary and thematically organised. Question-and-Answer Services Short-lived communication where students ask an expert. Students communicate with subject matter experts on a short-term basis as questions arise during their study of a specific topic. This is used only when all other information resources have been exhausted. Impersonations A type of electronic appearance distinguished by the presence of an individual who plays the role of a literary or historical character. Impersonation projects are those in which some or all participants communicate in character, rather than as themselves. Impersonations of historical figures and literary protagonists are most common Thus, the teacher/instructor who is keen in teaching with technology has at his or her disposal a variety of methods. The instructor should from the beginning equip himself or herself with the relevant technology skills such as being familiar with the internet and the abundant resources and tools (see Figure 8.1). The teacher / instructor who selects any of the above methods discussed earlier should identify his or her role in the teaching-learning situation. For some methods, the teacher is a facilitator while in other methods, the teacher is an instructor. The teacher/instructor should also be aware of the time needed for using a particular method because different methods involve a different time-frame. Some methods may require several 40 minute periods while others may be done in a 40 minute class period. 13 Chapter 8: Technology Integration The teacher/instructor who is planning to teach with technology should also understand the learning styles students in the class. Do students have relevant computer skills? Do they know how to surf the web? Do they know how to use the different tools? For example, do they know how to discuss in the discussion forum or the chat-room. Do they know how to download and upload material? If possible the teacher/instructor should also take into consideration the ‘learning styles of students. For example, some students are visual learners and so images and animations may be useful in motivating them; while others are verbal learners and are comfortable with text material. Similarly, others may be auditory inclined as so prefer to learn with the aid of voice support such as podcasts and audio clips. Figure 8.1 Teaching with technology Whatever technology is used, the ultimate goal of teaching is to present a body of content that has to be understood by students. The technology selected and how it is adopted will depend to a large extent on the discipline or more specifically the topic. For example, to illustrate physics concepts animation would ideal and to engage students in poetry, an audio reading of a poem may help students appreciate further the poem. The teacher / instructor should not attempt to use technology for technology 14 Chapter 8: Technology Integration sake; but rather to use technology where it will best serve to enhance learning. For example, writing skills can be improved if students discuss online in a discussion forum or engage in collaboratively completing a story online. The teacher / instructor needs to consider the cognitive outcomes to be achieved when technology is used. For example, if the aim is to get students to construct knowledge, then relevant methods should be designed that use technology to enable students to construct knowledge. Finally, teaching with technology involves the technology itself. What types of technology tools are available? How each of these tools may be used? For example, with access to the internet, the teacher could use blogs and wikis in their teaching. In other words, the teacher / instructor should be very familiar with the variety of technology tools available as well as how to search for relevant material that may be used in teaching and learning. Similarly, as mentioned earlier, students have to be familiar with these tools and resources. If they are not, then the teacher / instructor may have to teach students how to use them as we cannot assume that all students are familiar with technology. LEARNING ACTIVITY a) Briefly list the types of skills and values that will be developed if the learning activities suggested by Judi Harris are widely used in schools? b) Which of the above learning activities you have adopted and will be able to adopt in teaching your subject area? LEVELS OF TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION With the advent of the computer and later the internet, many educational institutions all over the world have embraced technology but their integration in the classroom has been variable depending on policy, affordability, expertise of teachers/instructors, bandwidth connection, cultural diversity, attitude and so forth. Levels of technology in the classroom has varied from merely using technology for projection purposes (such as using the computer and the LCD projector to show powerpoint slides) to collaborating on the web in the construction of knowledge. Several guidelines have been proposed to enable teachers/instructors, administrators and the community in determining how they stand on technology integration. In this chapter we will focus on two such guidelines: The Taxonomy of Technology Integration The Technology Matrix 15 Chapter 8: Technology Integration These two guidelines serves not only as an evaluation tool in determining the level of technology integration in a particular educational institution but also help teachers/ instructors on how to integrate technology in the classroom. A) TAXONOMY OF TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION The Taxonomy of Technology Integration was proposed by M. Bailey in 2002. (see Figure 8.2). You will notice that the author has used the well-known Bloom’s Taxonomy and the revised version of 2001 has been referred to. 6. CONSTRUCTING 4. EVALUATION & PROBLEM-SOLVING 4. ANALYSIS Figure 8.2 Taxonomy of 3. APPLICATION Technology Integration 2. EXPLORATION 1. STORAGE [source: Bailey, M. (2002). Education and Values: Interface on the Internet: Reconceptualising Teaching and Learning in a Technocracy Bloom's Revised