Module 8 Technology Integration by X34e3B



Chapter 8: Technology Integration

Chapter 8:
Chapter 8:


        Chapter    1:   Introduction
        Chapter    2:   Instructional Theories
        Chapter    3:   Designing Instruction
        Chapter    4:   E-Learning
        Chapter    5:   Web Tools and Learning
        Chapter    6:   Self-Instructional Materials
        Chapter    7:   Distance Education
        Chapter    8:   Technology Integration in Schools

   Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

      Explain what is meant by technology in the classroom
      Identify why technology integration across the curriculum is imperative today
      Discuss some of the methods of integrating technology in the classroom
      Describe criteria for assessing extent of technology integration in schools
      Identify

                             CHAPTER OVERVIEW

           Preamble                            Determining level of technology
           What is technology                   integration in schools
            integration?                             o Taxonomy
           Why technology integration?              o TIM
           Top 10 reasons for using           Technology integration in
            technology in the classroom          education: Planning,
           Methods of technology                implementation & evaluation
            integration                       Key Terms

Chapter 8: Technology Integration


       This chapter discusses the integration of technology into teaching and learning
in primary,

                         On Ink….
                         “Students today depend on store bought ink. The don’t
                         know how to make their own. When they run out of
                         ink they will be unable to write words or ciphers until
                         their next trip to the settlement. This is a sad
                         commentary on modern education”.
                                          ─ Rural American Teacher, 1928

                           On ballpoint pens….
                           “Ballpoint pens will be the ruin of education in our
                           country. Students use these devices and then throw
                           them away. The American values of thrift and
                           frugality are being discarded. Businesses and banks
                           will never allow such expensive items”.
                                             ─ Federal Teacher, 1950

                  LEARNING ACTIVITY
                  a) What is your comment about the two statements above by
                     two teachers organisation in the United States?
                  b) What is the message in these two statements?
                  c) Are there people with such thinking still around?

Chapter 8: Technology Integration


      Technology integration involves the infusion of technology as a tool to
       enhance the learning in a content area or multidisciplinary setting which is
       achieved when students are able to select technology tools to help them obtain
       information in a timely manner, analyse and synthesize the information, and
       present it professionally. The technology should become an integral part of
       how the classroom functions — as accessible as all other classroom tools. The
       focus in each lesson or unit is the curriculum outcome, not the technology
       [International Society for Technology in Education, ISTE, 2009].

      Technology integration, as defined as the incorporation of technology
       resources and technology-based practices into the daily routines, work, and
       management of schools. Resources are computers and specialised software,
       network-based communication systems, and other equipment and
       infrastructure. Practices include collaborative work and communication,
       Internet-based research, remote access to instrumentation, network-based
       transmission and retrieval of data, and other methods. [National Forum on
       Education Statistics, Forum Unified Education Technology Suite, 2005].

      Technology integration is the use of technology resources – computers, digital
       cameras, CD-ROMs, software applications, the Internet, etc. in daily
       classroom practices, and in the management of a school. Technology
       integration is achieved when the use of technology is routine and transparent.
       Technology integration is achieved when a child or a teacher does not stop to
       think that he or she is using a computer or researching via the Internet
       [Edutopia: What Works in Public Education. The George Lucas
       Educational Foundation, 2009].

        Based on these definitions, there is some consensus that technology
integration in schools is the effort made to use information and communication in
teaching and learning and the management of schools. Technology is used to support
the achievement of curriculum goals and to help students to effectively reach their
learning goals. Technology integration is an ongoing process and is continuously
changing demanding continual learning. . The acceptance of change is a major
requirement for technology integration and change is not always easy. The initial
human reaction to change is resistance. Resistance makes for slow change, but change
is inevitable.


       Technology is everywhere and all around us (i.e. ubiquitous) , touching almost
every part of our lives, our communities, our homes. Becoming proficient in new and
emerging technologies is vital to the future of education. According to Marc Prensky

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

(2005), today's students; digital natives who have mastered a variety of tools (virtual
worlds, gaming environments, blogs, wikis, intelligent agents, iPods, and MP3 files
and players); and educating or evaluating students without these tools makes no more
sense to them than educating or evaluating a plumber without his or her wrench. In
addition, their system of communication involves instant messaging, sharing
information through blogs, buying and selling on eBay, exchanging through peer-to-
peer technology, creating with Flash, meeting in 3D worlds, collecting via
downloading, coordinating and collaborating through wikis, searching with Google,
reporting via their camera phones, programming, socializing in chat rooms, and let us
not forget learning via Web surfing. Their tools are just extensions of their brains.
        The use of these new tools is among trends driving our global economy
(Anderson, 2006). These tools "harness the wisdom of the crowd," enable "a shared
culture of fandom, commentary, and camaraderie" to be developed, and ultimately are
taking the Information Age to a new level, which Anderson (2006) calls the "Age of
Peer Production" (p. 132). We digital immigrants have a long way to go to learn
their language and master their media.
        Yet most schools lag far behind when it comes to integrating technology into
classroom learning. Many are just beginning to explore the true potential technology
offers for teaching and learning. Properly used, technology will help students acquire
the skills they need to survive in a complex, highly technological knowledge-based
economy. As defined earlier, integrating technology into classroom instruction means
more than teaching basic computer skills and software programmes. Effective
technology integration must happen across the curriculum in ways that research
shows deepen and enhance the learning process. In particular, it must support four key
components of learning: active engagement, participation in groups, frequent
interaction and feedback, and connection to real-world experts. Effective technology
integration is achieved when the use of technology is routine and transparent and
when technology supports curricular goals.
        Many people believe that technology-enabled project learning is going to be
the future of classroom instruction. Learning through projects while equipped with
technology tools allows students to be intellectually challenged while providing them
with a realistic snapshot of what the modern workplace looks like. Through projects,
students acquire and refine their analysis and problem-solving skills as they work
individually and in teams to find, process, and synthesise information they've found
online. The massive amount of online resources would provide each classroom with
more interesting, diverse, and current learning materials. The Web connects students
to experts in the real world and provides numerous opportunities for expressing
understanding through images, sound, and text.
        New technology tools for visualising and modeling, especially in the sciences,
offer students ways to experiment and observe phenomenon and to view results in
graphic ways that aid in understanding. And, as an added benefit, with technology
tools and a project-learning approach, students are more likely to stay engaged and on
task, reducing behavioral problems in the classroom. Technology also changes the
way teachers teach, offering educators effective ways to reach different types of
learners and assess student understanding through multiple means. It also enhances
the relationship between teacher and student. When technology is effectively
integrated into subject areas, teachers grow into roles of adviser, content expert, and
coach. Technology helps make teaching and learning more meaningful and fun.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

