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Zoology - Chapter 8 – Animal-Like Protists The kingdom ______________ is a polyphyletic group that arose about ____________ billion years ago from the ________________. The evolutionary pathways leading to ____________ _____________ are uncertain. Protozoa are both _______________ cells and entire _________________. Organelles specialized for the _________________ lifestyle carry out many protozoan ______________. The _______________ is an arrangement of ____________ microtubules in the plasma membrane of many protozoa that maintains their _____________. The cytoplasm is divided into __________ regions. The part just beneath the pellicle that is clear and firm is the ________________ and the inner part which is more fluid is the _______________. Freshwater protozoa have a specialized structure called the _______________ _____________ to remove excess ____________. Most protozoa _____________ dissolved nutrients by ________________ _______________ or ingesting food through endocytosis in a _____________ _____________. After digestion is complete, the vacuoles are called ________________ vacuoles and they release waste by exocytosis. Reproduction Both ___________ and _____________ reproduction occur among the protozoa. The simplest and most _____________ form of asexual reproduction is ____________ ____________, where ______________ produces two nuclei that distributed into ___________ similar- sized individuals when the cytoplasm _____________. Another form of asexual reproduction is ________________, where mitosis is followed by the incorporation of ____________ nucleus into a cytoplasmic __________ that is much smaller than the parent cell. ______________ ______________ or schizogony occurs when a large number of _________________ cells form from the division of a ______________ protozoan. Symbiotic Lifestyles Many protozoa live in ______________ relationships with other organisms, often in a _________- ______________ relationship. Other kinds of symbiosis that do not harm the host are _______________________, where one member ______________ and the second is neither benefited nor _______________; and ________________________ is where _____________ species benefit. Protozoan Taxonomy Zoologists who specialize in the study of protozoa are called _______________________. Most protozoologists regard the protozoa as _________________________, consisting of ___________ separate phyla within the Kingdom Protista. The word protozoan means _______________ animal. Phylum Sarcomastigophora There are over ____________ species making this the _______________ protozoan phylum, with the following characteristics: 1. colonial Or ___________________ 2. Movement by flagella, pseudopodia, or ______________. 3. ________________ (self-nourishing), saprozoic (living in decaying organic mater), or __________________(gets energy from organic compounds). 4. _______________ type of nucleus, 5. _________________ or asexual reproduction. Subphylum Mastigophora: __________ or more flagella for movement. Class Phytomastigophorea: ________________ present, mainly autotrophic, some heterotrophic, examples: ________________, Volvox, Chlamydomonas. Euglena is a ________________ protist with each chloroplast having a _____________ to synthesize and store polysaccharides. Euglena are directed to _________________ by a photoreceptor that is covered by a pigment shield called a __________. Euglenoid flagellates are __________________ and reproduce by ______________ _________________. Volvox is a _______________ flagellate consisting of up to _______________ cells embedded in a matrix. Individual cells have ____________ flagella to help the volvox roll and turn. ________________ reproduction occurs in the _________________ and ___________________ , and ________________ reproduction occurs in the fall. Some species are ___________________ (having separate sexes), and some are ________________(having both sexes in the same colony). Marine phytomastigophoreans include the dinoflagellates, and sometimes they become so numerous with blooms to produce ___________ blooms called ___________ _____________. Class Zoomastigophera: Members of this class lack ________________ and are __________________, and some are ________________ of humans. One of the most important species of this class is Trypanosoma brucei which is divided into three subspecies: T.b. brucei, T. b. gambiense, and T. b. rhodesiense. The first of these three subspecies is a __________________ of ____________________ mammals of Africa. The other two cause _______________ ________________ _________________ in humans. _______________flies are intermediate ___________ and vectors of all three subspecies. When a tsetse fly bites an ________________ human or mammal, it picks up parasites in addition to its meal of ___________. Trypanosomes multiply ______________ in the gut of the fly for about __________ days, then migrate to the salivary glands. While in the fly, trypanosomes transform _________ to ___________ days, through different body forms. When the infected tsetse fly bites another vertebrate ____________, the parasites travel with salivary secretions into the ______________ of a new _____________. The parasites multiply __________________ in the new ____________ and again transform through a number of body forms. Parasites may live in the _____________, lymph, spleen, CNS, and cerebrospinal fluid. When the trypanosomes enter the CNS they cause apathy, ____________ dullness, and lack of coordination. ____________________ develops and the infected individual may fall ____________ during normal _________________ activities. ______________ results from the disease occurring in the ________________ system, as well as ________________ failure, malnutrition, and other weakened conditions. If detected early it is curable, more advanced cases are _______. Subphylum Sarcodina: Members of this phylum are the __________________, who move and feed by _____________________. Lobopodia contain both ectoplasm and __________________ used for movement and engulfing. Filopodia of a _____________ amoeba contain ectoplasm only and provide constant __________ -__________ streaming that delivers food particles to the protozoan like a conveyer belt. Reticulopodia are similar to filopodia except that they _______________ and rejoin to form a netlike of cell extensions. Superclass Rhizopoda, Class Lobosea These are the ______________ amoebae and are found on ______________-_______________ substrates of ___________________ ponds, lakes, and slow-moving streams where they feed on other ________________- and bacteria. They engulf by __________________, where food is moved into a _____________ _________________. Reproduction is by ______________ _______________. There is no known _____________ __________________. There are other members in the Rhizopoda that a have shell called a ____________, which is a ___________________ structure that the cytoplasm secretes. It is calcareous with one or more ________________. Arcella and Difflugia are common freshwater ______________ amoeba. All free-living amoeba are ____________ feeders, but a few are _______________. The Entamoeba histolytica causes one form of ____________________ in humans. Amoebic dysentery is a worldwide problem that plagues humans in ______________, __________________ conditions. Amoebic dysentery causes inflammation and ulceration of the lower _________________ tract and ongoing ________________ that includes _____________ and ________________. It is very _________________ and hard to control, because the amoeba can form a _____________ in the intestinal wall for protection. Superclass Actinopoda: Foraminiferans, Heliozoans, Radiolarians Actinopoda are ____________________, planktonic, axopodia supported by _____________________; includes ___________________ radiolarians with siliceous _____________ and ____________________ heliozoans. Foraminiferans have reticulopodia and secrete a ______________ that is made of calcium carbonate. As foraminiferans ____________, they secrete new, ______________ chambers that remain attached to the _________________ chambers. Foram tests make up a large component of marine _________________ and their accumulation on the ocean floor resulted in limestone and _____________ deposits. The white cliffs of Dover in England are one example of a foram-chalk deposit. Heliozoans are _____________ amoebae that are either planktonic or ____________ attached by a stalk. Heliozoans can be either _______________ or enclosed within a _______________ that contains openings for axopodia. Radioloarians are planktonic _______________ and ___________________ amoebae. They can occur in _________________ form, and they have a test. Phylum Labyrinthomorpha These are spindle-shaped, nonamoeboid, _____________________ cells that use a _________________ motion to move. Most are ______________, and either saprozoic or ___________________ on algae. Phylum Apicomplexa Members of the phylum Apicomplexa are all ________________. Characteristics of this phylum include: 1. ___________ _____________ 2. ______________ type of nucleus 3. No _________ and ____________, except in certain reproductive stages. 4. Life cycles that typically include __________________ and _______________ phases. Classes Sporzoea : The most important species in the phylum Apicomplexa are members of the class Sporozoea, which produce a resistant ________________ or oocyst following _______________ Reproduction. The life cycles of sporozoeans vary. Many are intracellular ________________, and heir life cycles have ____________ phases. Schizogony is ____________ _______________ of an asexual stage in host cells to form many more individuals, called merrozoites, that leave the ____________ cell and ____________ many other cells. Schizogony to produce merozoites is called merogony. Some of the merozoites undergo gametogony, which begins the _______________ phase of the life cycle. A parasite form will either undergo ____________ ______________ to produce biflagellate microgametes