Taxonomy (2001). Berglund Center for Internet Studies. Pacific University. Oregon] The above taxonomy was developed to represent qualitatively different levels of technology integration in educational institutions. The lowest level of this taxonomy involves using computers to simply store or display material for students to use; it places them in a passive role. The highest taxonomic level represents active students synthesising material and utilising technology to construct projects such as hypermedia presentations. Level 1: STORAGE Students view information which is projected to the class or displayed on their individual screen Students download information onto their hard drive, thumb-drives or CDs. Students view a powerpoint presentation Students are passive recipients of information and may be required to recall what is presented. Level 2: EXPLORATION Students are engaged in pursuit of information to better understand concepts and principles Students use search engines (e.g. google, yahoo) and hyperlinks in accessing information to facilitate better understanding of concepts and principles. 16 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Cognitive process is deeper and more relevant as the student is in charge of directing this search. Students collaborate online to share ideas and exchange information. Level 3: APPLICATION Students apply concepts or understanding to a new situation. Students are provided with technology tools that will let them apply concepts or understanding to a novel situation. Applying concepts in this manner allows them to reflect on its veracity and utility. The construction of electronic portfolios can assist students in applying their understanding and representing this construction in an electronic form. Level 4: ORGANISE Students use technology to analyse materials or ideas by manipulating them and organising them is represented at the fourth taxonomic level. Here the focus is on the process of analysis that is facilitated by such tools as Inspiration or Visio, where the learner can engage in concept mapping or the manipulation of ideas as a means of understanding their relationship. Word processing tools provide a powerful means for individuals to organise and analyse ideas as well. Google Docs allows 2 or more individuals to be linked on the web and to work together to analyse and represent complex concepts or ideas. There are a number of whiteboards that can also serve this same process of group construction of understanding. Level 5: EVAUATION AND PROBLEM-SOLVING Students use technology to support the process of evaluation. This can be done in a number of ways. One way to engage students a this level is by compiling information and resources into a digital repository that will allow them to address issues of history or current events and to evaluate these resources. It can be facilitated by developing simulations that will immerse students in an environment that will help them evaluate relevant dimensions and solve the problems that are posed. Students engage in collaborative web-based environments that support or foster evaluation and problem-solving. For example, applications like NetMeeting are unique in providing a collaborative environment that can foster communication and problem-solving. Level 6: CONSTRUCTING OR DESIGNING At the highest taxonomic level is the deep processing that is promoted by the design or construction of integrating projects. Most of the processes represented at the lower taxonomic levels are brought together in the design of projects. 17 Chapter 8: Technology Integration In the development of powerful projects, students must explore ideas and resources, and analyse and evaluate information in a final synthesis. Students use websites, blogs, wikis, podcasting sites, multimedia tools and social networking sites to represent and present their ideas on the web. The taxonomy proposed by Bailey (2002) can be used by educators both as an evaluation checklist as well as a pedagogical checklist showing ways in which they can utilise technology to foster significant and memorable learning experiences. While there is nothing wrong with beginning at the lower level processes; and at times is a pre-requisite, teaching should go beyond to higher taxonomic levels. Teachers are encouraged to develop ways for students to utilise technology at a range of levels, but to plan for maximum exposure to those applications of technology that can foster higher level cognitive objectives. The role of technology is to direct & foster thinking. The more actively engaged the learner is in the process of thinking and manipulating information, the deeper the processing and the more meaningful the learning. Thoughtfully structuring learning environments and selecting technology tools that can help teachers meet their educational objectives should be the ultimate goal. The taxonomy is designed to represent qualitatively different cognitive processes that are fostered by the integration of a range of technology into the learning process. As is the case with Bloom's taxonomy, there are lower and higher level objectives. One aspect of technology is that, the tools can be used by an individual on their own computer so the process of constructing is internal and personal. However, an increasing number of web-based applications are emerging that provide a means of collaboratively constructing an understanding. The key to understanding this taxonomy is not to focus on the tools that are being used, but instead to focus on the cognitive process that the tool is supporting. It is this process that is the mechanism of learning. LEARNING ACTIVITY a) What kind of learning activities would you introduce to encourage students to “construct or design” in your subject area using technology? c) Using the Taxonomy by Bailey, at what level would you describe technology integration is at in your educational institution? 