 I agree that technology is the future of education. I am hoping to learn about
 how to integrate technology in the classroom. I hope to gain ideas on how to
 incorporate technology into an environment that is sometimes resistant to
 change. Our school has limited resources and funds, not to mention the current
 state of the economy, so I'm also hoping to find creative ways to incorporate
 technology with limited resources. The world around us is constantly changing
 and, for better or worse, becoming more dependant on technology. Therefore, if
 we expect our students, the leaders of tomorrow, to become prepared and be able
 to compete with others from around the world, we need to prepare them

 - Melissa [from a blog on Edutopia: The George Lucas Education Foundation,

  I am currently working towards a master’s degree in integrating technology into
  the classroom, and have recently started utilising technology in my lessons.
  Becoming proficient in new and emerging technologies is vital to the future of
  education. Technology is constantly changing and becoming more advanced; it
  is more prevalent in our every day lives and in the workplace. In today’s society
  it seems that almost every student has a cell phone that is more powerful than a
  computer, an iPod capable of viewing live podcasts from the internet, and an
  understanding of various technologies that would puzzle most adults. As
  students become more technologically savvy it is crucial for educators to remain
  up to date with current trends, and use these technological tools to enhance
  instruction. Although technology is an incredible tool to improve class
  instruction the biggest problem is that many school systems are slow to adjust to
. these new trends. In my school we have three computer labs available to all
  teachers who request their use. Each lab is equipped with a smart board, a
  computer for every student, and laser jet printers. Although these great resources
  are available for all teachers, very few actually take advantage of them; many
  teachers shy away from these new teaching methods because they are unfamiliar
  with how to use these resources for instruction. I think to truly maximise the
  potential of technology in education schools should offer workshops for teachers
  who are unfamiliar with these methods. If the schools were able to offer more
  support to teachers then everyone would be able to use technology in their
  instruction, which would lead to increased knowledge retention and
  development of practical abilities in all students.

 - Robert [from a blog on Edutopia: The George Lucas Education Foundation,

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

                     LEARNING ACTIVITY
                     a) To what extent has technology been adopted in teaching and
                        and learning in your institution?
                     b) Comment on the opinions of ‘Melissa’ and ‘Robert’

                  Education World…the educators best friend
        o Check out this website
        o What kinds of services are provided by the website in technology


        Kyle L. Peck and Denise Dorricott wrote an article “Realising the Promise of
Technology?” in Educational Leadership in 1994 (some 15 years ago) listing 10 reasons for
using technology in schools which is still relevant today:

1) Students Learn And Develop At Different Rates.
Technology can individualise instruction. Using the internet and specially designed e-
learning courses, teachers can prescribe individual learning paths for students. At the
moment students are taught using one or two textbooks which may not be adapted to
the different backgrounds, interests, and motivation of students. With technology-
enabled courses using multimedia, simulations, online tests, virtual environments,
students can move at an appropriate pace in a nonthreatening environment,
developing a solid foundation of basic skills.

2) Students Graduating from the School System must be Proficient at Accessing,
Evaluating, and Communicating Information.
The internet is filled with billions of pages of useful information which is easily accessible
and many of which is available free. Educational technologies can; by design – provoke
students to raise searching questions, enter debates, formulate opinions, engage in problem
solving and critical thinking, and test their views of reality. Online tools and resources allow
students to efficiently gather and evaluate information, then communicate their thoughts and
findings. This communication may require reading; thinking; writing; creating charts, graphs,
and other images; or the organisation and production of information; for example using
spreadsheets and databases.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

3) Technology Can Foster an Increase in the Quantity and Quality of Students' Writing
and Thinking..
Perhaps one of the best documented successes with computers in education is in
developing students' writing. Several features of word processors seem to reduce the
phobia often associated with writing. Writing on the computer has a temporary feel,
making it easier to take creative and grammatical risks. Difficulty with the fine motor
skills required by handwriting usually does not transfer to the keyboard; thus the
word processor can reduce frustration. Editing and revising can occur almost as
quickly as one thinks, and finished products printed from a word processor have a
professional quality that generates a sense of accomplishment.

4) Students Graduating from the School System must Solve Complex Problems.
Higher-level process skills cannot be “taught” in the traditional sense; they cannot be
transferred directly from the teacher to the learner. Students need to develop these
skills for themselves, with appropriate guidance. They need to struggle with questions
they have posed and search out their own answers. A collection of computer
applications often called productivity tools could revolutionise the way students work
and, more important, the way they think. Databases, spreadsheets, computer-assisted
design, graphics programs, and multimedia authoring programmes (programmes for
creating computer-based presentations or lessons) allow students to independently
organise, analyze, interpret, develop, and evaluate their own work. These tools engage
students in focused problem solving, allowing them to think through what they want
to accomplish, quickly test and retest solution strategies, and immediately display the

5) Technology can Nurture Artistic Expression.
Modern technology-based art forms (video production, digital photography,
computer-based animation, and the like) have great appeal, encouraging artistic
expression among our diverse student population. These tools provide forms of
artistic communication for those students who have been constrained by the
traditional options of verbal and written communication, and they increase motivation
and foster creative problem-solving skills as students evaluate the many possible ways
to communicate ideas.

6) Students Graduating must be Globally Aware and able to Use Resources that
Exist Outside the School.
With few exceptions, children's domains of discovery during the school day are
limited to the classroom and the school. Technological tools allow students to
inexpensively and instantly reach around the world, learning first-hand about other
cultures. Various technologies can provide up-to-date maps and demographic data,
and computer-based wire services can bring a newsroom-quality stream of current
events into the school.

7) Technology Creates Opportunities for Students to do Meaningful Work.
Students need to produce products that have value outside school, receive feedback on
their work, and experience the rewards of publication or exhibition. Technology can
provide a widespread audience for students' work. Computers link students to the
world, provide new reasons to write, and offer new sources of feedback on ideas.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

Students' video products shown on the web can produce high levels of motivation and
8) All Students Need Access to High-Level and High-Interest Courses.
Electronic and digital media can bring experiences and information previously
unimagined by students into the classroom. Through the internet and instructional
television, students can view and discuss events they otherwise could not experience.
The internet and CD-ROMs put thousands of images and topics at students' fingertips.
Distance education technologies can bring important learning experiences to students,
even in area where small student populations have made some courses impossible to

9. Students Must Feel Comfortable with the Tools of the Information Age.
Computers and other technologies are an increasingly important part of the world in
which students live. Many of today's information producers are converting their
knowledge bases to digital format and are constructing new technologies to increase
speed, capacity, and reliability of dissemination. As telephone, wireless, computer,
television, and other media merge, incredible resources will become available. An “I
tell you, you tell me, and I'll grade you” model of education will not prepare students
to take advantage of these resources.

