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					Professional Context of
         ICT
      Teams and Teamwork
                 Topics of Discussion

      Teamwork
      Team characteristics
      Why teams fail . . . ?
      What is a team role?
      Teamwork guidelines
      Team structure
      Team models
      Roles of managers and technical leads

08 August 2012          Ibrahim Elbeltagi      2
                 Definition
       Team is “a small number of people
       with complementary skills who are
       committed to a common purpose,
       performance goals, and approach for
       which they hold themselves mutually
       accountable.” [Katzenbach & Smith,
       1993]




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             Why Projects Fail?
 Demarco [Software Magazine, ‘88]
The success or failure of a project is seldom due
to technical issues. You almost never here “has
the state of the art advanced enough so that this
program can be written?” If the project does go
down the tubes, it will be non-technical, human
interaction problems that do it in. The team will
fail to bind, or the developers will fail to gain
rapport with the users, or people will argue
interminably or meaningless methodological
issues.
    08 August 2012       Ibrahim Elbeltagi    4
What is a team role?
 A team role as defined by Dr Meredith
  Belbin is:"A tendency to behave,
  contribute and interrelate with others
  in a particular way.“
 The value of Belbin team-role theory
  lies in enabling an individual or team
  to benefit from self-knowledge and
  adjust according to the demands
  being made by the external situation.

08 August 2012   Ibrahim Elbeltagi         5
                 Belbin Team Role Type
Role               Contributions                   Allowable
Type                                               Weaknesses

PLANT              Creative,                       Ignores incidentals.
                   imaginative,                    Too pre-occupied to
                   unorthodox. Solves              communicate
                   difficult problems.             effectively.

CO-                Mature, confident, a            Can often be seen
ORDINA             good chairperson.               as manipulative.
TOR                Clarifies goals,                Off loads personal
                   promotes decision-              work.
                   making, delegates
                   well.
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     Belbin Team Role Type (cont.)
MONITOR     Sober, strategic and           Lacks drive and
EVALUATOR   discerning. Sees all           ability to inspire
            options. Judges                others.
            accurately
IMPLEMENTER Disciplined, reliable,         Somewhat
            conservative and               inflexible. Slow
            efficient. Turns ideas         to respond to
            into practical actions.        new possibilities.

COMPLETER Painstaking,                       Inclined to worry
FINISHER         conscientious, anxious. unduly. Reluctant
                 Searches out errors and to delegate.
                 omissions. Delivers on
  08 August 2012 time.     Ibrahim Elbeltagi               7
      Belbin Team Role Type (cont.)
RESOURCE           Extrovert, enthusiastic,      Over - optimistic.
INVESTIGATOR       communicative.                Loses interest
                   Explores opportunities.       once initial
                   Develops contacts.            enthusiasm has
                                                 passed.
SHAPER             Challenging, dynamic,         Prone to
                   thrives on pressure.          provocation.
                   The drive and courage         Offends people's
                   to overcome obstacles.        feelings.
TEAM               Co-operative, mild,           Indecisive in
WORKER             perceptive and                crunch
                   diplomatic. Listens,          situations.
  08 August 2012   builds, averts friction.
                             Ibrahim Elbeltagi                   8
      Belbin Team Role Type (cont.)
SPECIALIST         Single-minded, self-         Contributes only
                   starting, dedicated.         on a narrow
                   Provides knowledge           front. Dwells on
                   and skills in rare           technicalities
                   supply.




  08 August 2012            Ibrahim Elbeltagi                9
                    The Reptilian Metaphor
Toads                Chameleons                        Snakes
Speak                Speak technobabble and            Speak English
technobabble         English
Enjoy bugs           Do planning                       Do business
Read manuals,        Read books                        Read menus
science fiction
Eat junk food        Eat plain food                    Dine extravagantly
Finish systems       Understand Toads and              Identify software
                     Snakes                            opportunities
Solve technical      Solve system problems             Solve business
problems                                               problems
Live in the IT       Live on the interface             Live in the real world
world
Wear eccentric       Adapt dress to environment        Wear suits
clothes
   08 August 2012                  Ibrahim Elbeltagi                       10
08 August 2012   Ibrahim Elbeltagi   11
                    Reptile Habitats
   Toads
         Live exclusively in the IT world
   Chameleons
         Live in the Interface Zone – between IT and
          awkward, messy reality.
   Snakes
         Live in Customer Land – they tempt people
          with juicy IT apples and win the business