18 Chapter 8: Technology Integration B) THE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION MATRIX The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) developed by the Office of Technology Learning and Innovation, Florida Department of Education (2006) to help guide the complex task of evaluating technology integration in the classroom. It also illustrates how teachers can use technology to enhance learning for students in schools. The TIM incorporates five interdependent characteristics of meaningful learning environments: Active Constructive Goal Directed (i.e., reflective) Authentic Collaborative For each of these learning environments, five levels of technology integration were identified: Entry Adoption Adaptation Infusion Transformation Together, the five characteristics of meaningful learning environments and the five levels of technology integration, a matrix of 25 cells is created (see Table 8.1). The details of each cell are described as follows: 1) ACTIVE Entry-Active Students use technology for drill and practice and computer based training. Adoption- Active Students begin to utilise technology tools to create products, for example using a word processor to create a report. Adaptation- Active Students have opportunities to select and modify technology tools to accomplish specific purposes, for example using coloured cells on a spreadsheet to plan a garden. Infusion- Active Throughout the school day, students are empowered to select appropriate technology tools and actively apply them to the tasks at hand. Transformation- Active Given ongoing access to online resources, students actively select and pursue topics beyond the limitations of even the best school library. 19 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Levels Entry Adoption Adaptation Infusion Transformation Teacher uses Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher creates a technology to directs encourages creates a rich learning deliver students in adaptation learning environment to curriculum the of tool- environment engage students in content to conventio based that infuses activities that students. nal use of software . the power of would have been tool-based technology impossible to software tools achieve without technology. Characteristics Active Entry- Adoption Adaptation- Infusion- Transformation- Students are Active - Active Active Active Active actively engaged in using technology as a tool. Collaborative Entry- Adoption Adaptation- Infusion- Transformation- Students use Collaborative Collabora Collabora- Collabora- Collaborative technology tools -tive tive tive to collaborate with others . Constructive Entry- Adoption Adaptation- Infusion- Transformation- Students use Constructive Construc- Construc- Construc- Constructive technology tools tive tive tive to build understanding Authentic Entry- Adoption Adaptation- Infusion- Transformation- Students use Authentic Authentic Authentic Authentic Authentic technology tools to solve real-world problems Goal Directed Entry Adoption Adaptation- Infusion- Transformation- Students use Goal-Directed Goal- Goal- Goal- Goal-Directed technology tools Directed Directed Directed to set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, and evaluate results Table 8.1 Technology integration matrix [source: The Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida. 2007] 20 Chapter 8: Technology Integration 2) COLLABORATIVE Entry-Collaborative Students primarily work alone when using technology. Adoption Collaborative Students have opportunities to utilise collaborative tools, such as email, in conventional ways. Adaptation-Collaborative Students have opportunities to select and modify technology tools to facilitate collaborative work. Infusion-Collaborative Throughout the day and across subject areas, students utilise technology tools to facilitate collaborative learning. Transformation-Collaborative Technology enables students to collaborate with peers and experts irrespective of time zone or physical distances. 3) CONSTRUCTIVE Entry-Constructive Technology is used to deliver information to students. Adoption Constructive Students begin to utilise constructive tools such as graphic organisers to build upon prior knowledge and construct meaning. Adaptation-Constructive Students have opportunities to select and modify technology tools to assist them in the construction of understanding. Infusion-Constructive Students utilize technology to make connections and construct understanding across disciplines and throughout the day. Transformation-Constructive Students use technology to construct, share, and publish knowledge to a worldwide audience. 4) AUTHENTIC 21 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Entry-Authentic Students use technology to complete assigned activities that are generally unrelated to real-world problems. Adoption Authentic Students have opportunities to apply technology tools to some content-specific activities that are based on real-world problems. Adaptation-Authentic Students have opportunities to select and modify technology tools to solve problems based on real-world issues. Infusion-Authentic Students select appropriate technology tools to complete authentic tasks across disciplines. Transformation-Authentic By means of technology tools, students participate in outside of-school projects and problem solving activities that have meaning for the students and the community. 5) GOAL-DIRECTED Entry Goal-Directed Students receive directions, guidance, and feedback from technology, rather than using technology tools to set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, or self-evaluate. Adoption Goal-Directed From time to time, students have the opportunity to use technology to either plan, monitor, or evaluate an activity. Adaptation-Goal-Directed Students have opportunities to select and modify the use of technology tools to facilitate goal-setting, planning, monitoring, and evaluating specific activities. Infusion-Goal-Directed Students use technology tools to set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, and evaluate results throughout the curriculum. Transformation-Goal-Directed Students engage in ongoing metacognitive activities at a level that would be unattainable without the support of technology tools. The TIM is designed to assist schools and districts in evaluating