10. Schools Must Increase their Productivity and Efficiency.
It has been said that “If technology can replace the teacher, then it should”.
Technology enables a teacher when to act as Sage on the Stage and when to act as a
Guide on the Side. When students are busy making up their own minds, the role of
the teacher shifts the teacher takes the role of a sage. When questioning, problem-
solving and investigation become the priority classroom activities, the teacher
becomes a guide on the side. Many of the routine tasks done by teachers can be
reassigned to technology, elevating the role of teacher to that of sage.

        Some things only teachers can do. Teachers can build strong, productive
relationships with students. Technologies can't. Teachers can motivate students to
love learning. Technologies can't. Teachers can identify and meet students' emotional
needs. Technologies can't. Technology-based solutions in education can, and must,
free the teacher to do the important work that requires human interaction, continuous
evaluation, and improvement of the learning environment. Computer-based
technologies can administer individualised lesson sequences that branch and
remediate according to students' unique needs, quickly and automatically track
progress, perform data analysis, and generate reports. Other computer-based tools
enable teachers to quickly generate individualized communications to parents, create
lesson plans, and select instructional materials from a rich resource database. If entire
schools use such capabilities, record keeping and communication can be dramatically

                 LEARNING ACTIVITY
                 a) Do you agree with “Top 10 Reasons for Using Technology in
                    Education”? Discuss in relation to your institution.
                 b) Suggest other reasons for using technology in educational
                    institutions or training.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

METHODS   OF             INTEGRATING            TECHNOLOGY              IN     THE

        While most people would agree that technology has to be integrated into
teaching and learning in primary and secondary school, many educators are not aware
of the methods to bring technology into the classroom. One of the earliest to suggest
how teachers could integrate technology in the classroom was Judi Harris (1998,
2001) who has written several books and countless articles dealing with the effective
integration of technology in the classroom. Her focus is on the internet and she
believes that the Internet offers educators three ACTIVITY STRUCTURES or
approaches that can be adopted at all levels of education (primary, secondary, higher

           1) Problem Solving Projects
           2) Interpersonal Exchanges
           3) Information Collections

Problem Solving activities promote critical thinking, collaboration, and problem-
based learning. Judi Harris suggested 7 types of problem solving projects:

      Information Searches:
       Students are presented with a problem and clues
       to help solve it. Students are asked to answer
       specific, fact-based questions related to curricular
       topics. Answers are posted in electronic format
       and online for other students to see (on websites,
       portals, blogs & social networking sites).
      Peer Feedback Activities:
       Students publish work online, and other students or subject area experts
       provide constructive criticism. Students are encouraged to provide
       constructive responses to the ideas and forms of work done by students in
       different locations, often reviewing multiple drafts of documents over time.
      Parallel Problem-Solving:
       Students in several locations are presented
       with a similar problem, which they solve
       separately and then together, electronically.
       Students in compare, contrast, and discuss
       their multiple problem-solving strategies
      Sequential Creations:
       Students share in the creation of a new
       document,           such         as         an
       electronic composition, or item, by passing
       it from location to location. For example,
       students in different locations sequentially

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

       create a common story, poem, song, picture or other product online. Each
       participating group adds their segment to the common product (‘Google docs’
       would be a appropriate tool for this purpose).
      Virtual Gatherings:
       Students are brought together from different locations and time zones for a
       computer-mediated meeting. Students simultaneously engage in
       communications-based real-time activities from different locations.
       Developing brainstormed solutions to real-world problems via video or web-
       conferencing is a popular application of this structure.
      Simulations:
       Either person-to-person or through
       using software, participants explore a
       virtual world. Students participate in
       authentic, but simulated, problem-
       based situations online, often while
       collaborating with other students in
       different locations.
      Social Action Projects:
       Students around the world work together for change, a collaboration that can
       lead toward social action. Students are encouraged to consider real and timely
       problems, then take action toward resolution with other students elsewhere.
       Although the problems explored are often global in scope, the action taken to
       address the problem is usually local.

Information Collection and Analysis activities are those which involve students
collecting, compiling, and comparing different types of interesting information.
Information Judi Harris suggested 5 types of information collection and analysis

      Information Exchanges:
       Students share information such as book reviews, favourite quotations, local
       weather conditions, recipes, etc. Students and teachers in different locations
       collect, share, compare and
       discuss information related to
       specific topics or themes that are
       experienced      or     expressed
       differently at each participating
      Database Creations
       Students construct a database of
       information, which is to be
       shared with students in other
       local or international schools.
       Students and teachers organise information they have collected or created into
       databases which others can use and to which others can add or respond.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

      Electronic Publishing
       Students create an online publication, such as a newspaper, literary magazine,
       electronic journal or ethnic cookbook. Students create electronic documents,
       such as Web pages, blogs or social networking sites such as facebook, or word
       processed newsletters, collaboratively with others. Remotely located students
       learn from and respond to these published projects.
      Pooled Data Analysis
       Students receive information from classes around the world, then analyse it,
       looking for patterns, similarities, or differences, and then report their findings.
       Students in different places collect data of a particular type on a specific topic
       and then combine the data across locations for analysis.
      Virtual Fieldtrips
       Students electronically "tag
       along" with other individuals
       currently     visiting     other
       places. Students participate in
       the activity by emailing
       expedition             members
       questions, and by taking part
       in activities or experiments
       related to the project. Virtual
       fieldtrips allow students to
       virtually experience p laces
       or participate in activities that
       would        otherwise         be
       impossible for them, due to
       monetary or geographic

Interpersonal Exchanges are those activities in which individuals communicate
electronically with other individuals, individuals communicate with groups or groups
communicate with other groups. Judi Harris suggested 6 types of activities involving
interpersonal exchanges:

      Keypals
       The first and most popular type of interpersonal
       exchange,      keypals     involves      facilitating
       communication between individuals who attend
       different schools, or who live in different regions.
       Students communicate with others outside their
       classrooms via email about curriculum-related
       topics chosen by teachers and/or students.
       Communications can be one-to-one or broadcast.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