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                 Reptile habitats


                 Customer Land


                   Interface Zone


                      Silicon Pond
                             TOADS

                             CHAMELEONS

                             SNAKES

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                 Communication Skills
   Each reptile has a particular
    communications role, both within the team
    and with the outside world:

         Toads speak to computers and Chameleons
         Chameleons speak to Toads, Snakes and Users
         Snakes speak to Chameleons and Customers




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                 Communication channels
08 August 2012               Ibrahim Elbeltagi   15
                 The Snake's view of consumer




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       Feeding and Caring for Reptiles
   Snakes
         Customers and Prospects are the only
          important people
         Specialize in Soft Systems analysis or Business
          Analysis
         Need a steady diet of customers and prospects
          otherwise they may become bored
         Have a continuing role throughout any
          software development – reassuring customers
          and maintaining customer commitment

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         Feeding and Caring for Reptiles
   Chameleons
          Customers and prospects of little interest
        Needs users
        Need a constant diet of new and interesting
           requirements
        Skilled at systems analysis and design and at using
           prototyping tools to develop most of a system
        Adaptive camouflage and language abilities – fit in
           with different types of user
        Not good at finishing systems – easily bored - lack
           perseverance and technical depth to “ruggedize”
           systems so that they are fit for release to
           customers
    08 August 2012             Ibrahim Elbeltagi         18
       Feeding and Caring for Reptiles
   Toads
         Live on a diet of bugs
         Will make the system robust, rugged and
          reliable
         Can become dangerous if not kept occupied
          with bugs – will invent Gothic technical
          solutions and compromise the systems passed
          to them by Chameleons
         Enjoy being rewarded with technical training
          courses

08 August 2012            Ibrahim Elbeltagi              19
                 Reptiles and the Software
                  Engineering Lifecycle
   Snakes initiate the cycle:
         Identify prospects and develop them into
          customers
         Seduces customers with soft systems analysis
                Get IT business
                Outline the solution
                Hand job over to the Chameleons




08 August 2012                   Ibrahim Elbeltagi       20
                 Reptiles and the Software
                  Engineering Lifecycle

   Chameleons
         Understand enough about user speak to churn
          out an appropriate user interface
         Work quickly to produce prototypes
         Prototypes lack robustness and ruggedness
          necessary for real production systems




08 August 2012             Ibrahim Elbeltagi            21
                 Reptiles and the Software
                  Engineering Lifecycle
   Toads
         Finish the systems off
         Debug the Chameleon’s prototype and tune it
          so that performance is acceptable.
         Prone to tinker with the system forever
         Snakes must step in and insist that the system
          is delivered to the customer when it is
          adequate



08 August 2012             Ibrahim Elbeltagi           22
                  The Perfect Team
 Has the right mix of reptiles appropriate to
  the particular type of business problem to
  be tackled.
 Too many Snakes
         Teams will promise solutions to customers and
          never deliver anything
   Without Snakes
         Team will never get or start any useful work



08 August 2012             Ibrahim Elbeltagi             23
                  The Perfect Team
   Chameleons on their own
         Unable to identify and secure customers
         Will develop half finished prototypes for
          unimportant users
   Without Toads
         Team will never deliver working systems
   The manager – should ideally conform to
    Belbin’s “Chairman” role – may be a non-
    reptile

08 August 2012              Ibrahim Elbeltagi         24
                  The Perfect Team
   Toads
         Valuable and specialised resource – may need
          to “hop” between projects
   Snake and Chameleon continuity should
    be maintained throughout the project.
         Changing Snakes will upset Customers and
          undermine their confidence
         Changing Chameleons will upset users and
          waste time


08 August 2012            Ibrahim Elbeltagi              25
                 Reference
 “Professional Awareness in Software
  engineering”
Edited by Colin Myers
Chapter 7
“The Reptilian World of Software Teams”
 By John Madsen
McGraw Hill



08 August 2012     Ibrahim Elbeltagi      26

				
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