the level of technology integration in classrooms and to provide teachers with models of how technology can be integrated into instruction in meaningful ways. Through regular classroom observation and targeted professional development activities, it is hoped 22 Chapter 8: Technology Integration that over time teachers will be able to effectively monitor their progress through a continuum of technology integration levels using TIM. LEARNING ACTIVITY a) What kind of learning activities would you introduce when the learning environment is ‘Authentic’ and ‘Goal- Directed’? b) Using TIM, at cell would you describe technology integration is at in your educational institution? TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION: PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION & EVALUATION Technology planning is an activity that provides direction and helps users understand clearly where they are now and imagine where they want to be. The most common technique used to formalise technology planning is the creation of a document. A technology plan is a road map that helps explain the various points of interest and destinations to travellers involved in the process of realising their dreams (see Figure 8.2). The purpose of technology planning is not just to produce a document, but to produce continuous action that creates and maintains a technology- rich educational environment (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional Technology Plan, 1996). VISION STATEMENT Technology should not drive teaching and learning. Rather, teaching and learning should drive the use of technology. Technology cannot tell the teacher which students should use the technology, how often it should be used, or how to integrate technology into existing instructional practices (Cohen, 1988; Cuban, 1986). Hence, teachers need to start out with specific technology goals that support their vision of learning and the use of technology. A vision statement that expresses your thoughts about what you want to happen in your educational institution should be written in broad terms. In preparing a vision statement, sufficient time, support, commitment, teamwork, and flexibility are required in order to convey a positive attitude toward the use of the technology. This component, with the mission statement, is the basis of everything else that you will do. It should be thought out carefully and included in all technology plans. When constructing a vision statement, consider the following: What roles do you desire and see for the future of technology and education in your institution and community? What will your classrooms of the future look like and include? How will instruction be delivered? 23 Chapter 8: Technology Integration How and at what levels will students achieve? How will the community be involved? What do you envision for your learners in the future? Vision and Mission Evaluation Technology Plan Implementation Figure 8.2 Technology Planning, Implementation & Evaluation MISSION STATEMENT A mission statement describes your purpose and your plans for fulfilling your vision for technology in education. This component should be included in all technology plans. When composing a mission statement, consider the following: What must you do to make your vision come true? What is learning, according to your definition? What does learning look like while in progress? What is different about learning with technology? What must you do to develop, implement, and continually improve the quality of instruction and learning using technology? What are desired student benefits and outcomes? What characterises your learners? There is evidence that when learning and technology goals are not decided upon before technology implementation, technology can become a drain on resources and add to the burdens of teachers who are already trying to do too much (Piele, 1989). This problem can be avoided by formulating a vision for learning that connects to educational goals, values, and objectives for technology use. Once the stakeholders 24 Chapter 8: Technology Integration involved understand the vision and see how technology will make their lives better, they are likely to become more open to technology planning and implementation. NEW EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Investigate and research to see if your current technology is up to date. If not, salvage what you can, scratch the rest, and start over again. Technology changes every day. Is your plan and the equipment you intend to buy able to change with it? Ask for volunteers or possibly assign several people who are interested in emerging technologies to report every so often on areas they think need to be addressed in the school’s technology plan. If you cannot afford to buy new equipment as it comes on the market, ask around and locate someone who would demonstrate new technology to students and teachers. Allow staff to attend technology workshops and meetings so that they may keep up to date on technology. Allow staff who attend technology conventions to present their findings to the building or district when they return. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE Choosing hardware should come after deciding curriculum and looking at available software (Fine, 1991). When choosing equipment, these are some of the questions that should be addressed: What equipment is available in the district? What will be the budget? What instruction will be necessary for staff/students? What functions and capacities must the equipment possess? What will be the minimum specifications for the equipment? Is the equipment user-friendly? When preparing to evaluate software, consider the following questions: Can vendors give demonstrations of current technology? Is the software user-friendly? How does the software meet curriculum objectives? What software is presently in use? Have you used the Software Publishers Association as a resource? PURCHASING Purchasing is the process of researching, comparing, and actually paying for equipment. Make sure everyone understands the rules and regulations involved in purchasing equipment and software. Unless you must take a certain bid, shop around for bargains. If it means saving money, beg. 25 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Do your research! Never purchase equipment without first knowing what you are going to do with it. Don’t get so excited about buying equipment that you forget about the cost of software, repair, and maintenance agreements. Make sure the software/hardware you intend to buy meets minimum standards set by the state. ”The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of low price has faded from memory.”