      Electronic Mentoring
       Like electronic appearances, but occurring with subject area specialists for
       longer time periods. Students communicate with subject matter experts over
       extended periods of time to explore specific topics in depth and in an inquiry-
       based format.
      Electronic Appearances
       An activity structure wherein authors, scientists, or other professionals appear
       online to answer student questions or participate in discussion relevant to their
       own professional lives. Such activities differ from electronic mentoring in that
       they are usually restricted to very brief time frames. Students have
       opportunities to communicate with subject matter experts and/or famous
       people via email, videoconferencing, or chat-rooms. These activities are
       typically short-term (often onetime) and correspond to curricular objectives.
      Global Classrooms
       Short or long interaction
       between groups, usually two
       or more classrooms, based on a
       topic. Groups of students and
       teachers in different locations
       study a curriculum-related
       topic together during the same
       time period. Projects are
       frequently interdisciplinary and thematically organised.
      Question-and-Answer Services
       Short-lived communication where students ask an expert. Students
       communicate with subject matter experts on a short-term basis as questions
       arise during their study of a specific topic. This is used only when all other
       information resources have been exhausted.
      Impersonations
       A type of electronic appearance distinguished by the presence of an individual
       who plays the role of a literary or historical character. Impersonation projects
       are those in which some or all participants communicate in character, rather
       than as themselves. Impersonations of historical figures and literary
       protagonists are most common

        Thus, the teacher/instructor who is keen in teaching with technology has at his
or her disposal a variety of methods. The instructor should from the beginning equip
himself or herself with the relevant technology skills such as being familiar with the
internet and the abundant resources and tools (see Figure 8.1). The teacher / instructor
who selects any of the above methods discussed earlier should identify his or her role
in the teaching-learning situation. For some methods, the teacher is a facilitator while
in other methods, the teacher is an instructor. The teacher/instructor should also be
aware of the time needed for using a particular method because different methods
involve a different time-frame. Some methods may require several 40 minute periods
while others may be done in a 40 minute class period.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

        The teacher/instructor who is planning to teach with technology should also
understand the learning styles students in the class. Do students have relevant
computer skills? Do they know how to surf the web? Do they know how to use the
different tools? For example, do they know how to discuss in the discussion forum or
the chat-room. Do they know how to download and upload material? If possible the
teacher/instructor should also take into consideration the ‘learning styles of students.
For example, some students are visual learners and so images and animations may be
useful in motivating them; while others are verbal learners and are comfortable with
text material. Similarly, others may be auditory inclined as so prefer to learn with the
aid of voice support such as podcasts and audio clips.

                        Figure 8.1 Teaching with technology

        Whatever technology is used, the ultimate goal of teaching is to present a body
of content that has to be understood by students. The technology selected and how it
is adopted will depend to a large extent on the discipline or more specifically the
topic. For example, to illustrate physics concepts animation would ideal and to engage
students in poetry, an audio reading of a poem may help students appreciate further
the poem. The teacher / instructor should not attempt to use technology for technology

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

sake; but rather to use technology where it will best serve to enhance learning. For
example, writing skills can be improved if students discuss online in a discussion
forum or engage in collaboratively completing a story online. The teacher / instructor
needs to consider the cognitive outcomes to be achieved when technology is used. For
example, if the aim is to get students to construct knowledge, then relevant methods
should be designed that use technology to enable students to construct knowledge.
        Finally, teaching with technology involves the technology itself. What types
of technology tools are available? How each of these tools may be used? For example,
with access to the internet, the teacher could use blogs and wikis in their teaching. In
other words, the teacher / instructor should be very familiar with the variety of
technology tools available as well as how to search for relevant material that may be
used in teaching and learning. Similarly, as mentioned earlier, students have to be
familiar with these tools and resources. If they are not, then the teacher / instructor
may have to teach students how to use them as we cannot assume that all students are
familiar with technology.

                 LEARNING ACTIVITY
                    a) Briefly list the types of skills and values that will be
                       developed if the learning activities suggested by Judi
                       Harris are widely used in schools?
                    b) Which of the above learning activities you have adopted
                        and will be able to adopt in teaching your subject area?


         With the advent of the computer and later the internet, many educational
institutions all over the world have embraced technology but their integration in the
classroom has been variable depending on policy, affordability, expertise of
teachers/instructors, bandwidth connection, cultural diversity, attitude and so forth.
Levels of technology in the classroom has varied from merely using technology for
projection purposes (such as using the computer and the LCD projector to show
powerpoint slides) to collaborating on the web in the construction of knowledge.
Several guidelines have been proposed to enable teachers/instructors, administrators
and the community in determining how they stand on technology integration. In this
chapter we will focus on two such guidelines:

      The Taxonomy of Technology Integration
      The Technology Matrix

 Chapter 8: Technology Integration

 These two guidelines serves not only as an evaluation tool in determining the level of
 technology integration in a particular educational institution but also help teachers/
 instructors on how to integrate technology in the classroom.

        The Taxonomy of Technology Integration was proposed by M. Bailey in
 2002. (see Figure 8.2). You will notice that the author has used the well-known
 Bloom’s Taxonomy and the revised version of 2001 has been referred to.

                                     6. CONSTRUCTING

                                     4. EVALUATION & PROBLEM-SOLVING

                                     4. ANALYSIS

Figure 8.2 Taxonomy of               3. APPLICATION
Technology Integration
                                     2. EXPLORATION

                                     1. STORAGE

 [source: Bailey, M. (2002). Education and Values: Interface on the Internet:
 Reconceptualising Teaching and Learning in a Technocracy Bloom's Revised
 Taxonomy (2001). Berglund Center for Internet Studies. Pacific University. Oregon]

         The above taxonomy was developed to represent qualitatively different levels
 of technology integration in educational institutions. The lowest level of this
 taxonomy involves using computers to simply store or display material for students to
 use; it places them in a passive role. The highest taxonomic level represents active
 students synthesising material and utilising technology to construct projects such as
 hypermedia presentations.

 Level 1: STORAGE
     Students view information which is projected to the class or displayed on their
        individual screen
     Students download information onto their hard drive, thumb-drives or CDs.
     Students view a powerpoint presentation
     Students are passive recipients of information and may be required to recall
        what is presented.

     Students are engaged in pursuit of information to better understand concepts
        and principles
     Students use search engines (e.g. google, yahoo) and hyperlinks in accessing
        information to facilitate better understanding of concepts and principles.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

      Cognitive process is deeper and more relevant as the student is in charge of
       directing this search.
      Students collaborate online to share ideas and exchange information.

    Students apply concepts or understanding to a new situation.
    Students are provided with technology tools that will let them apply concepts
       or understanding to a novel situation.
    Applying concepts in this manner allows them to reflect on its veracity and
    The construction of electronic portfolios can assist students in applying their
       understanding and representing this construction in an electronic form.