that emerge from the infected ___________ cell; or a microgamete fertilizes a macrogamete to produce a ____________ that becomes enclosed in a membranous cyst called an ____________. The zygote undergoes ______________, and the resulting cells divide repeatedly by ___________. This process, called _____________ produces many _______________ sporozoites in the oocyst. Sporozoites infect the cells of a new ______________ after the new host ___________ and _____________ the oocyst. One sporozoan genus, Plasmodium, causes _____________ and has plagued ____________ for centuries. The Plasmodium life cycle involves ________________ and _______________ hosts. Schizogony occurs first in _________ cells and later in red ____________ cells, and gametogony also occurs in red _______________ cells. A mosquito takes in gametocytes during a meal of ______________ and the gametocytes fuse. The ____________ penetrates the gut of the ______________ and transforms into an oocyst. Sporogony forms _________________ sporozoites that may enter a new host when the mosquito ___________ the host. The symptoms of malaria recur periodically and are called paroysms. _____________ and ____________ occur with the maturation of parasites, the rupture of red blood cells, and the release of ___________ metabolites. Other members of the class Sporozoea also cause important diseases. Coccidiosis is primarily a disease of ______________, sheep, cattle, and ____________. Cryptoporidium has become more well known with the advent of ______________ since it causes chronic _________________ in AIDS patients. Toxoplasmosis is a disease of ________________, including humans, and _______________. Infections occur when oocysts are ingested with __________ contaminated by _________ feces, or when ____________ containing encysted merozoites is eaten raw or poorly cooked. Phylum Microspora Phylum Microspora are unicellular __________________, intracellular ________________ in nearly all major animal groups. Included in this group are several species that are parasites for ________________ ________________. Phylum Acetospora Phylum Acetospora are ______________________ spores and all are parasitice in ___________________. Phylum Myxozoa Phylum Myxozoa are all obligatory extracellular parasites in _________________ and _______________ fish. They have a resistant ___________, and they infect the ______________ system and ______________ organs of ____________ and ______________. Pylum Ciliophora The phylum Ciliophora includes some of the most ___________ protozoa, and found in ____________________ and ______________ environments. Characterisristics of the phylum Ciliophora include: 1. _____________ for movement and for the generation of _______________ currents in water 2. Rigid pellicle, and fixed _____________ 3. Distinct cytosome (__________) structure 4. Dimorphic nuclei, large ___________________ and smaller _______________. Ciliates have many unique structures, including the numerous __________ that can be specialized for different kinds of __________________. Trichocycsts are pellicular structures used for _____________. Some ciliates like the paramecium have a ciliated ____________ groove along one side of the body. Food is swept in by the cilia toward the ctyopharynx where a _________ ___________ forms. Some free-living ciliates _____________ upon other protists, and have tentacles whose secretions _________________ prey. Genetic Control and Reproduction Ciliates have ___________ kind of _______________. A large _______________________ that regulates daily _________________ activities. One or more smaller ______________________ control genetic material. Ciliates reproduce ________________ by binary fission and sometimes by _________________. Ciliates reproduce _________________ by ___________________. Initial contact between the individual ciliates is _____________, and _____________ secretions of the pellicle facilitate adhesion. Ciliate ___________ ____________________then fuse and remain that way for several hours. Diploid ciliates undergo ________________ of the micronuclei to produce haploid pronuclei that the two conjugants can exchange. Symbiotic Ciliates Most ciliates are _____________ living, but some are commensalistic or mutualistic, and a few are _______________. Balantintidium coli is an important __________________ ciliate that lives in the large ________________ of humans, ____________, and other mammals. It produces proteolytic __________________ that digest host epithelium causing an ulcer. It is passed from one _________ to another in cysts that form as feces begin to dehydrate in the large _________________. Fecal contamination of ___________ or ____________ is the most common form of transmission. Precise evolutionary relationships are difficult to determine for the ________________. The _____________ _____________ is sparse. Ribosomal ____________ sequence comparisons show that each of the ________ protozoan phylum probably had separate __________.
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