—Aldo Gucci PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT As concerns have been expressed about technology planning, at the top of the list is professional development and training. The number one question is, “How can we teach everyone how to use technology effectively?” It has been said that you train animals and develop people. Semantics are important to project your plan in a positive way. “Professional development” and “instruction” sound better than “training” to many people. Staff members seeking personal growth will be more motivated to participate when they hear “development.” A necessary component of an instructional technology plan should include technology awareness and skills instruction. The educational institution’s professional development programs need to provide learning opportunities for all personnel by offering them instruction at workshops, conferences, etc. (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional Technology Plan, 1996). Decide to make a full commitment to staff development from the start. As you prepare this component you might consider: What research should be done to see how much instruction the staff may need How much appropriate technology instruction is available What technologies should be included in the instruction such as use of: projection technology; computer(s) with modem, videodisc, and CD-ROM; distance learning; and computer networks Opportunities for personnel to attend professional development sessions Hiring a full-time professional development instructor who is not a “techie,” per se, but who understands how to utilise technology in education Use of a “teachers-teaching-teachers” approach by reallocating time for technology-oriented teachers to instruct their peers. COMMUNITY RESOURCES Community resources do not always refer to money. Use the resources available that are unique to your community (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional Technology Plan, 1996). Consider the following: You can save money by asking a company to donate the materials and/or labour needed to rewire buildings, etc. Instead of paying a consultant’s or trainer’s fee, ask a representative or individual industry if they have someone who can do it for free. 26 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Ask industry or knowledgeable individuals to undertake the task of physically setting up and putting equipment on-line. If you accomplish this, consider sending a school employee who can learn by watching and helping. If your plan calls for extra lab time after school or in the evenings, ask for volunteers (who meet such criteria as understanding the program being used, etc.) to run or supervise the lab. This might ease a teacher’s workload. Conduct brainstorming sessions with community members to discover some resources your community can contribute. COMMUNITY INVOVEMENT Community involvement is described as the interweaving of the best efforts of both the community members and the educators in producing the highest quality environment, equipment, and facilities available for the education of our youth, our greatest natural resource. When planning for the development of community involvement the following points may be considered: Discuss with community members how education has changed and how technology can play a positive role in transforming learning. Involve parents, grandparents, and community members, making them aware of the technology being used in the schools, by having Family Technology Night. Invite associations, political parties, clubs to meet in the computer labs and have students show their first trip down the “information highway.” Invite business leaders and corporations to the school for Business Technology Night. Students can design advertisements, tri-fold brochures, and electronic presentations for the various “adopted” businesses. Implementing the above suggestions will accomplish the following: Form a bond between various organisation members and students Promote a community spirit Promote lifelong learning Encourage funding from corporate sponsors Promote pride in the school Promote “real-life” application of skills learned in the classroom Encourage the use of the latest and highest quality technology available MAINTENANCE Maintenance may be defined as any repair or upkeep performed on equipment or facilities. A comprehensive maintenance plan is a necessary component of a technology plan (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional Technology 27 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Plan, 1996). This comprehensive plan will ensure: longevity of the equipment; adequate staff instruction; and budgets that are cost effective. When developing a maintenance plan, the following points may be considered: Solve maintenance problems before they arise by keeping printers, computers, monitors, and keyboards free from dust, grime, and foreign objects. Develop a budgetary process to provide for ongoing repairs. Train people (possibly two or three from each school) to provide repair services. (e.g., computer teachers, administrators, and frequent users) Provide regular updating sessions for personnel in order for them to stay abreast of current practices and techniques. Consider asking qualified and trustworthy persons such as parents, industry, business, or community residents if they would offer to repair and maintain equipment for free or at a reduced rate. (e.g., Partnerships with Businesses) Arrange printers, scanners, copiers, and other peripherals so that they are accessible for