    Students use technology to analyse materials or ideas by manipulating them
       and organising them is represented at the fourth taxonomic level.
    Here the focus is on the process of analysis that is facilitated by such tools as
       Inspiration or Visio, where the learner can engage in concept mapping or the
       manipulation of ideas as a means of understanding their relationship.
    Word processing tools provide a powerful means for individuals to organise
       and analyse ideas as well.
    Google Docs allows 2 or more individuals to be linked on the web and to work
       together to analyse and represent complex concepts or ideas. There are a
       number of whiteboards that can also serve this same process of group
       construction of understanding.

    Students use technology to support the process of evaluation. This can be done
       in a number of ways.
    One way to engage students a this level is by compiling information and
       resources into a digital repository that will allow them to address issues of
       history or current events and to evaluate these resources.
    It can be facilitated by developing simulations that will immerse students in an
       environment that will help them evaluate relevant dimensions and solve the
       problems that are posed.
    Students engage in collaborative web-based environments that support or
       foster evaluation and problem-solving. For example, applications like
       NetMeeting are unique in providing a collaborative environment that can
       foster communication and problem-solving.

    At the highest taxonomic level is the deep processing that is promoted by the
       design or construction of integrating projects.
    Most of the processes represented at the lower taxonomic levels are brought
       together in the design of projects.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

      In the development of powerful projects, students must explore ideas and
       resources, and analyse and evaluate information in a final synthesis.
      Students use websites, blogs, wikis, podcasting sites, multimedia tools and
       social networking sites to represent and present their ideas on the web.

        The taxonomy proposed by Bailey (2002) can be used by educators both as an
evaluation checklist as well as a pedagogical checklist showing ways in which they
can utilise technology to foster significant and memorable learning experiences.
While there is nothing wrong with beginning at the lower level processes; and at times
is a pre-requisite, teaching should go beyond to higher taxonomic levels. Teachers are
encouraged to develop ways for students to utilise technology at a range of levels, but
to plan for maximum exposure to those
applications of technology that can foster
higher level cognitive objectives. The role of
technology is to direct & foster thinking.
The more actively engaged the learner is in the
process of thinking and manipulating
information, the deeper the processing and the
more meaningful the learning. Thoughtfully
structuring learning environments and
selecting technology tools that can help
teachers meet their educational objectives
should be the ultimate goal.
        The taxonomy is designed to represent
qualitatively different cognitive processes that
are fostered by the integration of a range of technology into the learning process. As is
the case with Bloom's taxonomy, there are lower and higher level objectives. One
aspect of technology is that, the tools can be used by an individual on their own
computer so the process of constructing is internal and personal. However, an
increasing number of web-based applications are emerging that provide a means of
collaboratively constructing an understanding. The key to understanding this
taxonomy is not to focus on the tools that are being used, but instead to focus on the
cognitive process that the tool is supporting. It is this process that is the mechanism of

                   LEARNING ACTIVITY
                       a) What kind of learning activities would you introduce to
                          encourage students to “construct or design” in your
                          subject area using technology?
                       c) Using the Taxonomy by Bailey, at what level would you
                           describe technology integration is at in your educational

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

         The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) developed by the Office of
Technology Learning and Innovation, Florida Department of Education (2006) to help
guide the complex task of evaluating technology integration in the classroom. It also
illustrates how teachers can use technology to enhance learning for students in
schools. The TIM incorporates five interdependent characteristics of meaningful
learning environments:
     Active
     Constructive
     Goal Directed (i.e., reflective)
     Authentic
     Collaborative

For each of these learning environments, five levels of technology integration were
     Entry
     Adoption
     Adaptation
     Infusion
     Transformation

Together, the five characteristics of meaningful learning environments and the five
levels of technology integration, a matrix of 25 cells is created (see Table 8.1). The
details of each cell are described as follows:


Students use technology for drill and practice and computer based training.

Adoption- Active
Students begin to utilise technology tools to create products, for example using a
word processor to create a report.

Adaptation- Active
Students have opportunities to select and modify technology tools to accomplish
specific purposes, for example using coloured cells on a spreadsheet to plan a garden.

Infusion- Active
Throughout the school day, students are empowered to select appropriate technology
tools and actively apply them to the tasks at hand.

Transformation- Active
Given ongoing access to online resources, students actively select and pursue topics
beyond the limitations of even the best school library.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

        Levels        Entry           Adoption      Adaptation    Infusion       Transformation
                      Teacher uses    Teacher       Teacher       Teacher        Teacher creates a
                      technology to   directs       encourages    creates a      rich learning
                      deliver         students in   adaptation    learning       environment to
                      curriculum      the           of tool-      environment    engage students in
                      content to      conventio     based         that infuses   activities that
                      students.       nal use of    software .    the power of   would have been
                                      tool-based                  technology     impossible to
                                      software                    tools          achieve without
Active                Entry-          Adoption      Adaptation-   Infusion-      Transformation-
Students are          Active          - Active      Active        Active         Active
actively engaged
in using
technology as a
Collaborative         Entry-          Adoption      Adaptation-   Infusion-      Transformation-
Students use          Collaborative   Collabora     Collabora-    Collabora-     Collaborative
technology tools                      -tive         tive          tive
to collaborate with
others .
Constructive          Entry-          Adoption      Adaptation-   Infusion-      Transformation-
Students use          Constructive    Construc-     Construc-     Construc-      Constructive
technology tools                      tive          tive          tive
to build
Authentic             Entry-          Adoption      Adaptation-   Infusion-      Transformation-
Students use          Authentic       Authentic     Authentic     Authentic      Authentic
technology tools
to solve real-world
Goal Directed         Entry           Adoption      Adaptation-   Infusion-      Transformation-
Students use          Goal-Directed   Goal-         Goal-         Goal-          Goal-Directed
technology tools                      Directed      Directed      Directed
to set goals, plan
activities, monitor
progress, and
evaluate results

                      Table 8.1 Technology integration matrix

[source: The Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education,
University of South Florida. 2007]

Chapter 8: Technology Integration


Students primarily work alone when using technology.

Adoption Collaborative
Students have opportunities to utilise collaborative tools, such as email, in
conventional ways.

Students have opportunities to select and modify technology tools to facilitate
collaborative work.

Throughout the day and across subject areas, students utilise technology tools to
facilitate collaborative learning.

Technology enables students to collaborate with peers and experts irrespective of time
zone or physical distances.


Technology is used to deliver information to students.

Adoption Constructive
Students begin to utilise constructive tools such as graphic organisers to build
upon prior knowledge and construct meaning.

Students have opportunities to select and modify technology tools to assist them in the
construction of understanding.

Students utilize technology to make connections and construct understanding across
disciplines and throughout the day.

Students use technology to construct, share, and publish knowledge to a worldwide


Chapter 8: Technology Integration

Students use technology to complete assigned activities that are generally unrelated to
real-world problems.

Adoption Authentic
Students have opportunities to apply technology tools to some content-specific
activities that are based on real-world problems.

Students have opportunities to select and modify technology tools to solve problems
based on real-world issues.

Students select appropriate technology tools to complete authentic tasks across

By means of technology tools, students participate in outside of-school projects and
problem solving activities that have meaning for the students and
the community.


Entry Goal-Directed
Students receive directions, guidance, and feedback from technology, rather than
using technology tools to set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, or self-evaluate.

Adoption Goal-Directed
From time to time, students have the opportunity to use technology to either plan,
monitor, or evaluate an activity.

Students have opportunities to select and modify the use of technology tools to
facilitate goal-setting, planning, monitoring, and evaluating specific activities.

Students use technology tools to set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, and
evaluate results throughout the curriculum.

Students engage in ongoing metacognitive activities at a level that would be
unattainable without the support of technology tools.

       The TIM is designed to assist schools and districts in evaluating the level of
technology integration in classrooms and to provide teachers with models of how
technology can be integrated into instruction in meaningful ways. Through regular
classroom observation and targeted professional development activities, it is hoped

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

that over time teachers will be able to effectively monitor their progress through a
continuum of technology integration levels using TIM.

                 LEARNING ACTIVITY
                    a) What kind of learning activities would you introduce
                       when the learning environment is ‘Authentic’ and ‘Goal-
                    b) Using TIM, at cell would you describe technology
                       integration is at in your educational institution?

TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN                           EDUCATION:          PLANNING,

        Technology planning is an activity that provides direction and helps users
understand clearly where they are now and imagine where they want to be. The most
common technique used to formalise technology planning is the creation of a
document. A technology plan is a road map that helps explain the various points of
interest and destinations to travellers involved in the process of realising their dreams
(see Figure 8.2). The purpose of technology planning is not just to produce a
document, but to produce continuous action that creates and maintains a technology-
rich educational environment (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional
Technology Plan, 1996).

        Technology should not drive teaching and learning. Rather, teaching and
learning should drive the use of technology. Technology cannot tell the teacher
which students should use the technology, how often it should be used, or how to
integrate technology into existing instructional practices (Cohen, 1988; Cuban, 1986).
Hence, teachers need to start out with specific technology goals that support their
vision of learning and the use of technology.
        A vision statement that expresses your thoughts about what you want to
happen in your educational institution should be written in broad terms. In preparing a
vision statement, sufficient time, support, commitment, teamwork, and flexibility are
required in order to convey a positive attitude toward the use of the technology. This
component, with the mission statement, is the basis of everything else that you will
do. It should be thought out carefully and included in all technology plans. When
constructing a vision statement, consider the following:
     What roles do you desire and see for the future of technology and education in
        your institution and community?
     What will your classrooms of the future look like and include?
     How will instruction be delivered?

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

      How and at what levels will students achieve?
      How will the community be involved?
      What do you envision for your learners in the future?

                               Vision and Mission

          Evaluation                                        Technology Plan


           Figure 8.2 Technology Planning, Implementation & Evaluation

A mission statement describes your purpose and your plans for fulfilling your vision
for technology in education. This component should be included in all technology
plans. When composing a mission statement, consider the following:

      What must you do to make your vision come true?
      What is learning, according to your definition?
      What does learning look like while in progress?
      What is different about learning with technology?
      What must you do to develop, implement, and continually improve the quality
       of instruction and learning using technology?
      What are desired student benefits and outcomes?
      What characterises your learners?

       There is evidence that when learning and technology goals are not decided
upon before technology implementation, technology can become a drain on resources
and add to the burdens of teachers who are already trying to do too much (Piele,
1989). This problem can be avoided by formulating a vision for learning that connects
to educational goals, values, and objectives for technology use. Once the stakeholders

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

involved understand the vision and see how technology will make their lives better,
they are likely to become more open to technology planning and implementation.

        Investigate and research to see if your current technology is up to date. If not,
salvage what you can, scratch the rest, and start over again. Technology changes
every day. Is your plan and the equipment you intend to buy able to change with it?
Ask for volunteers or possibly assign several people who are interested in emerging
technologies to report every so often on areas they think need to be addressed in the
school’s technology plan. If you cannot afford to buy new equipment as it comes on
the market, ask around and locate someone who would demonstrate new technology
to students and teachers. Allow staff to attend technology workshops and meetings
so that they may keep up to date on technology. Allow staff who attend technology
conventions to present their findings to the building or district when they return.

Choosing hardware should come after deciding curriculum and looking at available
software (Fine, 1991). When choosing equipment, these are some of the questions that
should be addressed:
     What        equipment          is
       available in the district?
     What will be the budget?
     What instruction will be
       necessary                   for
     What        functions       and
       capacities      must        the
       equipment possess?
     What will be the minimum
       specifications for the equipment?
     Is the equipment user-friendly?

When preparing to evaluate software, consider the following questions:
   Can vendors give demonstrations of current technology?
   Is the software user-friendly?
   How does the software meet curriculum objectives?
   What software is presently in use?
   Have you used the Software Publishers Association as a resource?

Purchasing is the process of researching, comparing, and actually paying for
    Make sure everyone understands the rules and regulations involved in
       purchasing equipment and software.
    Unless you must take a certain bid, shop around for bargains. If it means
       saving money, beg.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

      Do your research! Never purchase equipment without first knowing what you
       are going to do with it.
      Don’t get so excited about buying equipment that you forget about the cost of
       software, repair, and maintenance agreements.
      Make sure the software/hardware you intend to buy meets minimum standards
       set by the state.
      ”The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of low
       price has faded from memory.”—Aldo Gucci

         As concerns have been expressed about technology planning, at the top of the
list is professional development and training. The number one question is, “How can
we teach everyone how to use technology effectively?” It has been said that you train
animals and develop people. Semantics are important to project your plan in a positive
way. “Professional development” and “instruction” sound better than “training” to
many people. Staff members seeking personal growth will be more motivated to
participate when they hear “development.”
         A necessary component of an instructional technology plan should include
technology awareness and skills instruction. The educational institution’s professional
development programs need to provide learning opportunities for all personnel by
offering them instruction at workshops, conferences, etc. (Guidebook for Developing
an Effective Instructional Technology Plan, 1996). Decide to make a full commitment
to staff development from the start. As you prepare this component you might
      What research should be done to see how much instruction the staff may need
      How much appropriate technology instruction is available
      What technologies should be included in the instruction such as use of:
         projection technology; computer(s) with modem, videodisc, and CD-ROM;
         distance learning; and computer networks
      Opportunities for personnel to attend professional development sessions
      Hiring a full-time professional development instructor who is not a “techie,”
         per se, but who understands how to utilise technology in education
     Use of a “teachers-teaching-teachers” approach by reallocating time for
         technology-oriented teachers to instruct their peers.