maintenance. When purchasing classroom equipment, consider asking for a contract that includes a warranty package and provides special training. Examine maintenance contracts carefully and be alert for any hidden costs. Maintain a maintenance log on each piece of equipment (e.g., date of service, who performed the service, next service date, equipment problem, what was done to solve the problem, and cost). Monitor all classroom labs to prevent maintenance problems. Train students to perform minor repair functions (e.g., printer jams, computer lock-ups, and mouse malfunctions). When purchasing computers, purchase extra equipment to keep in a box in case of an emergency (e.g., mouse, inside computer parts, and keyboard). Repair technologies as expeditiously as possible. FACILITIES Facilities relate to anything needed to house or power the chosen technology equipment. When planning for facilities, consider the following: Location Buildings & Rooms Wiring codes (example: In older buildings, can fuse boxes handle the additional power needed to run the equipment?) Data lines 28 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Security Furniture Ask teachers’ opinions about classroom layout. Do you want furniture built into walls or flooring so that there is no exposed wiring, etc.? Fire codes Panic buttons (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional Technology Plan, 1996). SECURITY Security is freedom from worry. By providing security you are protecting your computers, networks, personnel, and software from destruction, misuse, and harm. There are at least three areas to consider in the security area: security of data, personnel, and facilities (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional Technology Plan, 1996). Every security plan should be creative in investigating unique techniques/strategies for dealing with security. When developing a security plan, the following questions may be considered: Why do you need security? o People Threat (human error, dishonest employees, disgruntled employees, and hackers) o Physical Threat (fire damage, water damage, electrical outages, vandalism, viruses, and storms) Are budgeted funds sufficient to provide and sustain the type and level of security program you desire? Will budgeted funds be ongoing? What type of network security will be provided? What type of computer security will be used? o How will the staff, students, and community members access computers? o Will passwords be assigned? Will you hire someone to be responsible for data, program, virus, and network security? Should you have a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for handling security problems? Where should security systems be installed? o Do you need security in each room? o Do you need security in each building? Do you need cameras to monitor people and equipment? Do you need to provide after-hours security for protection from theft or vandalism? Should CDs / diskettes be stored and locked in a central location? Should measures be taken to prevent students from obtaining materials that are of adult content? 29 Chapter 8: Technology Integration IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN Many planners believe their job is complete after a plan is written, but in actuality it has only begun. A written technology plan has direction and long-term technology goals (North Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium, 2005). However, for each new technology introduced to an organisation, there will be stages of implementation that include resource development (budget), evaluation, selection, installation, training, pilot projects, mini-implementations, and, finally, full implementation. These stages should all be reflected in a technology plan. It is also important to remember not to judge technology as ineffective when it is not implemented according to the plan (Holmes & Rawitsch, 1993). Flexibility, patience, and adaptability are essential for any kind of change process and certainly for implementing technology. The following questions should be addressed when planning the implementation of your plan: What is the timeline for meeting the goals of your plan? Who is responsible for achieving milestones on the timelines? What professional development strategies will you use? How will you provide time for ongoing staff development, including time to practice and learn new technologies? What is your plan for networking, acquiring hardware and software, and updating the facility? How will you deal with the rapid changes in technology? What funding is available currently? How will funding be provided over the life of the plan? How will you coordinate and leverage a variety of funding resources to support your plan? How will you deal with contingencies such as changes in leadership and changes in budget? How will you determine which program area, discipline, or staff will receive highest priorities for receiving technologies? Who (or what group) will be responsible for implementing the technology plan? What incentives and sanctions will you implement to ensure that everyone achieves a high level of technological proficiency? How will you ensure equity of access to technology and engaged learning experiences for all students? How will your instructional use of technology address district, state, and federal mandates including curriculum, special needs, minority populations, and equity issues? What new policies are needed to support implementation of your plan? EVALUATING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TECHNOLOGY PLAN Technology implementation is a continuous process that adapts to the organization's changing circumstances and includes ongoing evaluation. Effective evaluation will force planners to rethink and adapt objectives, priorities, and strategies 30 Chapter 8: Technology Integration as implementation proceeds. Continuous evaluation also facilitates making changes if aspects of the plan are not working (North Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium, 2005). Evaluating the implementation of a technology plan can be conducted by various means. Simple