Community resources do not always refer to money. Use the resources available that
are unique to your community (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional
Technology Plan, 1996). Consider the following:
     You can save money by asking a company to donate the materials and/or
       labour needed to rewire buildings, etc.
     Instead of paying a consultant’s or trainer’s fee, ask a representative or
       individual industry if they have someone who can do it for free.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

      Ask industry or knowledgeable individuals to undertake the task of physically
       setting up and putting equipment on-line. If you accomplish this, consider
       sending a school employee who can learn by watching and helping.
      If your plan calls for extra lab time after school or in the evenings, ask for
       volunteers (who meet such criteria as understanding the program being used,
       etc.) to run or supervise the lab. This might ease a teacher’s workload.
      Conduct brainstorming sessions with community members to discover some
       resources your community can contribute.

Community involvement is described as the interweaving of the best efforts of both
the community members and the educators in producing the highest quality
environment, equipment, and facilities available for the education of our youth, our
greatest natural resource. When planning for the development of community
involvement the following points may be considered:
     Discuss with community members how education has changed and how
        technology can play a positive role in transforming learning.
     Involve parents, grandparents, and community members, making them aware
        of the technology being used in the schools, by having Family Technology
     Invite associations, political parties,
        clubs to meet in the computer labs and
        have students show their first trip
        down the “information highway.”
     Invite business leaders and
        corporations to the school for Business
        Technology Night. Students can
        design advertisements, tri-fold
        brochures, and electronic presentations
        for the various “adopted” businesses.

Implementing the above suggestions will
accomplish the following:
    Form a bond between various
      organisation members and students
    Promote a community spirit
    Promote lifelong learning
    Encourage funding from corporate sponsors
    Promote pride in the school
    Promote “real-life” application of skills learned in the classroom
    Encourage the use of the latest and highest quality technology available

Maintenance may be defined as any repair or upkeep performed on equipment or
facilities. A comprehensive maintenance plan is a necessary component of a
technology plan (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional Technology

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

Plan, 1996). This comprehensive plan will ensure: longevity of the equipment;
adequate staff instruction; and budgets that are cost effective. When developing a
maintenance plan, the following points may be considered:
    Solve maintenance problems before they arise by keeping printers, computers,
       monitors, and keyboards free from dust, grime, and foreign objects.
    Develop a budgetary process to provide for ongoing repairs.
    Train people (possibly two or three from each school) to provide repair
       services. (e.g., computer teachers, administrators, and frequent users)
    Provide regular updating sessions for personnel in order for them to stay
       abreast of current practices and techniques.
    Consider asking qualified and trustworthy persons such as parents, industry,
       business, or community residents if they would offer to repair and maintain
       equipment for free or at a
       reduced rate. (e.g., Partnerships
       with Businesses)
    Arrange        printers,    scanners,
       copiers, and other peripherals so
       that they are accessible for
    When purchasing classroom
       equipment, consider asking for a
       contract that includes a warranty
       package and provides special
    Examine maintenance contracts carefully and be alert for any hidden costs.
    Maintain a maintenance log on each piece of equipment (e.g., date of service,
       who performed the service, next service date, equipment problem, what was
       done to solve the problem, and cost).
    Monitor all classroom labs to prevent maintenance problems.
    Train students to perform minor repair functions (e.g., printer jams, computer
       lock-ups, and mouse malfunctions).
    When purchasing computers, purchase extra equipment to keep in a box in
       case of an emergency (e.g., mouse, inside computer parts, and keyboard).
    Repair technologies as expeditiously as possible.

Facilities relate to anything needed to
house or power the chosen technology
equipment. When planning for
facilities, consider the following:
     Location
     Buildings & Rooms
     Wiring codes (example: In
         older buildings, can fuse boxes
         handle the additional power
         needed to run the equipment?)
     Data lines

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

      Security
      Furniture
      Ask teachers’ opinions about classroom layout.
      Do you want furniture built into walls or flooring so that there is no exposed
       wiring, etc.?
      Fire codes
      Panic buttons (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional
       Technology Plan, 1996).

Security is freedom from worry. By providing security you are protecting your
computers, networks, personnel, and software from destruction, misuse, and harm.
There are at least three areas to consider in the security area: security of data,
personnel, and facilities (Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional
Technology Plan, 1996). Every security plan should be creative in investigating
unique techniques/strategies for dealing with security. When developing a security
plan, the following questions may be considered:
     Why do you need security?
            o People Threat (human error, dishonest
                employees, disgruntled employees, and
            o Physical Threat (fire damage, water
                damage, electrical outages, vandalism,
                viruses, and storms)
     Are budgeted funds sufficient to provide and
        sustain the type and level of security program
        you desire? Will budgeted funds be ongoing?
     What type of network security will be
     What type of computer security will be used?
            o How will the staff, students, and community members access
            o Will passwords be assigned?
     Will you hire someone to be responsible for data, program, virus, and network
     Should you have a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for handling security
     Where should security systems be installed?
            o Do you need security in each room?
            o Do you need security in each building?
     Do you need cameras to monitor people and equipment?
     Do you need to provide after-hours security for protection from theft or
     Should CDs / diskettes be stored and locked in a central location?
    Should measures be taken to prevent students from obtaining materials that are
        of adult content?

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

Many planners believe their job is complete after a plan is written, but in actuality it
has only begun. A written technology plan has direction and long-term technology
goals (North Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium, 2005).
However, for each new technology introduced to an organisation, there will be stages
of implementation that include resource development (budget), evaluation, selection,
installation, training, pilot projects, mini-implementations, and, finally, full
implementation. These stages should all be reflected in a technology plan. It is also
important to remember not to judge technology as ineffective when it is not
implemented according to the plan (Holmes & Rawitsch, 1993). Flexibility, patience,
and adaptability are essential for any kind of change process and certainly for
implementing technology. The following questions should be addressed when
planning the implementation of your plan:

      What is the timeline for meeting the goals of your plan?
      Who is responsible for achieving milestones on the timelines?
      What professional development strategies will you use?
      How will you provide time for ongoing staff development, including time to
       practice and learn new technologies?
      What is your plan for networking, acquiring hardware and software, and
       updating the facility?
      How will you deal with the rapid changes in technology?
      What funding is available currently?
      How will funding be provided over the life of the plan?
      How will you coordinate and leverage a variety of funding resources to
       support your plan?
      How will you deal with contingencies such as changes in leadership and
       changes in budget?
      How will you determine which program area, discipline, or staff will receive
       highest priorities for receiving technologies?
      Who (or what group) will be responsible for implementing the technology
      What incentives and sanctions will you implement to ensure that everyone
       achieves a high level of technological proficiency?
      How will you ensure equity of access to technology and engaged learning
       experiences for all students?
      How will your instructional use of technology address district, state, and
       federal mandates including curriculum, special needs, minority populations,
       and equity issues?
      What new policies are needed to support implementation of your plan?

       Technology implementation is a continuous process that adapts to the
organization's changing circumstances and includes ongoing evaluation. Effective
evaluation will force planners to rethink and adapt objectives, priorities, and strategies

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

as implementation proceeds. Continuous evaluation also facilitates making changes if
aspects of the plan are not working (North Central Regional Technology in Education
Consortium, 2005).
        Evaluating the implementation of a technology plan can be conducted by
various means. Simple observations, both negative and positive, that have been made
by students and teachers using the technology are the most helpful. Interviews and
informal meetings with both instructors and students can draw out the lessons that
both groups have learned from using the technology. A simple written survey can
assist in measuring the extent to which the plan has met its original objectives and
expected outcomes. The following questions should be addressed when planning the
evaluation of the implementation of your technology plan:

      How and when will you evaluate the impact your technology plan
       implementation has on student performance?
      Who will be responsible for collecting ongoing data to assess the effectiveness
       of the plan and its implementation?
      What windows of opportunity exist for reviewing the technology plan? (For
       example, the plan might be reviewed during curriculum review cycles.)
      How will accountability for implementation be assessed?
      How will you assess the level of technological proficiency gained by students,
       teachers, and staff?
      How will you use technology to evaluate teaching and learning?
      What is the key indicator of success for each component of the plan?
      How will you analyse the effectiveness of disbursement decisions in light of
       implementation priorities?
      How will you analyse implementation decisions to accommodate for changes
       as a result of new information and technologies?
      What organizational mechanism will you create that allows changes in the
       implementation of the technology plan and in the plan itself?

                  LEARNING ACTIVITY
                     a) What is the purpose of a technology plan?
                     b) Discuss the components of a comprehensive plan for
                        integrating technology in the classroom?
                     c) To what extent is the sample technology plan proposed
                         useful if you were to plan for technology integration in
                         your educational institution?
                          describe technology integration is at in your educational

Chapter 8: Technology Integration


 Technology integration                           Problem solving projects
 Digital natives                                  Information collections
 Social networking                                Taxonomy of technology integration
 Internet                                         Technology matrix
 Keypals                                          Technology plan
 Global classroom                                 Technology integration
 Information exchange                             implementation


      Technology integration involves the infusion of technology as a tool to
       enhance the learning in a content area or multidisciplinary setting which is
       achieved when students are able to select technology tools to help them obtain
       information in a timely manner, analyse and synthesise the information, and
       present it professionally.

      Technology also changes the way teachers teach, offering educators effective
       ways to reach different types of learners and assess student understanding
       through multiple means.

      Technology is everywhere and all around us (i.e. ubiquitous) , touching almost
       every part of our lives, our communities, our homes.

      Many people believe that technology-enabled project learning is going to be
       the future of classroom instruction.

      The Taxonomy of Technology Integration developed by Bailey (2002)
       consists of the following six levels: storage, exploration, application,
       evaluation and analysis, constructing,

      The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) helps guide the complex task of
       evaluating technology integration in the classroom and how teachers can use
       technology to enhance learning for students in schools; incorporates five
       interdependent characteristics of meaningful learning environments:

      Peck and list 10 reasons for using technology in schools which is still relevant today.

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

      Harris offers educators three ACTIVITY STRUCTURES or approaches that
       can be adopted at all levels of education (primary, secondary, higher
       education): Problem Solving Projects, Interpersonal Exchanges and
       Information Collections.

      Technology planning is an activity that provides direction and helps users
       understand clearly where they are now and imagine where they want to be.


Anderson, C. (2006, July). People power: Blogs, user reviews, photo-sharing – the
peer production era has arrived. Wired, 132.

Bailey, M. (2002). Education and Values: Interface on the Internet: Reconceptualising
Teaching and Learning in a Technocracy Bloom's Revised Taxonomy (2001).
Berglund Center for Internet Studies. Pacific University. Oregon.

Cohen, D. K. (1988). Educational technology and school organization. In R. S.
Nickerson, & P. P. Zodhiates (Eds.), Technology in education: Looking toward 2020
(pp. 231-264). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines: The classroom use of technology since
1920. New York: Teachers College Press.

Fine, M. F. (1991). Going high tech: Computerized literacy instruction. Adult
Guidebook for Developing an Effective Instructional Technology Plan Version 2.0
Learning, 2(4), 11-14. Mississippi State University. 1996.

Harris, J. (1998). Virtual Architecture: Designing and Directing Curriculum-Based
Telecomputing. International Society for Technology.

Harris, J. (2001). Virtual architecture: Designing and directing curriculum-based
telecomputing (1st & 2nd eds.). Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in

Holmes, K., & Rawitch, D. (1993). Evaluating technology-based instructional
programs: An educator's guide. Denton, TX: Texas Center for Educational

Peck, K. & Dorricott, D. (1994). Realizing the Promise of Technology. Educational
Leadership. 51(7). 11-14

Piele, P. K. (1989). The politics of technology utilization. In D. E. Mitchell & M. E.
Goertz (Eds.), Educational politics for the new century: The twentieth anniversary

Chapter 8: Technology Integration

yearbook of the Politics of Education Association (pp. 93-106). London: Falmer

Prensky, M. (2005, Dec/Jan). Listen to the natives. Educational Leadership, 63(4), 9-

North Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium (2005). Guiding
Questions for Technology Planning. Version 1.0. Regional Technology in Education

The Florida Center for Instructional Technology (2007). The Technology Matrix.
College of Education. University of South Florida.

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