observations, both negative and positive, that have been made by students and teachers using the technology are the most helpful. Interviews and informal meetings with both instructors and students can draw out the lessons that both groups have learned from using the technology. A simple written survey can assist in measuring the extent to which the plan has met its original objectives and expected outcomes. The following questions should be addressed when planning the evaluation of the implementation of your technology plan: How and when will you evaluate the impact your technology plan implementation has on student performance? Who will be responsible for collecting ongoing data to assess the effectiveness of the plan and its implementation? What windows of opportunity exist for reviewing the technology plan? (For example, the plan might be reviewed during curriculum review cycles.) How will accountability for implementation be assessed? How will you assess the level of technological proficiency gained by students, teachers, and staff? How will you use technology to evaluate teaching and learning? What is the key indicator of success for each component of the plan? How will you analyse the effectiveness of disbursement decisions in light of implementation priorities? How will you analyse implementation decisions to accommodate for changes as a result of new information and technologies? What organizational mechanism will you create that allows changes in the implementation of the technology plan and in the plan itself? LEARNING ACTIVITY a) What is the purpose of a technology plan? b) Discuss the components of a comprehensive plan for integrating technology in the classroom? c) To what extent is the sample technology plan proposed useful if you were to plan for technology integration in your educational institution? describe technology integration is at in your educational institution? 31 Chapter 8: Technology Integration KEY TERMS Technology integration Problem solving projects Digital natives Information collections Social networking Taxonomy of technology integration Internet Technology matrix Keypals Technology plan Global classroom Technology integration Information exchange implementation SUMMARY Technology integration involves the infusion of technology as a tool to enhance the learning in a content area or multidisciplinary setting which is achieved when students are able to select technology tools to help them obtain information in a timely manner, analyse and synthesise the information, and present it professionally. Technology also changes the way teachers teach, offering educators effective ways to reach different types of learners and assess student understanding through multiple means. Technology is everywhere and all around us (i.e. ubiquitous) , touching almost every part of our lives, our communities, our homes. Many people believe that technology-enabled project learning is going to be the future of classroom instruction. The Taxonomy of Technology Integration developed by Bailey (2002) consists of the following six levels: storage, exploration, application, evaluation and analysis, constructing, The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) helps guide the complex task of evaluating technology integration in the classroom and how teachers can use technology to enhance learning for students in schools; incorporates five interdependent characteristics of meaningful learning environments: Peck and list 10 reasons for using technology in schools which is still relevant today. 32 Chapter 8: Technology Integration Harris offers educators three ACTIVITY STRUCTURES or approaches that can be adopted at all levels of education (primary, secondary, higher education): Problem Solving Projects, Interpersonal Exchanges and Information Collections. Technology planning is an activity that provides direction and helps users understand clearly where they are now and imagine where they want to be. REFERENCES Anderson, C. (2006, July). People power: Blogs, user reviews, photo-sharing – the peer production era has arrived. Wired, 132. Bailey, M. (2002). Education and Values: Interface on the Internet: Reconceptualising Teaching and Learning in a Technocracy Bloom's Revised Taxonomy (2001). Berglund Center for Internet Studies. Pacific University. Oregon. Cohen, D. K. (1988). Educational technology and school organization. In R. S. Nickerson, & P. P. Zodhiates (Eds.), Technology in education: Looking toward 2020 (pp. 231-264). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines: The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press. Fine, M. F. (1991). Going high tech: Computerized literacy instruction. Adult Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional Technology Plan Version 2.0 Learning, 2(4), 11-14. Mississippi State University. 1996. Harris, J. (1998). Virtual Architecture: Designing and Directing Curriculum-Based Telecomputing. International Society for Technology. Harris, J. (2001). Virtual architecture: Designing and directing curriculum-based telecomputing (1st & 2nd eds.). Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education. Holmes, K., & Rawitch, D. (1993). Evaluating technology-based instructional programs: An educator's guide. Denton, TX: Texas Center for Educational Technology. Peck, K. & Dorricott, D. (1994). Realizing the Promise of Technology. Educational Leadership. 51(7). 11-14 Piele, P. K. (1989). The politics of technology utilization. In D. E. Mitchell & M. E. Goertz (Eds.), Educational politics for the new century: The twentieth anniversary 33 Chapter 8: Technology Integration yearbook of the Politics of Education Association (pp. 93-106). London: Falmer Press. Prensky, M. (2005, Dec/Jan). Listen to the natives. Educational Leadership, 63(4), 9- 13. North Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium (2005). Guiding Questions for Technology Planning. Version 1.0. Regional Technology in Education Consortia. The Florida Center for Instructional Technology (2007). The Technology Matrix. College of Education. University of South Florida.
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